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The Ming Dynasty still rules over the vast lands of China. On the other side of the world, the Hundred Years War continues between England and France. Europe is still stuck in the old ways of feudalism and chivalry while the notions of a New World are considered figments of the imagination.

We welcome you to the long-awaited fourth expansion of that immortal series. Welcome to Principia Moderni IV! Starting in 1400 AD, this is the dawn of the modern world and the tail end of the Middle Ages. The Renaissance is just kicking off in Europe, while the nations in the western side of the continent are locked in the last gasp of the Hundred Years War. The Muslim world is still reeling from the invasions of Turks and Mongols, with the Caliphate resting in the collapsing Mamluk Egypt and the Ottomans on the rise in Anatolia. Make it count.

The first game was the most successful on the wiki, leading all the way to the modern day with mostly plausible posts and little controversy. The second game reached almost to the modern day, but failed due to a plethora of ASB events and moderator bias. The third game was much more worthy of the first, almost running into implausibility but climbing back into a shining glory by the end. Riding on the latest reforms of map games since the end of PMIII, this is the most logical next step in that evolution. Remember, above all other rules, — have fun.

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The Wildlings

All users currently on the wiki may play unless otherwise noted.

Banned Users

A ban from plausibility strikes lasts 30 days, after which the third strike is repealed and the banned player is unbanned. However, the newly unbanned player rejoins the game with two strikes, as a form of probation.

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Banned temporarily

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Plausibility Strikes

Three strikes and you're out! Each strike resets after 30 years of the most recent strike.

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Moderator Strikes

These are strikes for moderators and how they moderate. The same three strikes rules apply. If a moderator is banned from moderating. However, they can still play as their nation. Mod strikes can be delivered in one of three ways:

  1. If a sufficient number of players (more than half of all players voting) vote to give a moderator a strike.
  2. If I, Scraw, give them a strike.
  3. If a majority of all mods (i.e., more than half of the total number of mods, excluding that moderator) vote to give a moderator a strike.

Moderators can be given strikes for the following reasons:

  1. Exhibiting bias that would benefit the nation they are playing.
  2. Exhibiting bias that would negatively affect a player they have a personal dispute with.
  3. Making a ruling that contradicts a proven fact from OTL or an established fact from earlier in the game.
  4. Overruling a decision of a majority of moderators.
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The Game

1880

The crop failure across China subsequently ends and begins to decline in India with ~1.2 million dead.

Major earthquakes strike the Croatian region of Belka, destroying much of Zagreb's industrial centers, general buildings and houses and killing a few people.

The end of the Dutch-German War is taken terribly by the German populace, as nationalism is put at an all time low in Germany proper. In the recently annexed lands by Burgundy, however, German nationalism is somewhat at an all time high as many of the annexed peoples begin worker strikes or protests for independence or large political autonomy.

Birth rates across Europe begin to stagnate.

Turkish rebellions begin in Belkan-occupied territories of Anatolia.

Members of the OPE in Egypt end up being systematically killed by Muslims in the area, with many Muslim groups requesting the government to simply illegalize the institution and also arrest any of its members.

In the Papal States, the Archbishop of Valencia is elected pope, taking the name Urban VIII.

The Russian colonial leader Vladimir Markov takes command of the colonial Indpendence movement and he establishes a congress to discuss the terms, bringing in many leaders of the various disgruntled groups. The uprising of the general populace effectively removes Russia from California and Oregon as well as the destruction of domestic infrastructure damages their outlook on Russia being reasonable about their movement toward self government. Meanwhile, Alexander Kahler is captured and executed, making him a martyr for the movement.

