"We become what we do."
-Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek
Rising Power (1927-1937)
China was not in a safe place for many years. Before 1927, China was supposedly a republic. However, the nation itself was divided. In the west, Tibet and East Turkestan are free from Chinese domination. Closer to home, the warlords held on to precious cities near the east coast. Only the unifying influence of the nationalists ended the warlord streak. Alas, Chiang Kai-Shek was at war with the Communist Party of China. By the 1920's, he was winning, yet the whole nation was up for grabs. He could not give away power because if he left office, the republic would most likely collapse and fragment. For years, however, Nationalist victories made it possible to actually drive out the Communists. Even after Mao's Long March, the CPC was finally being beaten. BY the 1930's, Communist forces were driven from the east, and now hid in central China. The Nationalists knew they were strong. It had been nearly a decade of The German State co-operating with the Chinese. Also, Chiang began to get minor support from the Americans as well. By 1936, now Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek would fly to X'ian, to announce his final offensive against the Communists by driving west. Right as he was about to go, a terrible storm impeded his flight. Alas, discarding his speech, he simply gave the go ahead, and Nationalist forces surrounded Mao's final holdout in western China in September 7, 1936. As Nationalist Panzer I tanks burst through the lines, Mao escaped. However, the Communists were effectively routed and displaced, for now. Now, with everything in place, Chiang's China could fully focus towards the troubling situation with the Japanese in Manchuria.
China's Catastrophe (1937-1945)Thankfully, the Republic of China did dismantle the Communists in their country, as a new enemy was preparing again. Back in the early 30's the Japanese did invade China. However, Chiang was occupied with the Communists.As soon as the Communists were dismantled, Chiang Kai-Shek ordered his generals to immediately reorganize and move forces to the coastline and the border. Even though it was very little time to prepare for the Japanese invasion, it was better than what the Nationalists did in OTL. Alas, the Marco Polo bridge incident occurred. The Japanese did not tell the Chinese forces that they were having an exercize. Thus, Chinese forces fired across the bridge. They thought the Japanese were attacking. This lead to the Japanese Empire to begin (an already planned) full scale invasion of the Republic of China. Japan did have trouble trying to take Beiping due to an increased presence of troops, but succeeded of course. Japanese forces swept from the north, albeit a slower pace than in OTL. Eventually, Chiang's best units were destroyed. However, it bought his government valuable time to prepare Nanking from attack. Almost immediately, Shanghai and other coastal cities were attacked. China's best units were repelled and/or destroyed. All of this, however, bought time for Nanking. By 1939, a year later than OTL, Nanking was attacked, and these elements were from the Japanese forces from Shanghai. These forces were eliminated by counterattack. Despite that, the situation seemed hopeless, so a large amount of soldiers and civilians left the city in time towards Wuhan. The Japanese eventually entered Nanking. However, many less people died. As the Nationalists operated from Wuhan, they, at first, lost battles, albeit a slower rate. By 1942, the Nationalist Chinese were soon getting supplies and materials from the United States via the Burma Road. The Nationalists soon got vehicles such as the M18 Hellcat and the M4A3E8 Tank. Also, American Air volunteers helped as well. As the years dragged on, Wuhan got bombarded and attacked relentlessly, but never fell. Also, joint Chinese, British, Burmese, Indian, and American operations held the Japanese at bay in Burma, so the road stayed opened. Chiang Kai-Shek staying relatively close to the fighting garnered much pride and praise from the populace who supported his actions and speeches. On March 5, 1944, Chiang Kai-Shek ordered an attack on Japanese controlled Nanking. That was where they operated a Chinese puppet state. By mid May, Nationalist forces entered Nanking and massacred the puppet government. The populace rose up as well and helped the military forces thrust out the Japanese in the city as well. Chiang Kai-Shek and his government did not move to Nanking until 1946. However, the city was theirs. By July, the tide had finally turned against the Japanese forces and their advances from the coast shrunk. However, the Japanese operating from Manchuria were too hard to strike. As the war was drawing to a close, Chiang's government drew up plans to allow free elections for National Assembly members when the war was over. Even then, Chiang knew that his country was still too fragile. He agreed to keep himself in power. As China heard of