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The Electoral Principality of Regensburg, Principality of Regensburg, Regensburg, is a small constitutional monarchy centered on city of the same name in the Bavarian region of the Holy Roman Empire. It is virtually surrounded by Bavaria.
†The neighbouring Imperial city of Regensburg and the Bishopric of Regensburg are technically independent of the Principality but are generally treated and ruled as a unified state with slightly differing codes of law. The city itself acts as the capital of all three states, adding an extra layer of complexity to the nation.
The head of state is Princess Theresa.
The official language is German, though there is a significant Czech and Jewish minorities within the Imperial City. Movements to recognise both Czech and Yiddish as official languages have been proposed several times.
It uses the Regensburg Taler (RGT) which is pegged to the Bavarian Mark.
The history of the three Regensburg states is tied to the fortunes of the bishopric which originally surrounded the separate Imperial city. Important both as a trading city and a missionary centre, the bishopric became well respected for its role in christianising the Czechs.
During the reformation both the bishopric and the city became Lutheran which caused great friction with neighbouring Bavaria. However aware of its position it did not align itself with the Schmalkaldic League and fought on the Imperial side during the Fifty Years War. During the course of the war it would be occupied by Svealand and used as their base in Germany from 1654 to 1668. The Lutheran Bishopric was raised to an Electorate following the war as part of a Lutheran balance to the Catholic Bishop-Electors of Cologne and Mainz.
In 1710, with Austrian complicity, the Lutheran bishop Albert II secularised his bishopric. There followed the brief Regensburg War, fought between Bavaria and Austria, to determine the continued existence of Regensburg as a separate entity. Hoping to diffuse the situation and keep the peace Albert renounced his claims to the Imperial City and married his children into various royal houses of both denominations.
This policy would backfire when in 1783, Catholic Leon inherited the principality. Ignoring the careful balance of German politics and the Treaty of Copenhagen the Leonese king and new ruler of Regensburg King Alfonso XII began to make moves to re-Catholicise the electorate. This caused Luxembourg, already annoyed at the way the electoral system seemed to be weighed against it and , to declare war. The Six Year War (or War of Regensburg Succession) pitted Luxembourg against Leon, Bavaria and Austria. Luxembourg would eventually sue for peace but Leon agreed to give Regensburg to the cadet branch of its royal family rather than it being in union with the Kingdom of Leon itself. Once secure the new Prince, the devout Ferdinand I, would make the odd and unprecedented move to recreate the bishopric as a sovereign state. There would now be three states (or six if the three semi-independent abbeys are included too) with overlapping sovereignty where two once stood.
The principality and bishopric state would, in time, drift back to Catholicism, while the Imperial City remained Lutheran.
Princess Theresa inherited Regensburg at the age of 9 in 2008 following the sudden death of her father Ferdinand V. She is recognised as sovereign ruler of the Principality, 'Defender of the Faith' in the Bishopric and 'Protectoress' of the Imperial City.
The three parts are governed by three separate government bodies each with their own elections. A Diet in the Principality, a diocese council in the Bishopric and a council in the City. Confusingly all three meet in the city itself and often have to legislate separately on the same business, leading to time consuming deadlocks and inter-governmental negotiation. As such the state and the Principality's Chancellor, Johannes Oberst, is at the forefront of the movement to secularise and rationalise the Holy Roman Empire's hordr of tiny and some would say anachronistic states.