  • Belkan Empire: The uprising of Turks throughout occupied Turkey, while not expected, is somewhat prepared for. As 100,000 of the invasion force is detailed for population suppression and putting down the uprisings, the remainder of the army continues pushing on toward Ankara, the Turkish capital, effectively planning to capitulate the Turkish government. The city of Zagreb, while damaged, is quickly allotted funds to rebuild and overall, being home to no truly major industrial hub barring some arms factories, the city's economy is only moderately effected by the earthquake. With the outright invasion of Arabia underway by Britain, Persia and France, Belka declares involvement. While not a fan of trampling on over 200 years of detente the Belkan navy breaks off from its commitment in the Black Sea and upward of 50 ships consisting of four battleships, ten cruisers, 15 destroyers 15 Armored frigates, and six armored gunboats steam off the coast of the Levant. They escort almost 150,000 troops marshalled up from the Belkan invasion of Turkey which land at Acre. Arabia is offered a deal in which Belka garrisons the Levant and prevents amphibious invasions allowing 300,000 Arabian troops to head east. While not expecting the deal to go through the remainder of the Belkan navy seals shut the Eastern Mediterranean from all military traffic besides Belkan traffic. The Suez Fortress is ordered to fire on any military ships that decide to run the Canal. With the possibility of a strong and powerful Arabic ally even in a rump fashion. Arabia is offered a line of credit to buy weapons but not military involvement will take place With so much instability rising up, the Belkan navy officially launches its two new battleships the BES Vasili and BES Grimljavina (Thunderer) are launched armed with 14-inch guns and tertiary armaments to match. The Belkan navy also launches three armored cruisers and five frigates this year as well as two destroyers. With a very clear favoritism on the Belkan navy it is expected the Belkan army usually allowing for an absolutely massive force is capped to prevent soaring costs at two million flat out (which still puts us at somewhat of an economic detriment). The Belkan army as a show of good faith does not mobilize or prepare for outright war with the British. As a result of the withdrawal of the French from the war the Belkan government reopens Suez but keeps a semi-lockdown of the Eastern Mediterranean leaving a very small berth of operations for the British. The 150,000 troops sent to Acre withdraw in good order to Egypt marching south toward Suez and camping near the canal's fortress. Belka offers full equipping and training of the Ethiopian and Egyptian field armies to modern and full standards saying "As a commonwealth we rise and as a commonwealth we fight, unified" As the siege of Ankara occurs early in the year before the depart of Belkan troops the siege begins in full with a massive engagement occurring. After nearly three months the city while hardly fortified proves to be a hard nut to crack. The Turkish men of the city initially not taking part begin to flow into the defenses to cover gaps and by the final push nearly 200,000 Turkish soldiers and militia stand against the Belkan army. However, in a show of brutal force, their valiant defense is crushed at Ankara and the Belkan Purple eagle flies over the palace. With Turkey's last major city falling the Belkan army spreads into occupation duty over the country and annexes small parts of the Turkish west as part of Samothrakiya restoring old Ionian territory to the Belkan empire. The rest of Turkey itself is designated the Military Governate of Turkey and the General in charge of the Ankara siege, Anton Karkasev takes control as the military governor.
    • Arabia is very grateful for the Belkan offer, and gladly accepts the support. We divert 150,000 troops east to confront the British and enforce numerous great fortresses along southern Mesopotamia. The layers of spiked trenches at both Basra and Najran along with the massive manpower proceed to bleed the British forces dry. These new purchased Belkan arms are utilized on the Mesopotamian front
    • Also, we aren't under attack by either Persia or France, so we ask Belka to proceed on the support that we request in Egypt.
    • We agree to Belka outfitting the Unified Commonwealth Field Army. -Egypt
    • Theodore accepts the Belkan offer. -Ethiopia
  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia) [as asked for by Nate. -Sol]: This year we ask Belka to provide our military enough graded weapons to surpass the quality of the British, as well as their general support for our coming revolution (Belka response). As the subjugation under British rule is a direct threat to the Holy Sites, we ask the Caliph to bless our initiation of the Pact of Damascus. With the initiation of the Pact of Damascus, we call upon all Muslim people within the pact to rise up against British rule, or otherwise fill the ranks of the military of our allies. Upon this call, the militaries of Egypt, Arabia and Persia are filled with far more volunteers than our military usually commands, dedicated to their religious fervor. Our military is therefore equal to 2% of the total population. The Arab British military is dissolved, utterly ignoring the commands of Britain at the end of last year. The former members of the Arab British military, being trained in British tactics, are promoted to be the commanders of the current military. With our military thus supplied, we declare war on the Kingdom of Great Britain, on the grounds that the Beyrut Accords is a sham that was illegally coerced by threats of violence. 400,000 troops are sent south, in three armies of 133,000 troops each, to converge on besieging Aden, using the best equipment of the armed forces and all the heavy artillery we can supply. The attrition in Aden against the British is severe, as none of the defensive military stationed there come from an arid climate. Another 300,000 troops are sent westward, divided into two groups. 100,000 troops are stationed in defensive positions in Levant, preparing against any amphibious attack. The remaining 200,000 troops are sent into Egypt, to aid the Egyptian military in besieging Port George (Egypt Response). On the home front, another 300,000 troops are stationed along our fortresses in Mesopotamia, fitted with trenches and spikes. Finally, another 200,000 troops are sent farther east, supporting the military in Persia. Seeing the continual murder by mass starvation against the Indian people under British rule, we further use the Pact of Damascus to obligate the Muslim states of Dravadia and Bengal to cast off British rule and aid our cause, in the hopes of liberating their nations as well from the mass murderers from Britain (Mod response). We further ask our allies in Europe, specifically France and Burgundy, to also rally to our cause. We ask that the French and Dutch navies, along with the navies of Arabia and Persia, to help primarily to blockade the port at Aden, as well blockading the Strait of Ormzud if possible (Responses for France and Burgundy). In order to properly retain the number of troops throughout the duration of the war, new reforms to conscription laws are drafted. Rifled muskets begin being manufactured, mostly by the older cottage industry, but also to some degree in the new factory complexes. EDIT: All troops currently in Mesopotamia are moved to the front. 300,000 are sent to the Caucasus to defend against a Russian invasion. Forts are built on the southern side of the mountains, with trenches dug into the clay around Azerbaijan. This is sufficiently south that Russia is forced to face the attrition of the Caucasus Mountains before engaging in our fortifications. The remaining 300,000 are sent east to support Persia's forces in Baloch, and prevent any British invasion there. 
  • Persia: What Persia actually does is send one army of 75,000 men to Belka and another to Baluchistan. Everything said before is not canon, and Russia didn't get s**t.
    • By the authority of the Imbrator Kabeer, we direct Persia to concentrate their forces as a defensive strategy for Baluchistan, or otherwise aid Davadia in their liberation rather than commit any offense. -Arabia
  • Russia: Industry grows in Siberia as the ironclad HIRMS Tsar Alexander is launched. The phonautograph is upgraded to the phonograph and sees much more efficient record producing and sound quality. There is a stagnation in Bugi-Vugi as R&B groups and people take hold like the Mongol Sasha Khan with his record called “Superstition”. Kolchack accepts the offer from Persia but apparently this didn’t happen so die is to imperialistic thoughts of an Indian Ocean port he begins to amass an army of 150,000 in Central Asia and another 150,000 in the Caucasus. He also begins to prepare for southern expansion into the Caucasus farther in secret plans against Pontus. War is declared on Persia seeing no active military in the north of their country, and the Army of Central Asia presses on Tehran. Meanwhile, the Army of the Caucasus invades the long-desired territory of Circassia and OTL Azerbaijan.
    • Novorossiya: Elements of the army in the Mzerka Okrug are pulled out along with naval elements and local military bases are burned down during the evacuation. Military forces move down from Resnov to establish a border against rebel forces at the Sturgeon River to prevent any northward expansion.
    • Arab Dip: The Union of Arabia and Persia wishes to rectify the situation with Russia diplomatically and avoid war
  • Brésil: Following the Argentine refusal of the ultimatum, the army was assembled. However, they refused to march into Argentine, as there had been two wars prior to this, at no avail. This escalated into a mutiny, with Brésilian troops marching on the capital. Simultaneously, the workers of Saint-Denis go on strike, and the paramilitary sent to break up the strike mutinies as well. The invasion of Argentine is called off. This repeats itself twice, over two years. Ideas promoting a Pan-Laurentian state are spreading amongst the Soldiers, Workers, and general masses of Brésil. This all comes to a head when a mass of roughly 1000 members of the Textiles Union march on a government building in New Bordeaux, demanding government action defending worker's rights. After two days of governmental non-compliance, the march grows to 5000, and turns more radical. Marsanist flags can be seen among the crowd. From the mass, a cry of "Libérez les pauvres, enfermez la bourgeoisie!" is heard. Soon there are 10,000 voices, all of them shouting. With the army refusing to put down their fellow countrymen, Emperor Theódore de Medici sends a messenger on horseback to Argentine, pleading for assistance in preventing a revolution across Laurentia. [Laurentian Union response needed].
    • Laurentenian Response: Upon the official request of Theodore de Medicini, a force of 500,000 troops are sent to Saint-Denis to restore order to Brésil and demonstrate our political hegemony on the Laurentia continent
  • Aztlan Republic: With the successful launch of the Iberian international outreach program in the Republic in 1873, Iberian leaders ask the Aztlanian government if they are interested in building a canal through Nicaragua. Aztlan accepts the offer from Iberia June 21 and the government officially ratifies it within one month. Burgundy is also taken into consideration during the proposal but stability issues ultimately lead the project to being a two-nation deal. Aztlan will host formal negotiations beginning on January 1, 1881 in the capital city of Technitana.
    • Tenochtitlán:
    • Various committees are proposing to drain Lake Texcoco and expand the capital city in size. Assuming this proposal passes, it will go to the legislature for approval.