allied landings in Normandy, they ramped up their campaign to expel the Japanese. Thankfully, American forces in the Pacific were annihilating the Japanese navy and manpower in the Pacific Isles. Britain and the Commonwealth stood their ground in India and Australia and countered by attacking east and north. As 1944 turned into 1945, the Chinese did not make any major gains per se, but they did hold their ground. The military's hit and run tactics soon became useless. The Chinese had to build strong and effective standing armies again. Japan was at an all time low. By June 22, 1945, American forces controlled Okinawa and were beginning to bomb Japan even more. Soviet forces were massing on the border with Japanese Manchuria as well. Chiang Kai-Shek was worried about this, as he believed the Soviets in Manchuria would try to re-invigorate the Chinese Communist Party. Thus, after small diplomatic meetings, the Chinese would send in land forces while the Soviets would send airborne and paratrooper forces. The Chinese and Soviets effectively controlled all the major points and cities together for the small time left of the war. The United States also landed forces in Southern Korea. Then, at last, the United States resorted to dropping the atomic bombs on Japan. The war was over... but already there was tension
The Jumbled Years (1945-1948)The people of China rejoiced when the Japanese finally accepted defeat. To Chiang, the Japanese plagued China ever since the First Sino-Japanese War. He was to make sure that Japan would get what it deserves at the negotiating table. Despite the looming peace talks ahead, Chiang Kai-Shek pondered what would happen to Manchuria. Already, the Chinese troops that held the cities are starting to leave and go to their families. Yet the Soviets are still holding on. By October 23, 1945, Stalin sent a message to Chiang that pretty much said that the Soviets would stabilise and control the region due to the fact the Japanese held it so long. Chiang responded saying that Nationalist Chinese forces are more than capable of holding the mineral rich region. Also at this time, the Joint Sino-Soviet forces in Manchuria effectively blocked the Soviets from reaching northern Korea. Thus, Chinese occupation forces had already taken Pyongyang by September. The Chinese, however, were shipped over by the American navy. In the grand scheme of things, they wanted the Chinese to be a buffer to the developing Korean government. Stalin's Soviet Union soon grew concerned over the events in China. Unlike what they wanted, China is not fractured. Also, there is seemingly no Communist party to contact. Thus, Under Stalin's orders, Soviet troops were to stay guarding Manchuria and mass weapons. They're objective was to rekindle a Chinese Communist party then give them Manchuria as a starting point. Already, WW2 was over, but actions by the Soviet Union made the Western World and Aligned countries weary. Chiang Kai-Shek was nodded off by the Americans who's forces had gotten a good look of Soviet movements in Manchuria. American special forces in Harbin discovered massive weapons piles of Japanese, Chinese and Soviet weapons. As the capitol of the Republic of China was moved back to Nanking in early 1946, the Soviets did not budge. The Chinese prepared for the worse, thinking the Soviets would do the worse. China by 1946 had been shipped advanced American equipment like the M41 Walker Bulldog and the P51 Mustang. Finally by March 6, after sufficient evidence was found, Chinese authorities stormed weapons caches while arresting Soviet authorities. On March 8, Soviet forces demanded the weapons return. On March 10, Soviet forces opened fire on Chinese soldiers guarding the weapons caches. Suddenly, a simple disagreement turned into a nightmare. This is a defining moment for Chiang. He needed to kick the Soviets out of China and try to restore Chinese power. Thus, immediately, fighting consumed much of Manchuria as Chinese soldiers battled the experienced Soviet airborne forces. As the fighting turned against the Chinese and Soviet re-inforcements started to arrive, Chiang Kai-Shek allowed aerial forces to fight. The Chinese gained air superiority. However, in a controversial move, Chinese fighters strafed many of the cities without warning killing many. All while this was going on, the United States stayed neutral, but secretly supplying weapons. The Soviet Union issued many statements declaring Western powers to stop supporting China, but on the outside the Allies did not commend or condemn China's actions, and the Soviets never got any evidence they supported China. In planning rooms, Chiang Kai-Shek wanted the war to end quickly and relieve pressure on Manchuria. Thus, they agreed to invade Mongolia and end the Communist regime there. Mongolia was home to a few Soviet air force bases which committed limited bombing on mainland China. However, by April, Chinese forces quickly assembled and made a mad dash towards Ulan Bator, the Mongolian capital. The Communist