In 1847, the European Revolutions were beginning, which had evolved from a war against Napoleon III of France into a war against the monarchs of European nations. The Kingdom of Italy was struck with revolution, and plus their wise king, Joachim II, died and he was replaced by inexperienced Joachim III. The revolutionaries struck gold, and took over much of the country. However, King Joachim III got his act together, and began one of the most famous campaigns in history, taking Sicily and much of the Italian Peninsula from the revolutionaries. The rebels still held onto northern Italy, and both armies were exhausted. Joachim III and the leader of the revolutionaries, Antonio Beretta, signed the Treaty of Florence, ending the Italian Uprising.