    • Effective July 1, 1880, there will be clear legislative, executive and judiciary branches in the government. Term limits and other eligibility requirements will be determined next year. Furthermore, all men will be eligible to vote assuming they pass a basic literacy test that measures basic proficiency in either Portuguese or Nahuatl.
  • Nova Belgica: The end of the war with the German states is greatly celebrated after the Treaty of Zurich is signed, and our forces return home. Governor Jacob Thedens gladly agrees to demobilize, although we maintain a small force to garrison certain locations, such as bases in the Maritiemen. Likewise our ships eventually return to bases in the western hemisphere, including the three battleships; SMNBS Antigoon, Elegast and Arendsvrees. Additionally, two ships, the Walewein and Gruuthuse are finished this year, as they were already mostly completed when the war ended, while two partially built or planned ships are canceled. Thedens next turns to his goal of establishing greater autonomy for the nation within Burgundy's spheres. At the same time one of Thedens' rivals in government, Senator Jan Coevorden, publishes a series of essays discussing the merits of an "Arcadian Union", i.e., uniting numerous Burgundian colonies under one administration. Thedens' plan is initially blocked in the nation's parliament, which gained a slight conservative majority in the 1878 election, a move championed by Coevorden, who argues that his request to unify Nova Belgica and Avelskamp also be sent to the Burgundian government. After some negotiation, the state's official petition to the Burgundian government requests for increased autonomy, and a union with Avelskamp, in which the colony is admitted as a full state within Nova Belgica. Later in the general election Thedens does not run, but backs Liberal candidate Stephanus Joubert, who defeats Coevorden for the governorship. A velodrome is constructed in Sint Jan for indoor cycling and other sports events, known as the "Grousser-Victoire Velodrom". Additionally, a new indoor ice hockey stadium begins construction, which will be christened the "Queen Mary's Coliseum". With the war ending in 1879 with the signing of the Treaty of Zurich, the plans for a commonwealth-wide tournament continue in full force. It is decided that the games will be held in Dijon, and in late 1880 athletes from Nova Belgica and the other Burgundian-affiliated nations arrive in the capital city. In the individual road race cycling competition Burgundian racer Willem Voorting wins the gold medal. Additionally, Burgundy walks away as the overall winner of the other cycling events. In the rugby championship Avelskamp, Burgundy, Nova Belgica, and New Netherlands advance to the finals, with Burgundy defeating Nova Belgica in the final round. In association football, Burgundy, Nova Belgica, New Netherlands, and Patagonië advance to the finals, with New Netherlands defeating Burgundy 1-0 in overtime. In the ice hockey competition Nova Belgica defeats Burgundy in a narrow victory. With the transcontinental railroad completed other projects begin in the continent, and the country continues to focus on completing the Panama Canal.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain: When we see Arabia attempting to purchase a load of weapons from Belka all at once and then asking the Caliph to bless the Pact, we move our fleet at Kismayo to Aden with urgency and 15,000 British troops in West India to Aden as well. Our soldiers already at Aden are ordered to halt the long term construction and start trying to defend Aden against a possible attack in the short term preparing for a siege. The British and British Indian forces are moved to Tump in Baluchistan to absorb any invasion. When Arabia declares war and plans to siege Aden which we have held for more than 20 years, the British will defend it with fleet, artillery and cavalry support. With war declared we plan to raise another 60,000 soldiers in Britain and equip them for operations next year and facilities are expanded with plans to recruit more next year. Ports and borders are closed to Arabian and Persian shipping to try to stop the spread of their message. The fact that Persia and Arabia are invading Dravidia, and Swahili soldiers are fighting alongside the British is spread. Aware of the need for more naval forces in the region from Bristol, 16 ships-of-the-line, 20 frigates and 32 corvettes are dispatched to journey through the Suez Canal to Aden and once they arrive intercepting any Arabian or Persian shipping in the Red Sea or the Gulf of Aden. Two ships-of-the-line, nine frigates and 14 corvettes along with 10,000 troops from England and Ireland are sent to Port George and prepare for a siege, fortifying the city equipped with caltrops and punji sticks. Another 40,000 British are moved from India to Port George. If the Egyptians or Arabians try not take it, we will defend it. In Baluchistan, 250,000 Indian troops and 30,000 African troops defend against the Persian and Arabian attack. At the same time, using three ships-of-the-line, five frigates and eight corvettes from Aden we land 15,000 soldiers at Bushehr and order them to dig in once they hold the port as well as grabbing bridges over the Dalakai with the ships remaining. Another 10,000 British soldiers are dispatched to Aden as the siege unfolds. The remaining 50,000 British troops in India are split in half between Karachi and Mumbai. With the country now at war, Britain makes the transition to wartime production with the steel resources built up over time being very useful. Edit: After the first Arab assault, we send an additional 15,000 British troops from India to meet the second assault and after the second Arab assault we send another 15,000 to meet the third.
    • India: Aware that the famine is still unfortunately ongoing, the export of grain remains illegal. Relief efforts continue with 680 grams of grain being given to those in relief camps. Crop rotation is encouraged to those affected by drought. 100,000 more Sepoys are raised and those overseas are paid higher which is good for them. Arabian propaganda is limited from movement while British propaganda is spread.
    • Persia is on Arabia's side in the war, so the strategy of supporting Persia is not valid. -Nate
    • Well, they were on the British side until Persia retconned their turn, weren't they? Person
  • Greater Chinese Empire: With the dissipation of the famine, agricultural output surpasses previous levels by a huge margin, aided by the usage of ammonia-based fertilizers which boost productivity levels. The cultivation of lucrative cash crops is encouraged, hoping to establish a Chinese monopoly on the production and export of cotton, oil seeds, fibers, and certain exotic fruits and vegetables. There is extensive infrastructural development with both the telegraph and railway networks being intensively developed. The construction of the latter in particular spurs demand for iron, machinery and locomotives. In addition to a boom in the arms industry, there is rapid growth in light industries: particularly in the production of textiles and synthetic dyes (which can be attributed to the usage of steam power). Premier Li Hongzhang, along with the Ministry of War headed by Minister Zuo Zongtang, begins to initiate more comprehensive naval reforms. A modern shipbuilding facility is built in Dongying (which also houses the Bohai Fleet), and with the aid of Belkan engineers, the construction of two iron-clad frigates (to test out Chinese domestic shipbuilding capabilities) commence, scheduled to be commissioned by 1882. The navy remains at 20 steam-powered wooden-hulled corvettes, and two first-generation ironclad battleships. The number of active troops is decreased to its previous level of ~800,000 troops. A defence-oriented military policy is emphasized, with the continued fortification of four strategic forts in strategically-located cities corresponding to major choke-points: Busan, Dongying, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. While there is sporadic border activity, the Amur River remains highly militarized and is fortified with medium trench lines. Arms production (and therefore the industrial capacity of China to wage war) continues to increase rapidly, with China's Military–Industrial Zones producing: muzzle-loading rifles, carbines, breech-loading rifled artillery (utilizing imported Belkan steel), Gatling guns and their respective ammunition. The production of rapid-fire guns commences. In addition, these facilities also provide storage for imported bolt-action rifles, which are utilized by the army's elite corps. Due to the sheer levels of production needed to fully outfit the current standing army with bolt-action rifles (and replace muzzle-loading rifles as the standard), a request is sent to Belka seeking to import a grand total of ~400,000 units of bolt-action rifles over the course of three years. In addition, China wishes to obtain a license to commence small-scale domestic production of bolt-action rifles, in accordance to the terms discussed within the Belgrad-Beijing Co-operation Treaty. (BELKAN RESPONSE). However, it is reminded that any significant levels of production would probably not be attained until the latter half of the decade. Levels of educational attainment continue to see rapid improvement due to the enforcement of compulsory nine-year education. A basic two-year course (to learn necessary skills such as arithmetic, algebra, and basic literacy) is aimed at providing education to uneducated adults outside of the compulsory schooling range. A national newspaper service is established, with its popularity cemented by rising literacy levels. A private weekly magazine with humorous and satirical content called Ji (gaining inspiration from the British Punch magazine) gains popularity and widespread circulation.
    • Tibet (associated state): Lhasa, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. The Tibetan clergy continue to administer the country, rendering Tibet a de facto theocratic oligarchy, and a de jure limited democracy. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. A garrison of two Chinese divisions is stationed there. One brigade (~5000 troops) comprising of natives is established, armed with outdated Chinese matchlock rifles.
    • Dzungaria (associated state): Ghulja, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. To ease administration, the Dzungar government encouraged ranching instead of a semi-nomadic pastoral lifestyle. Dzungars continue to cultivate larger quantities of wheat and maize as both a staple grain and food for livestock. The local Chinese garrison stationed there is at five divisions. The Dzungarian Gate is fortified with a fort and heavy trench lines. Two divisions comprising of natives is established, armed with outdated Chinese matchlock rifles.
    • Altishahria (associated state): Urumqi, inhabited by ~50,000 residents, continues to see infrastructural development, with various civic buildings built in the capital. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there. Irrigation systems is established around oases. Cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears and walnuts. Particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan raisins. Two divisions comprising of natives is established, armed with outdated Chinese matchlock rifles.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. WIth the export of cotton textiles, cotton farming increases and slavery increases in the Swahili heartland. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. The Bayab School continues to spread in Swahili, dominating Southern Swahili now. Contrasted to the more secular mainstream Islam followers, the followers of the Bayad School constantly mobilizes and organizes evangelical missions and advocate for Bayadist social policies. Domestic designs of destroyers and cruisers are being made, though Swahili still lacks the expertise to construct them. The naval arsenals near Zanzibar are reorganized into the Tanga Naval Arsenal, and the Buzi Naval Arsenal is also established near Sofala. Several foreign engineers are hired for the establishment and organization of the two naval arsenals. The first entirely Swahili built ironclad, the 120-ton Jabril, is unveiled at the Tanga Naval Arsenal. The Aliwa Arsenal is also established by graduates of the Malawi Military Academy and industrialists of Aliwa. The Sultan plans a tour of Europe to showcase the country's rapid development. With domination by the merchants over the Bunge Kubwa, a massive naval overhaul program is passed. Meanwhile, the domination also means an increase in merchant sponsored smuggling, as the navy is prevented to interfere through legal means.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts.
