Project Atom (Russ: ) refers to an Alaskan economic energy initiative championed and instituted by former Premier Vladimir Putin in 2006 and 2007, in which the government made its goal to triple the number of nuclear energy plants in Alaska from 30 to 90 by 2025, at a cost of almost $200 billion (US). The initiative would also modernize many of Alaska's aging nuclear plants, including well-known Zagodrastaya, and provide seed money for companies willing to test thorium reactors. As of 2012, 17 permits have been processed for new power plants, and five of these plants have begun construction after early design. When the project is finished, an estimated 96% of Alaskan electricity and commercial power will be generated by nuclear power, allowing gas, coal and oil resources to be earmarked for export or industrial usage. While opposed by many anti-nuclear energy activists, it is regarded as one of the most ambitious sustainable energy projects in world history.