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Republic of China (Rays of the Rising Sun)

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中華民國

Chunghwa Minkuo
Republic of China

Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912).svg
1912–1945 Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China National Emblem.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
《中華民國國歌》

National Anthem of the Republic of China

Republic of China (orthographic projection, historical).svg
A map of the greatest extent of the Republic's claims
Capital Beijing
Nanjing
Capital-in-exile Chonging
Official language Mandarin
Religion No official religion
Government Multi-party republic
President
 - 1912 Sun Yat-sen (first)
 - 1943-1945 Chiang Kai-shek (last)
Interim President
 - 1945-1947 Chen Cheng
Legislature Legislature
 - Upper house National Assembly
 - Lower house Legislative Yuan
History
 - Republic established 1 January 1912
 - Merged into Reorganized National Government 9 September 1945
Area
 - 1912 11,077,380 km2 (4,277,000 sq mi)
Currency Chinese yuan

The Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國; simplified Chinese: 中华民国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó; Wade–Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo) was an era of Chinese history that began in 1912 and ended in 1947. It was preceded by the Qing dynasty and followed by the Recognized National Government. At the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chiang Kai-shek's Republic was dissolved, and replaced with the Japanese puppet "Republic of China" (Wang Jingwei's Reorganized National Government) The republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won a parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, army leaders of the Beiyang clique, led by President Yuan Shikai, retained control of the central government. After Yuan's death in 1916, local military leaders, or warlords, asserted autonomy.

When the Empire of Japan began attacking China in the 1930s, it initially gained the northern territory of Manchukuo, which became a puppet state of Japan. The war intensified in the 1940s, and various puppet governments were formed by the Japanese in the late 1930s (such as Wang Kemin's Provisional Government and Liang Hongzhi's Reformed Government), which were all merged with the Reorganized National Government in 1940 upon it's creation. In 1945, the nationalists were defeated by the Japanese and their collaborators (as were the communists), and the government briefly led a resistance from Chongqing, in-exile. However, Chiang Kai-shek was captured with the city in 1947, and executed the next year. The Republic of China was dissolved, though it's former soldiers continued in Xinjiang.

History

Government and politics

National Revolutionary Army

Economics

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