forces began to crumble as the motley, yet large, Chinese force began to take over the nation. Ulan Bator was captured on April 16. As that was pretty much the center of Mongolia, the government collapsed, and Chinese forces swiftly moved towards the Soviet border. By now, the Soviet war machine did not have many forces stationed east and finally on June 7, Chiang Kai-Shek announced to the Soviets that Chinese objectives were completed. The Soviets were forced to comply. This war officially cemented sour Sino-Soviet relations for years to come. Under the treaty, the Soviets agreed to "Give up stationing forces in China, end the agenda of creating a Chinese Communist party, and give up claims to Mongolia." For the rest of 1946, China's military forces were effectively tired out. In September, there was an attempt to attack Tibet. However, this half-hearted invasion was defeated. 1947 also brought new changes to China as well. The island of Taiwan was given to China from Japan due to American pressure. All throughout the year, China effectively stayed broken as both wars brought much destruction. Already, however, the United States had monitored China, and despite being their allies, knew that China could become a world power. Under American pressure, Britain recognized Tibet as an independent nation, but not East Turkestan. Chiang Kai-Shek felt offended by this action. However, American forces eventually threatened to stop weapons shipments if China did not give up claims to the western territories. Little known to China, these territories were extremely rich in minerals. The Americans did, however, know about that. 1947 came and went, and by September 4, 1948, American and Chinese occupation forces agreed to unite their territories and create a Korean Republic.
New Land of the Rising Sun (1948-1975)
With the war with the Soviets over, the Chinese people could fully have a sigh of relief. However, this sigh was short lived. Millions were jobless, the country was in ruins, and some Chinese still held grudges for not being allowed to conquer Tibet and East Turkestan. In Mongolia, Chiang Kai-Shek installed a Pro-Chinese and Western regime in power. Within the year, all Soviet military forces abandoned bases and exited the country. In return, Chinese forces captured those bases and used them for their own purposes, effectively replacing the Soviet Union as Mongolia's protector. Immediately, Chiang Kai-Shek had to bring to the table sweeping reforms to keep his people happy and content whilst the hard rebuilding years came. The rebuilding would take time, and Chiang wanted his country to modernize. To that end, he introduced heavy handed policies that made the government involved in the economy. He approved plans to build companies for the different regions of China. These nationalized companies would specialize in infrastructure, manufacturing, agriculture, and energy. The government made sure that none of these companies would grow into monopolies either. Chiang Kai-Shek wanted to stay in power. A good amount of promises that he told the people of China soon never came to be. He knew that he was a capable of leader, and did not want China to fall to Civil War once more. To that end, to appease the masses, he made reforms that let the people vote ... but only on frivolous things. It made the façade that the population had more of a say in government. Even after World War II, the government of the Republic of China was still a dictatorship under the façade of Democracy. Yes, Chiang allowed legislature of perform their duties, but for the 40's and 50's, Chiang did not release his grip. The government's building projects across China disrupted many people's lives as they were forced nearly into working for these new and sudden companies. This forced modernization came at a heavy cost as large amounts of people died and many people were evicted from their homes so new, modern ones would be built, except often months late. These policies caught the attention of the American government, who had been so generously giving aid to China. Dwight D. Eisenhower was cautious around Chiang Kai-Shek due to these uncapitalistic policies and human rights abuses. The Americans did not pay attention for long due to other problems in the region. East of China, Korea suddenly had a large amount of Anarchists rise up in the northern part of the country in 1951. When the Koreans requested Chinese aid, Chiang refused. Despite the large amount of soldiers, the quality was not up to par. Chiang's decision soured relations between China and Korea for years to come. Also, another situation was brewing in the south. Communist Vietnamese were rising up against their French masters. Chiang was conflicted by this war. On one hand, he wanted to help his fellow Asians rise up against their colonial masters. On the other hand, he wanted to do all he could to stop the spread of Communism. He again declared Chinese neutrality during this conflict. It soon became clear to military planners that China's modernization