Alternate History

Reign of Roosevelt

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T Roosevelt

POD President Theodore Roosevelt, victor of the Election of 1912

In 1912, Woodrow Wilson the Democrat, Theodore Roosevelt the Progressive, William Howard Taft the Republican, and Eugene V. Debs the Socialist all ran for President. Wilson won.

What if the Democratic Party split before the 1912 election and others ran from numerous parties? That would leave Roosevelt and Debs to be front runners

America would be under the Reign of Roosevelt.



1886: Illyich Lenin does not have a brain hemorrhage.

1887: The survival of Illyich Lenin prevents Aleksander and Anna Lenin from attempting to murder Alexander III. Vlad Lenin is prevented from turning to radicalism.

1896: Leon Trotsky dies of tuberculosis.

Remainder of 19th Century: The world continues as per OTL, except the life of Lenin. Because the writings of neither Trotsky and Lenin existed, Stalin never became a Bolshevik.


1903: Illyich Lenin dies.

Early 1900s: The United Kingdom and Japan do not sign an alliance or anything of the sort. As such, Japan will later join the Central Powers in the Great War.

1912: Former President Theodore Roosevelt defeats Eugene V. Debs, Woodrow Wilson, Oscar Underwood, William Jennings Bryan and Champ Clark.

1914: World War I breaks out in Europe. Roosevelt joins on the side of the Entente.

1915: Japan joins the Central Powers. Russia starts a two front war.

1916: Germany begins an advance into Russia. Roosevelt is re-elected.

1917: The Germans make deep incursions into Russia, uniting the Russians against a common enemy.. Wilhelm II is assassinated in Germany. His son succeeds him.

1918: The Entente push Germany out of Russia. The Ottoman Empire withdraws from the War and begins to suffer internal issues.

1919: The War ends. Roosevelt develops the 29 Ideals, a parallel to the 14 Points. He wins 28 out of 29 at the Versailles Conference. The League of Nations is not formed.

1920: Warren G. Harding wins the election. Wilhelm III is executed in the midst of the German Revolution. Crown Prince Wilhelm/Wilhelm IV abdicates in December before he is forced to abdicate.

1921: The Weimar Republic is formed. Georges Clemenceau is assassinated.

1921: The whole of Ireland becomes independent as the Republic of Ireland.

1922: Warren G. Harding dies. Calvin Coolidge becomes the new President. He repairs the post-war economy.


1923: Adolfo de la Huerta wins the Mexican Civil War. He forms the Second Mexican Empire.

1924: Coolidge is re-elected and reunites the Republican Party. The Summer Olympics are held in San Francisco, while the Winter Olympics are held in Seattle.

1925: Huerta declares war on the US. Mexico invades the Southern United States. Calvin Coolidge declares war on Mexico. The Mexicans are pushed out of the US. The USAF bombs Veracruz. The US invades northern Mexico. Venustiano Carranza seizes power from Huerta, forming a quasi Republic.

1926: Mexico and Japan create the Pacific Alliance. The US admits the Mexican territories as states. Benito Mussolini is deported from Italy to Hungary.

1927: Superhyperinflation in Germany explodes. President Coolidge asks the Entente to lift reparations on the Central Powers. His request is granted. Alexander IV and Victor Emmanuel III form an alliance. Venustiano Carranza seizes power in Mexico.

Flag of Russia (1991-1993)
1928: Herbert Hoover is elected President of the US. Alexander IV decides to make Russia a constitutional monarchy. He remains as Tsar, and Joseph Stalin (not a Bolshevik) becomes Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Russia. The 1928 Olympics are held in Paris (Summer) and Chamonix (Winter), both in France. 1929: The Great Depression strikes. The Wall Street Riots consume Southern Manhattan. Al Smith moves to Canada. Mussolini leads the March on Budapest.
Charles Curtis

32nd President Charles Curtis

 Hungary subsequently invades Romania.


