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Reorganized National Government of China (Rays of the Rising Sun)

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中華民國

Chunghwa Minkuo
Chūka Minkoku
Republic of China

Flag of the Republic of China.svg
 
Flag of Reformed Government of the Republic of China.svg
 
Flag of the Republic of China (1912-1928).svg
1940–1993 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg Emblem of the Republic of China-Nanjing 1940-1945.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
和平反共建國

"Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction"

Anthem
National Anthem of the Republic of China
Capital Not specified
Official language Mandarin, Japanese
Religion No official religion
Government Presidential republic
President
 - 1940-1954 Wang Jingwei (first)
Prime Minister
 - 1940-1950 Wang Kemin (first)
Legislature National Assembly
 - Upper house Executive Yuan
 - Lower house Legislative Yuan
Historical era Second Sino-Japanese War, Cold War
 - Founded 30 March 1940
 - Dissolved 28 August 1993
Area
 - 1948 11,077,380 km2 (4,277,000 sq mi)
Population
 - 1948 est. 489,000,000 
     Density 44.1 /km2  (114.3 /sq mi)
Currency Chinese yuan

The Reorganized National Government, officially the "Republic of China" (中華民國), was a puppet regime created by the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War as the "official" government of China, which it became after its defeat of the nationalist government in 1945. Initially led by Chinese politician Wang Jingwei, it was nicknamed the Wang Jingwei regime. For having its capitol in Nanjing, it was also called the Republic of China-Nanjing. Other nicknames for it included Nanjing regime or China-Nanjing.

The regime was initially established as a Japanese puppet that would rule China proper, as decided by the Japanese imperial government. The already existing two puppet regimes, the "Reformed Government of the Republic of China", and the "Provisional Government of the Republic of China", were merged with this newly created regime, which was led by the former Nationalist politician Wang Jingwei. The two other puppet leaders of the two old governments, Wang Kemin and Liang Hongzhi, were given the positions of prime minister and deputy prime minister. The major city of Nanjing was made the country's new capitol. To aid the Japanese against the Nationalists and Communists, and to give itself more legitimacy, the new government established a "Chinese National Army"—a collaborationist force of several hundred thousand troops.

After Japan's victory in 1945, the regime was given more independence and freedoms to run China (with the exception of Manchuria, which was an independent state called Manchukuo). The regime began a massive reconstruction process, while fighting Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government-in-exile, and the unified Nationalist and Communist remnants in the Xinjiang insurgency. The international community recognized the country, but still viewed it as a Japanese puppet state. It lasted throughout the Cold War, until 1993, when it was overthrown in a massive uprising.

History

Government and politics

Administration

The administrative structure of the Reorganized Government included a Legislative Yuan and an Executive Yuan. Both were under the president and head of state Wang Jingwei. Real political power remained with the Commander of the Japanese Army Central Chinese Front and Japanese political entities formed by the Japanese Counsellors. The Japanese also set up various local Nationalist parties and movements to support its cause. However, Japanese control softened considerably after 1945, allowing Chinese leaders to largely run the country.

After obtaining Japanese approval to establish a national government, Wang Jingwei ordered the Sixth Kuomintang Representative Congress to establish this government in Nanjing. The dedication occurred in the Conference Hall, and both the "blue-sky white-sun red-earth" national flag and the "blue-sky white-sun" Nationalist Party flag were unveiled, flanking a large portrait of Sun Yat-Sen.

On the day the new government was formed, and just before the session of the "Central Political Conference" began, Wang visited Sun's tomb in Nanjing's Purple Mountain in an attempt to establish the legitimacy of his power as Sun's successor. Wang had been a high-level official of the Nationalist government and, as a confidant to Sun, had transcribed Sun's last will, the Zongli's Testament. To discredit the legitimacy of the Chongqing government, Wang adopted Sun's flag in the hope that it would establish him as the rightful successor to Sun and bring the government back to Nanjing.

Ministers

Wang maintained a cabinet of ministers. As of 1948, those were:

  • Minister of Defence: Bao Wenyue
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs: Chen Gongbo
  • Minister of Internal Affairs: Yin Ju-keng
  • Minister of Economy:
  • Minister of Finance:
  • Minister of Transport:
  • Minister of Agriculture:
  • Minister of Energy:
  • Minister of Education:

Military

The national government initially formed a "collaborationist army" of around 200,000 - 300,000 men to fight alongside the Japanese in the war against the Nationalists and Communists. As the war carried on, the army grew in numbers of troops and vehicles, and grew to be more sophisticated. After the Nationalists and Communists were largely defeated in 1945, the force was reformed into the "Chinese National Army", and its personnel count peaked within the next several years at 1.4 million men. The army was trained by Japan, and was pretty experienced and well armed. It was used in combat against remnants of the Nationalist and Communist forces fighting in western China, especially in Xinjiang. It proved to be a capable force, being able to carry out large-scale operations on it's own. The army also had a large Air Force, something which it prided itself over.

Foreign affairs

Economics

Society and culture

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