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Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello (22 February 1908 - 28 September 1981) was a Colombian Socialist politician and former two-time President of Colombia, who along with his contemporary political rival but close friend Rafael Caldera is one of only two Presidents under the 1918 Constitution to serve nonconsecutive terms. He served his first term as President from 1946 until 1950, only 38 years old upon assuming office, as Humberto Ruiz's successor. His second term, 1974 to 1978, was won thanks to discontent with the long rule of the Christian Democrats and the inability of the charismatic and semi-popular Caldera to run again due to term limits. Betancourt, while eligible to run for a second term in 1978 thanks to term limits not being retroactive upon passage in 1952, was defeated at the 1978 party congress by the Party Chairman, Carlos Andrés Pérez, his friend and protege, who had the backing of the Social Party's resurgent left who opposed his subsidies to American oil companies and his support for Brazilian rebels. Betancourt, regarded as one of the last stalwarts of the Ruiz age, retired and died shortly thereafter.