1930: The Democrats win a majority in both houses of Congress. Adolf Hitler and the Nazis seize power in Germany. Herbert Hoover is impeached.
Hamilton Fish III

Hamilton Fish III, 33rd President

1931: The line of presidential succession is changed to put the Speaker of the House after the VP. Curtis resigns and Hamilton Fish III becomes President. Germany annexes Austria.

1932: Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President. Mussolini occupies Hungary. Hitler becomes Führer-Chancellor of Germany. Germany, Hungary, Japan, and Mexico form the Axis. The Olympics are held in Stockholm, Sweden (Summer) and St Moritz, Switzerland (Winter).

1933: Roosevelt continues to pass reformative legislature. The United Kingdom, France, and Russia renew the Triple Entente.

1934: The Munich Conference is held. Mussolini and Hitler announce the Pact of Steel, a mutual defense pact.

1935: Brazil allies to Mexico. Vice President John Nance Garner is assassinated by a Mexican in Monterrey. Joseph Taylor Robinson becomes Vice President.

1936: FDR is elected to his second term. Victor Emmanuel III and Japan agree to a non-aggression pact. The Manchukuo Empire has a border dispute with Mongolia. The Munich Agreement is signed. Britain and France agree to let Germany take the Sudetenland and acknowledge Romania's claim on Slovenia. The Olympics are held in Berlin and Munich, Summer and Winter respectively.


Hitler invades all of Czechoslovakia, in violation of the Munich Pact. The United Kingdom and France declare war on Germany, followed by the Hungarian declaration of war on the two nations. Russia and Spain continue to remain uninvolved. The International Olympic Committee cancels the 1940 Olympic Games.



  • Flag of Manchukuo (RoR)

    Flag of the Puppet Empire of Manchukuo

    Japan continues the war in China. From Manchukuo, the Japanese launch an invasion into Mongolia, as well as an invasion of Russia from the Kamchatka Peninsula.
  • Mexico begins supporting Germany and Hungary in the war.
  • Germany invades Poland, resulting in the Russian declaration of war on the Axis nations. This leads to the war in Asia converging with the war in Europe, officially becoming the Second World War.


  • The war spreads to America, with Brazil and Venezuela invading Argentina and Chile. Mexico and Colombia begin supplying their allies later.
  • Finland declares war on Russia and begins the Winter War.


  • The Hungarian Empire invades Yugoslavia.
  • Greece declares war on Hungary in the name of Yugoslavia.
  • The United States sells to both sides.


  • Dominion of Canada joins the Entente.
  • Nicholas III calls Adolf Hitler a "dirty despicable villain" that ruled "a dirty despicable evil area."
  • Adolf Hitler calls Nicholas III a "Russian non-Aryan not fit to rule a nation."
  • Neville Chamberlain calls Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini "Europeans that disgraced the name of Europe and its people."
  • Venustiano Carranza calls Neville Chamberlain "an Anglo-Saxon fool who should have been a bath-'chamber' cleaner."
  • Edward Daladier calls Carranza a "Mexican tyrant who dictated a once good nation.
  • Hirohito calls Daladier "a Frenchie with no shame."
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt calls all seven of them "shameless fools making fun of their enemies and bickering like ... little children."
  • All the fools stop trash talking.


  • Germany invades Italy.


  • Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, Hawaii leading the American declaration of war on Japan. Mexico declares war on the United States, in hopes of reclaiming lost territories.
  • The US prepares Operation Redbeard against the Mexicans. Redbeard involves invading the Mexican coastline and cutting off all imports/exports to/from Mexico and then moving in.



  • The first US troops arrive in Europe.
  • Germany launches the invasion of France. 
  • Lázaro Cárdenas becomes the President of Mexico after assassinating Carranza.


  • Chamberlain resigns as Prime Minister of the UK. Winston Churchill succeeds him.
  • Germany makes good progress in the Ardennes. In the south, Rome continues to hold out against Germany, but the rest of the country remains solidly under the control of Erwin Rommel.
  • The Axis nations begin their campaign in Africa.


