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Prussia is considered the heart of the Holy Roman Empire, being one of its main original members and one of the most powerful to this day. Prussia also retains strong cultural ties to the Empire.
History of Brandenburg State
The Northern March was a march of the Holy Roman Empire corresponding to the Brandenburg State of Prussia. It was a territory conquered from the West Slavic Wends. Control over the area was reverted out of the Holy Roman Empire's grasp following a Lutician Rebellion.
March of Brandenburg
The Empire regained control of the region in the 12th century.The Ascanians under Albert the Bear gained Brandenburg. However,a native named Jaxa took control. After a civil war, Albert retook control. Originally it controlled only Havelland and Zauche regions. Over time it conquered the Uckermark, Teltow, and Barnim regions east of the Havel and Nuthe. This extended it to the Oder River. The Neumark was acquired through purchases from the Piasts of Poland. Albert's son Otto succeeded him. The Wittlesbach Emperor granted it to his son. The Emperor Charles IV gave it to himself and this put the Luxembourgs on the throne. Brandenburg was inherited by the Hohenzollerns in 1415. The state was an electorate since the 14th century.Brandenburg became Lutheran in 1539. They inherited Cléves, Mark, and Rabensburg after the 7 Years' War. The Duchy of Prussia was later inherited forming Brandenburg-Prussia (For more info see History of Brandenburg-Prussia)
History of Prussia State
The State of the Teutonic Order was a Catholic state.During the Protestant Reformation,it became the Duchy of Prussia and Royal (Polish) Prussia.
Duchy of Prussia
The Duchy was a Lutheran State headed (at first) by Albert, last Duke of the Teuronic Order. It was a fief of Poland and technically outside the empire. A peasant revolt began in Samland in 1525 but this was crushed and its leaders were executed. In 1618,Albert Fredrick (Albert's heir) died and Brandenburg inherited the duchy beginning Brandenburg-Prussia. (For further info see History of Brandenburg-Prussia)
History of Clèves District
Middle Francian Rule
It was ruled by Middle Francia. Middle Francia was a state formed from the Treaty of Verdun which split the Carolingian Empire in thee parts. It was the Middle part and held the Imperial title. It was partitioned itself into the Kingdom of Italy (which held the Imperial title), Lotharingia, and Burgundy.
Lotharingia was formed from the Partition of Middle Francia. This region had no former name and was thus named after Lothair,the king. By the Treaty of Meerssen, it was divided between East and West Francia. The Clèves district went to East Francia and became part of Lower Lorraine.
Lower Lorraine was a stem duchy of the Kingdom of Germany. It consisted of the East Francian part of Lotharingia. In 959 it was split from Upper Lorraine and thus founded. From 965 to 977 the emperor directly ruled. In 1190 it split into its respective districts ending the stem duchy.
In 1190 Clèves became an independent duchy.
History of the Kingdom
The Kingdom was formed with Personal Union after the Emperor gave it Kingdom status. It inherited territories. Prussia gained great swaths of land through annexing surrounding lands; many small states joined, but more powerful states such as Hamburg and Saxony remained independent. In 1900, the Prussian Revolution began. Prussia was reformed into the Federal Republic of Prussia.
Government and Politics
The Prussian Reichstag is a bicameral legislature. The Reichstag was also the name of the lower house, and by constitution are directly elected in a general election by the citizens. The Upper House, the Reichstrat, is directly elected by the citizens of corresponding provinces and republics; according to the Prussian constitution, the Reichstrat's function is to represent the different provinces and republics.
The Reichstag meets in the Reichstag building, located in Berlin.
Prussia is a federation composed of 13 provinces and 10 republics.
Prussian republics are constituent republics formed from German states that had willingly joined Prussia during the 1800s. These republics enjoy a certain degree of autonomy, each with their own constitution, president, and parliament. However, international affairs are handled at the federal level.