    • United Swazi Emirates: The political organization is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land-grant system continues smoothly.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements.
    • Swahili Diplomacy: We wish to purchase patents for production of artillery, ammunition, small arms and ironclad designs (we would import important technical parts like engines) from Belka and Britain. We offer to supply them with highly discounted weaponry, seeing the rising tensions in the Middle East. We wish to order 20 torpedo boats, five destroyers and two cruisers from Belka or Britain. Dozens of sailors would also be sent abroad to train. 
    • Swahili Diplomacy to Britain, Belka, France, Burgundy, Iberia and Italy: The Sultan of Swahili wishes to go on a state visit to the nations next year.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Parliament passes a law today that effectively bans not only the OPE but all secret societies in general. Due to our alliance with the Arabs, we happily accept the Arab Troops and besiege to Port George. Our population reaches 15 million this year. We raise an army of 500,000 that aids the Arab troops and Egyptian Security Forces in besieging Port George. The population is mostly in favor of helping Arabia out, with most government run newspapers being Pro-Arabia. We request Arabia give us the Gaza Strip after the war (NATE RESPONSE NEEDED). A draft is put in place with Queen Farah announcing that “at this time, at this hour, it is time for all young Egyptian men to serve their country, to protect it from our enemies!” The Egyptian Suez Defense Force, which effectively acts as a border guard for the Suez Conglomerate, is put on red alert, as they stare down the British Suez Army. The Egyptian Navy is mobilized, and encircles Port George, blockading it. We request Ethiopia put their army on red alert in case of a possible British invasion via Swahili. (PLAYER RESPONSE NEEDED!!) We continue to expand our major population centers (Alexandria, Giza and Alia), along with new schools nationwide. We continue to support the research and teaching of Islamic sciences. The outpost on Bahrain is militarized significantly this year with 300 troops arriving at the island. The small settlement of Manama expands due to the influx of troops and their families. More ships guard the island. We switch to a wartime economy, and begin to ready our citizens for a massive war once again!
    • Arabia: We will give the city of Gaza to Egypt freely upon their success in the war
  • Republica Iberia: The PDSC government, flush with money from the higher progressive tax rates, agrees to negotiations over the possibility of a canal in Aztlan. Furthermore, the government invites France to join in the negotiations if Aztlan is willing. Bicycles continue to spread as an efficient means of transportation and a sizable internal bicycle industry begins to spring up. The birth rate becomes stagnant, but sizable growth continues. The population is estimated to be 42.25 million. Educational practices continue to include Iberian as a portion of the core curriculum alongside regional languages, mathematics and history. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The reforms of last year make slow economic growth at first, but increasing demand for goods from the now more wealthy lower-class push expansions in light industry and by year's end there is renewed economic optimism. Steel production continues to increase, funded by naval contracts and general demand for the tough material. The rail sector grows at a moderate pace with construction on many small narrow-gauge lines for intra-regional travel. The shipyards of Catalonia are impacted by the reforms but thankfully, high demand and acceptance of lower margins means that the shipyards remain busy producing modern ships. The Carbon Arc Welder continues to spread as a tool in ship construction. The financial sector, although weaker than others, also grows with Lisbon and Madrid the two main centers of commerce and growth. A dramatic naval expansion program is launched for completion by 1887. Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and 36 patrol boats. Work begins immediately on the Andalucia Class battleships and the Madrid Class armored cruisers, with plans for the frigates to begin in 1881. The Sandoval Rifleworks returns to the Iberian military with an updated Sandoval Model 1879, the Sandoval Model 1880. The weapon features a larger six-round magazine and an improved action based on those of the bolt-action rifles used by other nations. Testing shows the rifle performs well from all positions except for prone where its rate of fire falls. Furthermore, thanks to the box-magazine, the rifle can fire more effective shells. However, fouling proves to be a huge issue as the rifle can only fire roughly one magazine before becoming unusable. The military once more asks for refinements to the new mechanism. Instead, the Sandoval Rifleworks begins work on a less problematic powder with the help of several chemists.
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production. The Moroccan Republic begins an education campaign with the help of Iberian advisors. Schools are opened across the country and teach Iberian, Maghrebi, mathematics, and history. The Republic also aids the Iberian African Republic in expansion southward.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite the growth. Much like Morocco, the government implements a series of educational reforms designed to increase school attendance and promote bilingualism with Iberian. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those who come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority European. European migration is lower this year with only 30,000 moving to the colony. There are roughly 3.65 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 475,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar and salt production and as a stopover for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial Garrison is maintained at 1000. Educational reforms spread to the colonies here as well.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber production commences with small returns at first due to the young age of the trees. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa.
  • Kingdom of East Germany: Anger spews into the streets this year with demonstrations being held out in fury following the war. The German United Front faces political disunity due to although all members believing in united German State, not all of them are behind one idea leading to different parties taking shape rather than a single entity. With reparations and hundreds of thousands dead, people blame the current administration and the King seeing him as the only person that could have prevented the war by preventing the calls of war to begin with. A man by the name of Alphonse Lutwitz, an injured soldier from the war breaks down in tears after hearing the surrender of the Germans. “it's not over” he mumbles. Being a person who believed in Von Hesse's beliefs had after leaving the hospital, returned to his hometown of Hannover. He begins writing a book based on his beliefs and those that he had embraced titled “Das Bündelfeile”. The Berlin Stock Exchange faces a heavy hit this year. A party called the National German Party is established from a broken off political branch of the United German Front advocating for the unification of the Germans under a different government structure. Although having some popularity within the public, their leaders happen to be quite mediocre. Lutwitz is hired to be a political agent for the government due to the paranoia within the heart of the Administration. Lutwitz discovers the National German Party and outside of work attends one of their meetings in Königsberg. Seeing the party sharing similar values he joins. He holds his own meeting inviting family, party members in Potsdam Park for his birthday. A speech is delivered to the people who had casually walked by the area. “My fellow Germans. It comes to question today of what is our future. What do we hope to accomplish ladies and gentlemen? Power? Strength? Riches? I tell you fine men that there's no need for those wants and wishes. God has already put this before us - right in front of our faces but we are too ignorant to realize it. I took note of that after the war. Of course there is death. Of course there is misery. But what is after it? Have any of you asked yourself that? What is after all this sadness and misery? I tell you that you must wake up to the reality. This is not over. The German people are not over. For the German people, after so many downturns have at the end been resilient. Sure we have lost many. We have lost sons, uncles, fathers, brothers, cousins, and many more - but this is not over. For us and them, the Germans live and march on! We will not be marched on and trampled about! We will not have our jobs stolen by rivaling powers! We will show them! We will show the world what true German might and grit truly is because this may be our darkest hour but when you hit rock bottom, there is nowhere else to go but up!”. Bystanders who had gathered just a few feet from the podium were left dumbfounded while party members invited had cheered as this meeting was originally planned to be a get together for Alphonse's birthday after news of this year's parade being cancelled two months in advance to honor German pride. With the help of the National German Party and the United German Front, men marched down singing the national anthem of both nations in unison with the marching being heard along the route, thousands gathered to view it. Although crippled, Alphonse was right. The Germans live and march on.
  • Ethiopian Empire: The Ethiopian Navy is sent to protect the Red Sea entrance from threats while a heavier forces consisting of the two ironclad frigates and two wooden ships converted to use steam with engines from factories, along with five iron-sheathed frigates are sent to the Persian gulf. The Imperial guard and regular army are combined to from the Royal Army, with militias being instigated into an actual reserve. The Royal army is swelled to 300,000 with the best reservists sent into active duty. The other 485,000 men are quickly armed with older rifles and uniforms then sent to forts around the southern border. The Royal army moves to prepare for possible counterattack. Colonel Agdar Amfa is called from South America to lead the Vanguard of the Royal Army while Seyon Solomon is given control of the defensive forces. Industry is slowly shifted into a war economy while the emperor wants to keep the general populace happy. Port Theodore is growing at a fast pace with more jobs opening each month. Medicine and science are improved as is education.
    • Belkan Dip: We request that the Ethiopians not attack or make any overt moves so as to spark a war as Belka has more or less managed to avoid an overt war. We do, however, request the Ethiopian Field army that is to be ready in 1882 to march to Damietta when it is done. The Army will be sent to the homeland for training and will be allowed to tour, enjoy and learn about Belka.