  • Mexico invades Guatemala.
  • Germany takes control of French Algeria and continues to make progress.
  • Spain joins the war in support of the Axis. The Spanish invade
  • The Hungarian Empire takes control of Bulgaria and begins to move towards Greece.


  • Vichy France RoR

    Red: Axis France Blue: What remains of France

    The Fall of Rome occurs, A Fascist government in Italy is created, with the support of the people.
  • Japan continues to push into Russia and China.
  • Germany, Spain, and Italy continue the campaign in Africa. The Italians invade British Egypt from Libya as well as Sudan from Italian Ethiopia.


  • German reinforcements arrive in France from Italy and partake in the defeat of Paris. Vichy France is created to represent the German control in France.
  • Denmark surrenders peacefully to the Germans.


  • After a year of fighting, the Hungarian Empire defeats Greece with the aid of Italy.
  • Guatemala and Honduras fall to Mexico.
  • Peru joins the Allies. It becomes the first ally of the US in Latin America.
  • The Dutch and the Norwegians suffer major naval defeats in the Bothnia Sea to the Germans.


  • The Netherlands completely falls to Germany.
  • German and Finland launch a coordinated invasion of Sweden.


  • The Philippines are admitted as a State of the Union.
  • Japan launches Operation Shogun on the Philippines; the Pacific War has begun.


  • The Pacific War continues. Japan attacks French/British Indochina.
  • Japan conquers the West Coast of China.
  • Dutch Borneo falls to Japan.


  • Sweden falls and is placed under German control.
  • The conquest of France is completed and the Allied forces retreat from Dunkirk in a mass evacuation.
  • Japan invades Midway Island and Wake Island as well as Taiwan.
  • The Japanese are repelled from the Philippines.


  • With the Fall of France, the French government is exiled to French West Africa, where the Germans begin to face major resistance.
  • Italy invades Egypt.
  • Mexico expands rapidly southward, completing the conquest of the Central American nations. The Mexicans begin to support Gran Colombia's campaign in Ecuador.
  • The United States begins to take major territories along the Gulf of Mexico, specifically Veracruz.


  • Operation Sealion is launched on the UK.
  • A Russian-America coalition
  • Italy seizes most of southern Sudan as well as Western Egypt.



Red: Axis Blue: USA Green: Allies Grey: Neutral Description: Japan has portions of China, Russia, and British-French Indochina.


  • The Japanese have control over almost all of the Pacific.
  • The US and Russia begin a joint


  • Operation Barbarossa is launched on Russia. With Finnish support, the Germans capture Petrograd, Moscow and Tsaritsyn.


  • Ecuador surrenders to the Axis nations and is annexed to Gran Colombia.
  • Brazil invades British, French, and Dutch Guiana.
  • Ecuador falls to Gran Colombia.
  • In Spain, people loyal to the old monarchy begin to fight the Franco regime.


  • Edward VIII is on a boat that is sunk by a German submarine. His brother succeeds him as George VI.
  • The Battle of the Seas begins. The Royal Navy, the Kriegsmarine, and the US Navy engage in numerous conflicts in the Atlantic Ocean and English Channel.
  • The US Submarine Corps is created. The USSC sinks four U-boats in the English Channel.


  • The rapidly expanding Finnish sphere of influence consumes Norway.
  • The newly rebranded Iran joins the Axis and invades Russia and British India.
  • Turkey joins the Allied nations and invades Iran.


  • Canada and US launch a second Redbeard in Mexico. The US Navy focuses heavily on expanding its foothold in the Gulf and Canadians begin to reinforce the American border.
  • Mexico, Gran Colombia, and Brazil invade Peru and Bolivia.
  • Uruguay joins the Allies out of fear. Paraguay follows.

