Río Muni, officially the Republic of Río Muni, is a country located in Central Africa. The country's name is derived from the Muni River in the southern part of the country. Since the mid-1990s, Río Muni has become one of sub-Sahara's largest oil producers. With a population of 420,087, it is the richest country per capita in Africa, and its gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranks 69th in the world. Río Muni is bordered by Cameroon to the north and the Central African Republic to the south and east.
Río Muni was ceded by Portugal to Spain in 1778 in the Treaty of El Pardo. The Spanish had hoped to collect slaves to work in their other overseas possessions, but their settlers died of yellow fever and the area was deserted. Cocoa and timber became major industries upon recolonization. After World War I, the Spanish surrendered the colony to the United States which retained sovereignty over Río Muni until 1964. On August 13, 1964, Río Muni was granted status as an independent republic by the United States.