1881

The war in Aden takes a turn for the worse on both sides. British forces are facing an overwhelming force inexperienced in conflict in addition to scorching heat that leads to numerous heat strokes across the British front lines. Meanwhile, a few Arabian units begin to mutiny due to lack of supplies.

Anti-Semitic "pogroms" begin to sweep across Eastern and Central Europe, with groups being created to specifically target the Jewish peoples, their culture and their religion.

The proclamation by the Caliph, in addition to the recent drought and crop failure being systematically blamed on the British, raises Dravidian and Muslim nationalism, and soon many Indian Sepoys in India itself and deployed in Persia, Baluchistan and wherever else begin mutinying. In addition to this, and after the storming of British military compounds and outposts, many of the independence-based rebels are armed with decent or outdated British weaponry and military equipment.

Anti-Islamic sentiment begins in China-Korea, with many reasoning that Islam is the cause for the past decline of the Jin.

Select scholars in France, Iberia, Burgundy, Britain, and Belka are allowed to view some Vatican documents.

Electric streetlights begin to appear in France, the United Kingdom, Iberia, and Belka, to be followed by Burgundy and Prussia the following weeks.

The first electric tramways are opened up in Western Europe.

  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia): The war continues into its second year, although according to the Islamic Calendar that we use it is actually the same year. This conflict is colloquially called the Arab Spring. Having taken the city of Aden, troops are sent to relieve some of the posts of the defense forces there, in order to maintain the same number there, and dig in trenches to fortify their position. 200,000 troops remain in Azerbaijan to defend against Russia, and 50,000 troops across the various fortifications in Levant. Elsewhere, the military is heavily reduced, sending most recruits back home in order to reduce the military budget. This also helps, as the initial Islamist propaganda slowly begins to lose its fever from last year, although the Pact of Damascus is still officially in effect until the conflict ends. Along the same tradition of the conscription system used by the Rashidun Caliphate in the Great Turkish War, the Kingdom of Arabia works throughout this year to create a robust system for conscripting the military for wartime. A separate administration for military personnel is established under the Shay Al-Nass, with 28 offices in various metropolitans in the Middle East. The industrial economy gradually grows, but the Maktab Al-Jaesh (ministry of war) tries to push the limits of the industries for the prduction of rifled muskets, hoping to supply as many soldiers as missed by the equipment bought from Belka. Telegraphs and railroads continue being constructed, although much railroad construction is paused for the duration of the war. Electricity is studied. Seeing the British Empire crushed in the war in general, the Sultan Musa Al-N'uman and the Shay Al-Nass decides that justice has been decidely dealt, and thus peace is offered. A delegation of 70 scholars and politicans are sent to London, dressed in the most modern and formal wear from the Middle East, and accompanied by ceremonial guards from the Arabian Royal Army. The delegation, led by the politician Hamid Al-Qudds, pays the needed respect to the King of Britain, honoring his name such as it deserves (whatever that name is). Here we make the Treaty of London. Jews are freely welcomed in the Middle East as a haven from Europe, as Jews have always been tolerated under the Caliphate under the Jizya tax. Now, that tax implemented from the Jaffarids is repaid back to the Caliph. Aid and information sponsored by religious organizations are sent to East Asia, hoping to spread information on Islam as a way to counterbalance the anti-Islamic factions. Refugees from the attacks are offered haven in Oman. 
  • Russia: War is declared on Persia and Arabia. 100,000 of the Army of the Caucasus moves to take Circassia, away from the main Arab force. Meanwhile, the Army of Central Asia begins to press into the undefended regions of northeast Persia and begin making headway to Tehran. (More to come)
    • Arab Dip: Our troops already being mobilized, our forces will be positioned in Khoroson in time to match the Russian forces. As such, the Arab diplomats offer to end hostilities with Russia peacefully and prevent any escalation of conflict. 
    • Arab Dip: We offer Russia to be transferred the puppet states of Azerbaijan and Circassia in exchange of them signing the Treaty of London.
  • Laurentia Union: The 500,000 strong Grande Armée of Laurentia, with the official sanction of the Brésilian Emperor Theodore de Medici, marches into Saint-Denis, Brésil's capital city, in peace and unopposed at the closing of 1880. As 1881 dawns, General Pierre Michaël Marie sees Saint-Denis in a state of absolute chaos and in the chaos seizes the opportunity to reestablish order by establishing Laurentian political hegemony over Brésil via seizing the capital Saint-Denis by force, and with this force of a 500,000 strong army in Saint-Denis against an apathetic, divided and disillusioned Brésilian Army and people who are unwilling to fight against us, we force  the Brésilian government to collapse after a multi-part campaign to seize Saint-Denis, then placing Pan-Laurentian Revolutionaries in power, having Brésil be absorbed into the Laurentia Union with the treaty of Saint-Denis, and with this absorption of Brésil into the Union, the Laurentia Union is reformed into the Laurentia Federation, currently comprising of Peru-Argentine and Brésil, with the intention of the full integration of Brésil into the Federation into Laurentia. With the seizure of Saint-Denis and the subsequent collapse of the Brésilian government, Laurentia forces quickly seize factories and centers of industry to solidify Laurentian dominion over Brésil, the previous Brésilian military is reformed to be Laurentian as well, and the navy in Saint-Denis comes under Laurentian control too
  • Belkan Empire: Going from crisis to crisis the Belkan empire sees an unexpected death this year. Tsar Uliyam dies of a heart attack replaced by his energetic and well educated son. The new Tsar, Petar Draculesti, takes the throne in a fanfare. He takes the throne as a bachelor, a young man who immediately marries. As an attractive man he gets pretty much what ever he wishes but falls in love with Jocelynn Floredov, a young woman of aristocratic background from Serbia. He announces quickly, thereafter, that his wife is pregnant guaranteeing his prime line of succession. With the end of the Arabian conflict, Tsar Petar is left with a tough choice, news of the Argentine invasion of Brésil, a major place of Belkan investment and Belka's overt favoritism of Brésil as Laurentia's dominant power declares Argentine to be an invasive and highly belligerent power. Tsar Petar - after high level talks with his ministers and the banking sector - effectively deviates all loan repayments to Argentine for its unlawful and aggressive seizure of Saint-Denis. In full military regalia the Tsar declares his intent to intervene on behalf of Brésil and a task force is assembled. He takes all needed funds and invests into a 100,000 strong force as well as a massive naval task force. He orders the gathering of nearly 50 warships. Task force Levant is renamed to Battlegroup Kraken as the 50 ship fleet (see 1880 turn for its composition) which will set sail for Brésil at full speed escorting the 100,000 strong task force. After just under two months the Belkan fleet arrives in the Bahamas which had massive supply stores shipped to it beforehand to handle the strength of the new Isthmus Canal garrison which was to be completed in the next few years. The supply base is expanded to accommodate the Belkan army and naval forces and on arrival, the men are given a week of rest and recuperation before re-embarking to Recife. 50,000 Belkan troops request to land in Recife and begin supporting operations for Brésil. (Falcon, please)
    • Brésil: The aid is accepted. However, Saint-Denis wasn't taken
  • French Empire: The French population steadies at 45.1 million, primarily due to continued industrial growth and the rise of proper sanitation methods nationwide. The Statue of Minerva, which began production and sculpting a few years ago, is finished and revealed in Paris, with high remarks from King Napoleon III and President Pierre Rouzet, allowing for the statue to become a new tourist attraction both locally and worldwide. Airships become more developed and advanced, with the first military designed airship being armed with lightweight Gauthier Guns, allowing for hell to be rained from above. The first modern bolt-action rifle, known as the Fusil Modèle 1881 is moved into factories for production early in the year, allowing for a majority of the military to fully see these in both training and when in combat within the first quarter of the year. In addition, the newly created lightweight Gauthier Guns made for the airships begin to become prominent in the military itself, primarily due to its lightweight behavior and modified barrel that allows it to shoot 16 rounds rather than eight or 12. The recent development in Laurentia with the Laurentian Union attempting to seize the entirety of the state of Brésil becomes very widespread in fueling the argument for new intervention in Laurentia, with the idea of restoring proper order to the continent rather than puppeting states becoming apparent. With this, and Belkan cooperation, 50,000 French troops request to land in Recife and begin supporting the Brésilian war effort against the Laurentian Union (Brésil response needed).
    • Guinée Française: The French-Guinée population stands at 3.4 million, with 15% of the population speaking Japanese, 30% speaking French and the remaining speaking the original language of the island. However, the French language is soon implemented as a semi-mandatory language to study in school, in an attempt to turn the French language into a majority rather than a plurality. Industrial mining equipment is incorporated into the general process of mining gold and copper ore, while cash crops like cocoa and coffee beans become key in agriculture. The capital city, Port Durand (OTL Port Moresby), is worked on in terms of modernizing infrastructure and building more roads. A militia is created, standing at 35,000, using older French modeled weaponry from the 1840's.