July - December

  • The war continues on all fronts. In North America, the US makes a series of rapid victories, taking northern Mexico with the aid of local resistance groups.
  • The Yucatan Insurrection occurs. Mexicans in Yucatan revolt against the US.
  • Erwin Rommel becomes head of Axis troops in Africa.
  • William Lyon MacKenzie King of Canada dies of cardiac arrest.

    Greenland and Iceland

    The Germans invade Iceland. The United States declares occupation of Greenland to fend off German attacks on North America.
  • Italians bomb the Suez Canal, hoping to invade Egypt from the east as well as the west.
  • FDR is reelected as President.
  • The first conflict between India and neighboring Axis starts.
  • Germany forms a puppet Baltic protectorate out of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, while annexing East Prussia to the Reich proper.
  • The formerly French Mandates of Syria and Lebanon unite with the Emirate of Transjordan and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia to form the larger United Arab Republic.

End of 1940


Europe at the end of 1940


January - June

  • India takes Irani Balochistan.
  • In Africa, the Italians push south, instead of west. The Germans seek to regain territories lost in the Great War.
  • Argentina and Chile involve themselves in the South America conflict out of fear. They join forces with Uruguay and Paraguay and invade Brazilian Bolivia
  • The Nazis are pushed out of Iceland in a series of constant air raids. Few German forces leave the island alive due to intense pressure.
  • The Japanese begin to move into Siberia and lay claim to large parts of the region.
  • The British and French begin to protect the Dutch East Indies at great cost, seeking to retain control of the last Allied territories in the region.
  • The Americans seize Mexico City, forcing Mexico to turn its attention to the north and allowing the South American Allies an opportunity.
  • Wilhelm IV dies.
  • The USS Theodore Roosevelt, named posthumously after the President of the same name defeat Japanese forces in a major battle in the waters near Manila.
  • In the Middle East, the United Arab Republic joins the war on the side of the Allies, attacking Iran and easing pressure on Russia.

July - December

  • The 20 July Plot is launched in Germany. Hitler is killed, but the Wehrmacht does not manage take out most of the key members of the SS. As such, Heinrich Himmler survives and take control in the subsequent power vacuum.
  • The Allies seize this chance. They try to defeat the Reich. Despite several heavy blows, Germany stands its ground for the most part, although the Russians regain large swaths of land in the east.
  • Herman Goring and other high ranking Nazi officials are also killed in Allied bombings of German cities. Erwin Rommel goes into hiding for his part in the plot.
  • Now-Führer Himmler begins the Final Solution, which was previously delayed by the death of Hitler.
  • Dissenting Russian soldiers attempt an assassination of Joseph Stalin.
  • Stanley Bruce, the former Prime Minister of Australia, dies.
  • The Mexicans cannot recoup lost land in mainland Mexico, and their conquered territories begin to revolt. The Mexican Army begins to fight amongst itself and the Mexican leadership splits into two factions, the fascists and the reformists.
  • In the Pacific, the US has regained control of Wake Island and Marshall Island. The Japanese are defeated in the Battle of Guam. Douglas MacArthur forces Japan into leaving the Island.
  • Eisenhower and Patton lead Allied forces in invading Spain. The rebels and other insurgents support them, and the Franco regime begins to lose power, distracting them from the front in Africa.
  • In the English Channel the Royal Navy and the US Navy engage in a significant battle with the Germans that results in the decimation of a major portion of the Kriegsmarine.
  • Japan attacks Alaska. The Siege of Alaska will last for many months.

The World At the End of the Year


The World Political Map, December 31, 1941


January - June

  • The United Arab Republic joins with Turkey in attacking Iran. This allows Russia to put greater emphasis on the German-Hungarian front. The Transcaucasian area is taken from the Axis as the Russian seize Tsaritsyn.
  • P w VP JTR

    The Last Picture of VP Joseph Taylor Robinson.