was not flowing over into the military, so they drafted plans to buy more American equipment. The Republic of China Armed Forces bought the M47 Patton, the F-86 Sabre, and the Gearing Class Destroyer. These notable pieces equipment, and other brought a sense of relief to Chinese military planners. As the 50's rolled on, the French lost in Vietnam. With this urgency, the United States, United Kingdom, and France formed SEATO. The Republic of China received a formal invitation and accepted. This organization was one that China enjoyed as it tried to stop Communist efforts in Asia, and could be used as a defense against further Soviet aggression. Despite the vagueness of the initial charter, Chiang realized the threat of the Soviet Union and put through the creation of articles. One of which, like NATO, was if one member was attacked, all members were. Throughout the late 50's, many Soviet movements on the Chinese border were averted due to SEATO pressure. In time, a joint command structure was formed and modeled after NATO. Around this time and the early 60's, China was dormant militarily. Already, the costly purchases made in the 50's were beginning to become outdated, but Chiang ignored the military's please as he sought China's economic rise. As the economy and supply finally stabilised at the beginning of 1961, he set off to finally start releasing his iron grip on the nation. It was indeed a slow process. For a few years, Chiang allowed the legislature more power. Again, a war loomed on China. Vietnam once more was experiencing trouble. The Communist North was attacking the South. The north had Soviet equipment and aid. Chiang Kai-Shek wanted the Republic of China to stay out once more. Finally, the tipping point became clear, the United States began the ground war in 1965. For more years, the war intensified, until finally, in 1967 after hearing pleas from the Vietnamese Nationalist Party, China intervened on the South Vietnam side. On February 5, 1967, the first Chinese F-86's commenced ground strikes on North Vietnamese positions. Despite the bombing campaign, many of the outdated Chinese fighters were shot down. Then, on February 8, the Chinese commenced an immense artillery barrage and on February 9, commenced a massive invasion. All the while, Vietnamese ground forces were caught off guard due to the face they had just commenced the Tet Offensive only a month earlier. Chinese forces on the flanks began to get bogged down. However, the Central force reached Hanoi by February 28. As The Chinese reached the capital, the NVA was soon split in a frightening two sided war. Fighting raged on in Hanoi as a joint Sino-American task force landed marines on China's east coast to relieve the battered eastern flank of the Chinese Invasion force. The battle of Hanoi continued until March 15, when Communist forces were finally ousted from the city. With the fall of Hanoi, Vietnamese Communist forces retreated towards the Western provinces on the border with the Kingdom of Laos. The Communist movements in the Kingdom of Laos and the Kingdom of Cambodia would end eventually as well. The Vietnamese Communist movement was ending.In the following months, ARVN forces would flow into the Northern part of Vietnam in a Vietnamization of the defending and patrolling roles the Chinese once did. As 1968 came about, only a token force of 4000 Chinese and under 3000 American forces would stay in China to patrol the north. The country was finally unified once more. As the war came to an end, Chinese military planners became were once again shocked at the poor state of the Chinese military. The Chinese at that time only fielded weaponry from the late 50's, or cheap knockoffs. This was the beginning of China buying and building copies of foreign equipment. China at this time was prime start developing its own fighter aircraft. Also, it was beginning to develop its first indigenous tank. It began many programs to upgrade and expand its army to the size and status the National Revolutionary Army has today. Major acquisition programs were put in place to supply the Chinese Armed Forces as well as supplying the SEATO aligned states in Southeast Asia. China's industry was finally picking up. The government was modelling programs to build infrastructure like Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Still, the human cost was great. As Chiang Kai-Shek reached the end of his reign, despite the military acquisitions, a drift was forming between China and the west. Chiang Kai-Shek had been in power too long. His policies were too unlike the US' policies. The Americans viewed him as a powerful ally, but he was becoming increasingly unpredictable. His internal policies were erratic. Sometimes he would give power to the people, other times he would take it back. The United States was about to go so far as to stop aid to China. However, it all changed on April 5 of 1975. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek, the leader of China who brought it out of the darkness, died.