    • Nigéria Française: One of the primary states of the now defunct French West African Republic, French Nigéria continues to be a superb example state for French Africa, and continues to thrive in agriculture and the mining of tin and iron ore. The population census reads 15.4 million. Nigéria's national militia stands at 95,000, using older French modeled weaponry from the 1860's, in addition to holding the original Gauthier Gun.
    • Mali Française: One of the primary states of the now defunct French West African Republic, French Mali continues to feature somewhat forced labor as the mining of gold continues to reign supreme in the economy. The population stands at 11.5 million. The local militia, comprised primarily of French servicemen that have integrated into the Malian society and stand more as enforcers than an actual military, stands at 45,000.
    • Brésil: The aid is accepted. However, Saint-Denis wasn't taken.
  • Nova Belgica: This year in ice hockey the Tholen Wanders have another great season after winning the Stenweide Cup the previous year. They compete heavily with the New Rome Bruins, winners of the Lakes Cup, and the Koebecstad Avaloniens, who ultimately win the Stenweide Cup this year. The Avaloniens go on to play several exhibition matches with teams in West Avalon and in the Russian territories. Also Aalst wins its first championship in the Arcadian Football League this year. Stephanus Joubert takes office this year after defeating Jan Coevorden in the election of 1880. Disillusioned with the Conservative Party, Coevorden leads a small split from the party, which unites with the Social Christian Democracy Party to form the Christian Democratic Party, or Democratic Party for short. The party advocates for Christian democracy, conservatism and Coevordenian expansionism, and as such, supports the union with Avelskamp heavily. As the party grows and attracts several wealthy businessman, Coevorden hatches a plan to make a "colony" by sponsoring settlement of Nova Belgicans (mostly minorities) in Burgundy's West Africa territory. A group sets sail by the end of the year and settles a small town near Burgundy's main outpost (OTL Fresco), which they call Joubertina after the head of Nova Belgica. Johannes Snyman, a businessman of Dutch and African descent, becomes mayor of the town, under the leadership of the governor of West Africa. Meanwhile, another party begins to grow in popularity, led by Hendrikus Linden, based loosely on the ideals of Marsanism. Linden advocates for the defense of the working class, the abandoning of traditional ideas of capitalism and other institutions, and the establishment of an equal and socialist society, becoming the International Socialist Association. With the war over in Europe we stop amassing fresh troops, but the steady stream of immigrants from Burgundy and the German states continues, even after some of the Burgundian immigrants return home or resettle the Rhineland area seized in the war. Construction of railroads across the continent and construction of the Panama Canal continue. Also the proposal we sent to the government in Dijon is modified to also include a possible merger with the colony of New Netherlands.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: The second national elections occur, with the incumbent Prime Minister Li Hongzhang remaining in office. To complement increasing centralization (with heightened state intervention in the economy, state supervision over many major institutions), the ruling Populist Party continues to promote a sense of national identity among Chinese peoples–based on the fundamental principle of "Hua" (or the sense of being Chinese culturally). Both statolatry and cultural nationalism is syncretized. In a monumental speech, the Huifu Emperor announces that "China is our motherland, and all who reside within it are its children, united by the mirth and prosperity that she has selflessly bestowed upon us. We must fulfill our filial duties to her as her sons and daughters, and return our favor; professing our love for this glorious and infalliable motherland." In response to recent discrimination against Hui Chinese, a region is separated from the Gansu province (with consent from the provincial legislature) and designated the Ningxia province. Hui Chinese diaspora are encouraged to settle there (with the promise of low land prices), with settlement efforts being semi-successful. Meanwhile, Islamic schools are still permitted to function as private institutions, though are required to abide by the national standards and incorporate education in Confucian classics (in-conjunction with Muslim texts). In a similar approach to Spanish Maghreb, Hui Chinese are encouraged to become non-denominational Muslims (thereby also reducing conflict between the different sects). Due to the influence of liberal thought, the age of consent and the marriageable age is raised to 16 and 18 respectively, whereas previously it was 12 and 14. Meanwhile, the first criminal statutes are established explicitly penalizing those who engage in sexual relations with a minor. However, traditionalist mores still vastly influence the legal code with the renewed prohibition of prostitution (which was previously legal) and the entrenchment of public morality laws. As a result, concubinage, which has previously declined as a practice due to the end of imperial concubinage early during the dynasty, is made illegal. Agricultural output continues to rise, aided by the usage of ammonia-based fertilizers which vastly boost productivity levels. The cultivation of lucrative cash crops is encouraged, hoping to establish dominance over the production of tea and cotton, as well as other fibre crops such as ramie, flax, jute, and hemp. Meanwhile, there is widespread production of industrial and edible oilseeds, as well as sugarcane, and sugar beets. There is intensive infrastructural development with the growth of telegraph and railway networks. The latter industry in particular has resulted in the rapid growth in the mining of iron and coal, as well as the manufacturing of machinery and locomotives. In addition to a boom in the arms industry, there is rapid growth in light industries: particularly in the production of textiles and synthetic dyes–which both can be attributed to the usage of steam power). The construction of two iron-clad destroyers for the Bohai Fleet (based in Dongying) continues, and is scheduled to be commissioned in 1882. The navy remains at 20 steam-powered wooden-hulled corvettes, and two first-generation ironclad battleships. The standing army is reduced to ~600,000 troops (divided into four regional armies managed by the Ministry of War), with many members being honorably discharged and rewarded many benefits for their service. The request sent to Belka is repeated. A defence-oriented military policy is emphasized, with the continued fortification of four strategic forts in strategically-located cities corresponding to major choke-points: Busan, Dongying, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. While there is sporadic border activity, the Amur River remains highly militarized and is fortified with medium trench lines. Arms production (and therefore the industrial capacity of China to wage war) continues to increase rapidly, with China's Military–Industrial Zones producing: muzzle-loading rifles, carbines, breech-loading rifled artillery (utilizing imported Belkan steel), Gatling guns and their respective ammunition. In addition, these facilities also provide storage for imported bolt-action rifles, which are utilized by the army's elite corps. Levels of educational attainment continue to see rapid improvement due to the enforcement of compulsory nine-year education. A basic two-year course (to learn necessary skills such as arithmetic, algebra and basic literacy) is aimed at providing education to uneducated adults outside the compulsory schooling range.
    • Tibet (associated state): Lhasa, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. The Tibetan clergy continue to administer the country, rendering Tibet a de facto theocratic oligarchy, and a de jure limited democracy. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. A garrison of two Chinese divisions is stationed there. One brigade (~5000 troops) comprised of natives is established, armed with outdated Chinese matchlock rifles.
    • Dzungaria (associated state): Ghulja, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. To ease administration, the Dzungar government encouraged ranching instead of a semi-nomadic pastorialist lifestyle. Dzungars continue to cultivate larger quantities of wheat and maize as both a staple grain and food for livestock. The local Chinese garrison stationed there is at five divisions. The Dzungarian Gate is fortified with a fort and heavy trench lines. Two divisions comprising of natives is established, armed with outdated Chinese matchlock rifles.
    • Altishahria (associated state): Urumqi, inhabited by ~50,000 residents, continues to see infrastructural development, with various civic buildings built in the capital. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there. Irrigation systems are established around oases. Cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears and walnuts - particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan raisins. Two divisions comprised of natives are established, armed with outdated Chinese matchlock rifles.
    • Belkan Dip: We refuse production license but will sell the guns themselves.