    Joseph Taylor Robinson is killed when a man allegedly tries to kill the President. The photograph at right was taken moments before he was shot. The assassin was the photographer. After a vacancy, Henry A. Wallace becomes Vice President.
  • Dmitry Lenin dies in Moscow.
  • WWII AUS 1942


    In the Pacific, the Allies have successfully liberated the Dutch East Indies. They then begin to focus on retaking Australia by targeting the major cities. For the most part, the British control the western parts and the desert, but the east remains in Japanese hands. After a few months, the major cities have been retaken and the remaining Japanese forces are lone groups.
  • Reinhard Heydrich is killed in battle.
  • The Allies invade the island of Taiwan and reaffirm the RoC's control of the island.
  • The UAR and Turkey lay siege to Tehran, and India begins to take out major Irani ports along the Persian Gulf.
  • The Allied invasion of Spain continues. Infante Juan of Barcelona is declared king by the rebels as Juan III.
  • The Russians retake Petrograd and move north into Finland.
  • After a long confrontation, the Mexican Army signs documents of surrender. The United States begins the occupation of Mexico.

July - December

  • Ethiopia is freed by Allied forces and Haile Selassie is returned to his position.
  • The Allies begin the year-long invasion of Japanese-controlled Indochina. The Japanese use guerrilla warfare as well as biological warfare. The Allies also face resistance from the natives of the area.
  • The Russians take Helsinki from the Finnish. The Finnish government officially surrenders to Russia, although major portions of the Finnish Army continue to fight the Russians.
  • The British invade German Norway and force them to retreat toward Sweden.
  • With the fall of Finland, the Russians turn their attention to Germany and Hungary in the south. The Russians engage in major tank warfare with their enemies and successfully retake Moscow.
  • In the east, the Russians retake their Siberian territories from Japan. They also invade Mongolia and establish a puppet military government in the country.

The World At the End of the Year




  • In Europe, Madrid falls to the invading Allied forces. Juan III is officially installed as King of Spain, and a constitutional monarchy is set up. However, Catalonia continues to support the Axis out of enmity towards the rest of Spain.
  • With the retaking of Moscow, the Russians invade the Baltic states and force the Germans to retreat. During the retreat, they come under heavy fire from the air and the Wehrmacht becomes incredibly crippled in the east.
  • The Allies next seek to restore the proper government in Italy. They seize the islands of Sardinia and Sicily and make air raids over southern Italy.


  • In Indochina, the Allies established the Indochinese National Army, consisting of local allies and warlords. After restoring French control in the region, the INA goes rogue and begins to invade southern China, which is under control of the RoC.


  • In the Americas, the Americans attack Gran Colombia by sea and by air. Bogota and Caracas and bombed day and night. The newly freed Central American nations also join the war effort.
  • Iran surrenders to combined Russian and Arabian forces. Russia occupies northern Iran.


  • The Russians invade Poland and make it as far as the Curzon Line before German reinforcements arrive from the west. A stalemate begins that lasts a long time.
  • The Allies make landings at Malta and move north from Sicily. The Neapolitan region falls quickly although movement north is blocked by German forces led by Rudolf Rahn. However, Rome falls before the year is out and Italy is freed from Axis control. This worries the Hungarians. The Allies (primarily Italy and the United Kingdom) invade Greece and Albania.
  • The Allies begin fighting in mainland China as well as Korea. The Russians invade Manchukuo while the other allies invade southern and eastern China. Major cities are targeted, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong. The Japanese continue to hold out. However, Hong Kong falls back into Allied hands.
  • Winston Churchill, FDR, and Stalin begin to meet to discuss post-war things.
  • Japan attempts a major second invasion of China but fails. This leads to major losses for the Japanese.
  • In the Americas, Gran Colombia breaks up under Allied pressure back into Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. Many Gran Colombian leaders and captured by revolutionaries and executed. This begins the Venezuelan Civil War.