The Beginning of true Democracy (1975-1999)
Chiang died of natural causes, and all across China, there was great mourning for him. A national memorial day was put in place on April 5, as he had a substantial cult of personality. Immediately after Chiang died, his son, Chiang Ching-kou was installed as the leader of China. For the next ten years of his reign, however, China changed drastically. Under his rule, over the years, he ended and gave away many of the powers that his father held. As the years went on, a substantial legislature formed with political parties, a fair judiciary system was set up, and the Premier and President had checks against their power. Chiang Ching-kou also changed relations with the United States. Under his rule, he allowed United States military bases on Chinese soil, and continued to allow British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau. He did not want to anger western powers. The most prominent example of this is the American Naval Complex at Lushunkou District in Northern China. Ching-Kou's policies were more relaxed than his father's policies. China did grow at a slower rate. However, it was a more natural rate of growth and modernization. The Legislative Yuan gained more control as well. China began reaching out to the world at this time. Even though it had joined international organizations, it began to actively participate in them. China began to also take notice towards the UN once more. The nation realized the power it had, being a member of the security council. And most time, the Republic of China would back up and support resolutions made by the Western security council members. At this time, Ching-Kou looked to China's two western neighbors, Tibet and East Turkestan. Both proved to be problems. Tibet was more of a problem. It is back up by both Britain and India rather vocally. Tibet simply could not be a target any more, so China normalised relations with them in 1978. East Turkestan was different. Breaking away from China during World War II, the country had stayed neutral during the Sino-Soviet War, and suddenly joined the soviets after the war. It had been too costly to attack them during the 50's and 60's. Times were changing. Steadily Islamist elements were gaining control of the government, and it was beginning to break its ties with the Soviet Union. As time wore on, Ching-Kou, however, decided not to take the chance to attack the country. Many analysts in China look back at Ching-Kou as a passive leader. However, he was still determined to bring democracy to China and to modernize the country. The eighties came into being and the world was advancing. The Chinese military blossomed and began to use a lot more indigenous weaponry. Relations with the US deepened. At this time, the economy shifted to become even more market based than it had been before. Under Ching-Kou, the Legislative Yuan set up yearly plans and what needed to be done to improve China and where they want it to happen. Internet began to spring up across China at this time. Chinese manufacturing also began to move to Central China. The government was hit with problems like the environment, and China began to regulate the private sector and the nationalized businesses much more efficiently. SEATO cooperation deepened as well. The Republic of China kept the organization alive. China organized exercizes and even though Communism did not touch the rest of Southeast Asia, it allowed those nations to cooperate like they never have before. By 1988 however, Chiang Ching-Kou died. And with it, the last traces of autocracy. China had its first fair presidential election, and Sun Yun-suan was elected Premier of China. Under him, he would introduce sweeping reforms that would officially turn China into an industrial and technological powerhouse. Under him, China's power grid grew to its current state, and technology became an ever increasing part of a Chinese citizen's life. One thing that has plagued China and continued to plague China was its population issues. The country was overpopulated and Sun Yun-suan immediately knew that the only way to combat this was education and urbanization of rural areas. Using the government, he encouraged private industry to move to central and western China to better the lives of millions. Sun Yun-suan soon became known to be the Father of Chinese democracy and was loved and revered for generations to come. Of course, all of this economic activity became plagued with an armed insurgency occurring in western China. 1991 came, and the Soviet Union was at the tipping point, there was a threat of a new union. However, that was eventually dashed and the Soviet Union collapsed. The Chinese had supported various separatist movements across the Soviet Union and hoped for the best. The Balkanization of the Soviet Union was always a priority. All across China, and the West, people were in joy as the Communist rival was finally defeated. New nations sprung up, and the very being of NATO and SEATO came into question. That suddenly changed very quickly in 1994.(WIP). China took the chance and rose to dominance. With industry strong, and democracy flowing, the nation achieved many of its early goals of improving its citizen's lives and bettering the nation. China stayed neutral, but supportive of America during the First Gulf War. Then, after a minor Y2K scare, 1999 ended, and a new era would begin for China.
Superpower (1999- )
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