  • Republica Iberia: The PDSC government dispatches their negotiators to Aztlan for the discussions over the new canal. The birth rate remains stagnant, but sizable growth continues. The population is estimated to be 42.89 million. Migration to Iberia from Morocco and Algeria begins occurring in earnest this year as several thousand Algerians and Moroccans arrive in Iberia. There is some push back from Iberian communities that fear for their wages. However, the unions act as a way to swiftly integrate these newcomers without letting wages fall. Educational practices continue to include Iberian as a portion of the core curriculum alongside regional languages, mathematics and history. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The reforms of last year do slow economic growth at first, but increasing demand for goods from the now more wealthy lower class push expansions in light industry and by years end there is renewed economic optimism. Steel production continues to increase, funded by naval contracts and general demand for the tough material. The rail sector grows at a moderate pace with construction on many small narrow-gauge lines for intra-regional travel. A tram system opens in Madrid this year and runs the length of one of the major streets there. Bicycles continue to spread as an efficient means of transportation, and a sizable internal bicycle industry begins to spring up. The financial sector, although weaker than others, also grows with Lisbon and Madrid the two main centers of commerce and growth. High demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of catalonia remain busy. The Carbon Arc Welder continues to spread as a tool in ship construction. The 1887 Naval Expansion continues, Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and 36 patrol boats. Work continues on the Andalucia-class battleships and the Madrid-class armored cruisers. The class of frigates begins construction this year, as do the patrol boats. The Sandoval Rifleworks continues work on a chemical replacement for traditional gunpowder they develop an improved gun-cotton, a nitrated cotton gelatinised by ether alcohol with nitrates of potassium. The new propellent proves unsuccessful for rifles as the groves prevent proper expansion, but is suitable for smooth-bore shotguns. The Iberian Government sends an envoy to the Papal States asking if they would like membership in the EEA (Scraw Response).
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production. The Moroccan Republic begins an education campaign with the help of Iberian advisors. Schools are opened across the country and teach Iberian, Maghrebi, Mathematics, and History. The Republic also aids the Iberian African Republic in expansion southward.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite the growth. Much like Morocco, the government implements a series of education reforms designed to increase school attendance and promote bilingualism with Iberian. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority European. European migration is lower this year with only 30,000 moving to the colony. There are roughly 3.7 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 525,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The Majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar and salt production and as a stopover for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial garrison is maintained at 1000. Educational reforms spread to the colonies here as well.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber production commences with small returns at first due to the young age of the trees. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa.
    • The Papal States decline to join any multinational organization in order to preserve grounds of neutrality.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The Occupied areas of the Rhineland are formally admitted to the Kingdom of Burgundy this year. In total, nine new provinces are added, and their delegates take their seats in the States-General. The senior senator from Köln province makes his inaugural speech bemoaning the annexation of the West Bank. However, as he made his speech in high German the largely Dutch and Burgundian speaking representatives required a translated copy later, and some of his colleagues from the West Bank who speak one of the native Franconian dialects had difficulty following along, largely robbing the speech of any real impact he might’ve wished for. Most of the Army is withdrawn from the West Bank, though some 70,000 men remain on garrison duty. In light of last years protests, this year was rather mute in comparison as much of the initial outrage faded, and the tumble of German nationalism in the Rhineland and Prussia. Many have a feeling that the dream of a United Germany has become unrealistic, that it’s destined to die in fire and blood, and so opt to work with the Burgundians to make the best out of the situation. In regards to Nova Belgica's request regarding Avelskamp, the proposal is accepted, as Avelskamp had long since become a territory where more money goes in than comes out, which had been the real point of contention whenever the fate of the island had been debated. Last year, the battleship SMS Sint Sigismund was laid down as the first of her class and armed with 14” breech-loading rifled guns, intended as an answer to recent Belkan designs. Also this year, the Navy adopts Prismatic powder as its primary propellant for warship guns. New Friesland expands 50 px along the coast. New Maastricht expands 50 px along the coast. Mane expands 50 px northeast.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. WIth the export of cotton textiles, cotton farming increases and slavery increases in the Swahili heartland. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. The Bayab School continues to spread in Swahili, dominating Southern Swahili now. A flotilla of Swahili ironclads are constructed, the Jabril-class, in both naval arsenals. The Sultan plans a tour of Europe to showcase the country's rapid development.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. The Bayab school gains a large following.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts. The Bayab school gains a large following.
    • United Swazi Emirates: The political organization is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land-grant system continues smoothly. The Bayab school gains a large following.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements. The Bayab school gains a large following in Sefuwa.  
    • Swahili Diplomacy to Britain, Belka, France, Burgundy, Iberia and Italy: The Sultan of Swahili wishes to go on a state visit to the nations next year.
    • French Diplomacy: Sure.
  • Ethiopian Empire: The Army is demobilized and set to an active force of 185,000 once again. Theodore inspects the armed forces and determines that it would've been ready in the case of war. The Navy continues its regular patrols. Scientists in Axum begin to copy the dimensions of Belkan Steam Engines so as to produce a nonworking copy. The modernization continues as more clinics are built - as are schools and libraries. Slavery is officially outlawed although it's been dead for years. Port Theodore continues to grow in size and it keeps the jobs coming, keeping unemployment low.
  • Aztlan Republic: Negotiations of the Nicaragua Canal have stopped due to international backlash of building a second canal in the same region as the Panama Canal. Threats of economic sanctions and declarations of war against Aztlan, Iberia, France, and Brésil resulted in the withdrawal of Aztlan from the plans.
    • Teotihuacan: Details of the restructuring of the Aztlan government were revealed. Term limits for the legislative and executive offices would be six years while there would not be term limits for judiciary officials. The minimum ages to hold a legislative, executive and judiciary office at a national level are 25, 35 and 45, respectively. It is unknown what will happen with the royal family. Additionally, all males over the age of 18 will be eligible to vote so long as they can read Nahuatl or Portuguese and have valid identification. Meanwhile, the Senate received a telegram from the newly-independent Mzerka (from Russia) that declared establishing ties with its neighbors and diplomats from Aztlan were invited to the capital for talks. At the capital, diplomats sent by ruler Tlahtoāni Benito Augusthino de Mérida Diltwa Juarez learned that due to historic and cultural ties, Mzerka proposed a unification with Aztlan. The royal family would have power regardless of how the two would unite. Upon accepting the offer, it was established that there would be a dual monarchy with the Diltwas having less power in Aztlan than Mzerka, mostly existing for ceremonial purposes. Additional details have not been revealed and it is unknown when these changes would take effect.
    • Mzerka does not exist.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: In our second year in the war, we continue to throw troops at Port George, hoping the undermanned and poorly defended port will give in to our surplus of troops and our blockade of the port. Egyptian troops cross the border into Gaza and seize the city along with the entirety of the Gaza Strip for ourselves. We send 100 troops on 50 ships to the Island of Jazirat and successfully make a beachhead on the island (it's owned by Swahili, a British protectorate) (also can I just take the island since it’s probably undefended?) We begin to set British defenses in Port George. Nubar Pasha, a very popular prime minister and staunch Farah loyalist resigns today, as his health weakens and he grows older, forcing parliament to elect a new prime minister. This time, parliament is dominated by a major political party: the Royalist Party, a major conservative faction in the country, and one that has earned the support of Queen Farah. The new prime minister is from this party, and his name is Qatif bin-Nayef. The Royalist Party adheres to a new kind of conservativism: National Conservativism, which basically calls for the populace to support the government’s policies and the government itself. It also fights for conservative education in all schools, and that the schools be more secular, but still not quite stray away from Islamic principles. The Royalist Party also supports a strong Egypt, that is still close with Belka, but also be the main leading force in the Muslim world, and sees Arabia as a threat to these goals. We continue to build up our infrastructure, such as building roads along the Nile, expanding our major population centers (Giza, Alexandria and Alia) and building schools nationwide. The Royal Family continues to fund the research and learning of Islamic sciences. The first lighting system in Egypt is completed today in the Royal Palace (this is only the Royal Palace, not the entire country, and no, I am not going to continue this until I can officially industrialize.) Queen Farah announces in public that the nation will be switching over to Metric Time and that everyone should rework all time-telling devices to accommodate metric time.
  • Brésil: Recife is turned into a major port, in order to host the incoming armies, as well as a railway connecting it to Saint-Denis. 700,000 troops are mobilized to defend the front, and contracts are given to companies for arms development. Theodore states that no more compromises will be accepted, and the nation shall survive.