  • A combined American-British operation that lasted well into August frees France and Spain from Axis control in an operation simply known as T-Day, short for The Day. T-Day causes nearly the heaviest casualties for the British in the entire war. The landings are supported by the Spanish invading Axis Catalonia. The Germans begin to retreat back towards Germany.
  • The Russians take back East Prussia from the Germans. With Italian support, the invade Hungary. Romania falls under Russian control. This is followed by a successful coup d'etat in Bulgaria.
  • However, Japan stands strong far in the East, but swift blows in Chinese territory see enormous deaths on both sides but the freedom of Indochina and Uyghuristan. Russian Mongolia lays claim to Inner Mongolia.
  • A famous photo is captured after the devastating Battle of Midway and Raising the Flag on Midway Island becomes heavily popularized back in the US. The Islamists heavily utilize the severe nationalist fevers in the Balkans to free the territory, and the Russians decimate Konigsberg in repeat aerial attacks.


  • The Allies begin to close in on Germany, swiftly capturing Hamburg, Frankfurt and Hanover (US, UK) as well as Dresden, Munich and Schwerin (Soviets), maneuvering around Berlin to launch a united incursion into Berlin. Franco-Spanish forces capture the Italian government in Florence. In the Pacific, China is freed as well European Pacific territories. Indochina is handed back to the French. US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies in South Dakota, succeeded by Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Stalin does not allow Russian aid in Japan until Berlin is captured, so the western Allies allow a quicker defeat in Berlin. The heads of the German government are nowhere to be found, so military leaders of Germany surrender on all fronts. The Soviets finally relent and invade Northern Japan, while the other allies invade from the south. Japan finally surrenders with the nuclear destruction of Sendai and Sakai. November 25th marks the global end of the war.

Aftermath of World War II

  • Stalin is a massive obstacle in the road to peace, formerly for Churchill and Roosevelt, but now for Henry A. Wallace and Clement Davies. Davies is soon replaced by Churchill once more, and he presents a stronger front against Stalin. Eventually Stalin accepts to some of Harriman's proposals, but less of Churchill's. Several new states are created in the Balkans, against Stalin's original plans. Japan was divided into four occupation zones. Each zone was occupied by China (south), Britain (southwest), the United States (southeast), and the Soviet Union (north). Korea is given independence as a free state. Germany is divided into six nations: Brandenburg, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Rhineland, and Hanover. Austria is occupied in three occupation zones, akin to Japan, led by the Soviets, the Americans and the British. Italy is created into a free republic. However, Churchill gains his wishes in the Pacific. Each colonial possession of the French or the Dutch will hold referenda over independence. However, Harriman holds his ground over Africa and demands that the process of giving independence to colonies must begin. With Stalin avidly supporting Harriman, Churchill concedes. America is given free reign in the Western Hemisphere, and as such, gives independence to occupied territories south of Mexico.

Late 1940s


  • Iranian War begins over Russian-captured territory in northern Iran. Russians eventually win area around Caspian. Iran distances itself from the Arabian nations.
  • Greek Civil War opens. Monarchists (backed by Russia) struggle to depose the existing democratic government (backed by the UK and the US).
  • Tensions between different ethnic groups in the UAR begin to rise. Kurds in northern Iraq begin to protest increasing Westernization. This sets the stage for the future Arab Civil War
  • The United Nations is formed. The permanent Security Council members are the United States, United Kingdom, Russia, China, and France.
  • Independence is restored to Iceland and Greenland.


  • Kosovans revolt against Serbian rule, backed by Russia and Bulgaria. 
  • Indochina declares independence from France. Northern areas seek to restore the old Vietnamese dynasties, whereas southern areas seek to form a democratic government. The rogue INA comes back into the political fold and promotes a nationalist agenda that gains traction among the people.
  • Calls for independence rise in African French territories.
  • Greek Civil War continues. Monarchists begin to push southwards.
  • The UAR begins to collapse as Kurds and Christians begin to seek freedom from the nation.
  • India declares independence from the British Empire. However, enmity between the Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs remain high. 
  • Japan becomes two separate nations: the Empire of Japan (north) and the Republic of Japan (south). Tokyo becomes a DMZ.


