The Republic of Greece was a small, short-lived republic made up of most of traditional Greece (including parts of Macedonia) following the Treaty of Athens that ended the Black Sea War. The country was officially formed and recognized by France and its allies on December 10th, 1960, and the country held its first elections in March of the following year. The country was plagued from the get-go by the lingering presence of Turkish businessmen and a reliance on Turkish infrastructure and governmental bureaucrats who had returned to their homeland. Also, the American Central Intelligence Agency conducted a number of covert operations to undermine the French-backed government of Nikoulos Papadalakis. In 1969, the government was toppled in a military coup allegedly supported by the Americans and Turks and in 1971, the Turks launched an invasion into Greece to end the ensuing civil war. The brief conflict ended with Turkey reabsorbing Greece in 1972 as one of the first major Cold War victories for the American-led bloc.