  • Czechoslovakia collapses into Slovakia and a western region that remains in Chaos.
  • Pakistan and Bengal, two heavily Muslim areas, declare independence from India. Consequently, the First Indian War begins with an Indian invasion of both countries. The northern area of India, Kashmir seeks freedom from the rest.
  • Iranian territory that India occupied during the war becomes the Republic of Balochistan.
  • South Vietnam declares independence from Vietnam, restoring the Nguyens of the 1700s. North Vietnam becomes the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, under the control of the increasingly dictatorial INA.
  • Chinese Civil War resumes. Qing Dynasty attempts to re-secure power. Tibet struggles to maintain its status as an independent nation. Mongolia also continues to declare sovereignty over Inner Mongolia.



  • The Dominion of Newfoundland is given independence and becomes a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Denmark enters into union with Norway again as Denmark's king is selected as the king of Norway.
  • Contrary to Spanish wishes, the Allied powers arrange a referendum in Catalonia. The result is heavily in favor of independence.
  • In Vietnam, North Vietnam declares on South Vietnam, beginning the First Vietnam War (1950 - 1954).
  • France creates the French Union for its former colonies. Algeria is the first to gain independence and become a member of the Union.
  • The United States begins work on the hydrogen bomb.
  • In China, the Republic begins to lose support as the Communist take major cities in the north. The Uyghurs declare independence and recognize Tibet. Tibet returns the favor, weakening the whole nation of China.
  • The Greek Civil War ends in monarchist victory.


  • The Republic of Egypt is created.
  • The occupation of Austria ends with the formation of the Republic of Austria.
  • Indian Civil War: Bangladesh takes control of West Bengal and Assam. Jammu and Kashmir declare independence from India.
  • North Japanese troops cross the border into South Japan, beginning the Japan War
  • In Iran, a Revolution begins against the Shah. He is executed by pro-Western rebels. In the aftermath of the Revolution, Mohammad Mossadegh is elected as the first democratically elected President in Irani history.
  • The Czech Civil War ends with the formation of the nations of Bohemia and Czechia.
  • In accordance with the Marshall Plan, the United States begins to give European nations money to aid in post-war recovery.


  • Allied troops begin evacuating Hungary and Bavaria. In Bavaria, the old monarchy is restored.
  • The Chinese Civil War ends. The Republic of China retreats to the island of Taiwan and nearby mainland regions. The People's Republic officially recognizes Uyghuristan and Manchuria as independent nations, but continues to claim Tibet. The Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes Tibet and Manchuria but not Uyghuristan.
  • Mauritania and Mali join the French Union.
  • South Africa is given independence.
  • The President of the United Arab Republic is assassinated, sparking the Arab Civil War. Egypt supports the independence movements in Kurdistan and Lebanon and directly supports throughout the course of the war.
  • In the United States, Thomas E. Dewey is re-elected to the Presidency.
  • France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, and Bavaria form the European Coal and Steel Alliance, which later became the basis of the European Freedom Alliance.
  • The United States detonates the first hydrogen bomb. The United Kingdom develops its first nuclear weapon.


  • Josip Broz Tito is elected to the presidency of Serbia. He meets with Russian Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev and signs the Russo-Serbian Alliance, which later expanded to become the Belgrade Pact.
  • Thanks to Egyptian support, Kurdistan and Lebanon achieve independence from the United Arab Republic. Jordan follows and the Republic is officially dissolved on 1 November. Hussein is crowned as King of Jordan.
  • The Japan War ends with the restoration of the DMZ and the signing of a peace accord between the two nations.
  • The United Nations continues to reject the proposal of the People's Republic of China being accepted.
  • The First Indian War ends with India officially recognizing Pakistan, Kashmir and Bangladesh as sovereign nations. Pakistan and Bangladesh sign a mutual defense pact.
  • The Korean Revolution occurs. Communists are propped up by the Chinese and the People's Republic of Korea is formed.


  • Gamal Abdel Nasser is elected second President of Egypt.
  • In Vietnam, the INA captures the Dien Bien Phu airstrip. French forces in the region are abandoned and French support for South Vietnam ends.
  • The occupation of Hungary, Prussia, Brandenburg, and Rhineland end.
  • Poland aligns itself to Russia and Serbia becoming a member of what would later be called the Belgrade Pact.
  • American Secretary of State Dulles announces that the events in Indochina are not significant to American policies of containment, effectively dooming any chance of American involvement in Vietnam.
  • Eritrea declares independence from Ethiopia.
  • Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Burkina Faso, Senegal, and Dahomey become members of the French Union.


  • The First Vietnam War ends with a ceasefire line being drawn, effectively sealing the status of North and South Vietnam as separate nations and paving the path for the Second Vietnam War.
  • The United States officially leaves the last remaining occupations zones in Mexico.
  • The Siamese Revolution takes place. The King is deposed and the People's Republic of Siam is declared.
  • Indonesia achieves independence.
  • The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium ends with the unification of Egypt and Sudan.
  • India leaves the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • The Quebecois independence movement begins with the foundation of the Parti Québécois.


  • Tunisia joins the French Union.
  • Egypt, Kurdistan, and Syria form the Arab League.
  • In Hungary, the government established by the Allied powers is overthrown for nine months before Russian troops arrive to restore basic peace to the nation.
  • The Second Vietnam War begins with the South Vietnamese invasion of INA-controlled Cambodia. North Vietnam subsequently declares war on South Vietnam.
  • Nikita Khrushchev wins reelection in Russia, and Dwight D. Eisenhower wins reelection in the United States.


  • The CIA and MI6 create the 1956 Korean coup d'etat, removing Korean dictator Syngman Rhee from power and restoring Kim il Sung to the Presidency, previously in exile in South Japan.
  • Brooklyn Dodgers move to Los Angeles.
  • Russia launches the Sputnik 2.
  • Manchuria, Mongolia, and North Japan, encouraged by Russia, form the Asian Common Defense Organization.
  • The Republic of Mexico is officially declared and Adolfo López Mateos is elected as the first President of the new nation.
  • NASA is created in the United States.


  • Second Vietnam War: The People's Republic of Siam joins in support of North Vietnam and Laos. South Vietnam seizes control of Cambodia from the INA, and INA General Pol Pot breaks from the group and goes into hiding. His followers become the Khmer Rouge and engage in guerrilla warfare against both sides of the war.
  • Chad joins the French Union. Gabon goes independent and refuses to be involved with the Union.
  • Cuban Senator Fulgencio Batista is assassinated and Fidel Castro is later elected to his position.
  • Space Race: The Russian probe Luna 3 sends back the first picture of the far side of the Moon. The United States launches Explorer 6 and later Explorer 7
  • Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico are admitted as states.
  • The Kurdistan War begins when Iraq invades Kurdistan, followed by Turkey. Egypt and Syria declare support for Kurdistan. The war ends after six days of fighting and becomes known as the Six Day War.


  • Charles de Gaulle is inaugurated as the first president of the Fifth French Republic.
  • Second Vietnam War: The INA moves back across the border into South Vietnam while the Khmer Rouge continues to fight against both sides.
  • Women get the vote in Switzerland.
  • The first successful test firing of a Titan ICBM occurs at Cape Canaveral in Florida.
  • In Belgium, the Flemish Freedom Front wins a majority in the Federal Parliament, setting the stage for the future Flemish Independence War.
  • The Khmer Rouge seizes control in Laos and declares the independence of Laos from INA controlled North Vietnam.


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