1882

Great Britain succeeds in defeating the Indian mutinies. In addition, Great Britain decidedly signs the Treaty of London.

Anti-Semitic pogroms continue, extending into Belka and in part, Burgundy and France.

Although initially successful, anti-Islamic persons continue to degrade, and in some cases, kill followers of Islam in China-Korea. These cases of discrimination remain decentralized. However, some groups have begun to sprout up in support for illegalizing Islam.

In Novorossiya, a declaration of independence is made by representatives of the Anglo, German and native populations, with even some radical Russians in support.

  • Kingdom of Egypt: Egyptian Forces continue to occupy Jazirat Island, with many Egyptians settling on the island via a government colonization program. Due to the Treaty of London being signed this year, we officially seize Port George. After seizing the port, the city is renamed to Port Egypt, symbolizing the changing of administration of the port. Egyptian Troops come into the Suez Canal and take the place of the British soldiers who left due to Britain agreeing to demilitarize it, we set up barracks, forts and outposts. The nation seems to have adapted well to metric time, and people have gotten new clocks that are met for metric time. Alexandria and Giza get their own time zones, the reason? Because of work, we better adjust the time so Egyptian men have a better work schedule. Gaza is fully incorporated into Egypt this year, with most Gazans successfully switching over to metric time, and accepting the Egyptian Flag, though some are still confused why Arabia gave up land to Egypt voluntarily. After the war against Britain, we begin to look at Arabia suspiciously, as they dominate the Islamic world, and begin bringing in troops that fought in Port Egypt to the Egyptian-Arabian Border. We send a delegation to Ethiopia offering joint military drills and propose a tech sharing program, where our military engineers and intelligence people meet up and share new discoveries in weapons and other technology (ETHIOPIA RESPONSE NEEDED!!) We Request Belka help us build modernize our navy (FEUD RESPONSE NEEDED!!) We continue to build up our infrastructure, as we build roads along the Nile, new schools, and expand our major population centers such as Alexandria, Giza and Alia. Small fishing villages are set up along the Blue Nile. A small military parade is held in Alexandria celebrating our “victory” against Britain, even though Arabia did most of the fighting, the so called victory is good for morale, nationalism, along with propaganda. A gigantic portrait of Queen Farah is hanged in center of Port Egypt.
    • Emperor Theodore respectfully declines the offer seeing as he is untrustful of the Arabians haveing our shared technology. -Ethiopia
  • Kingdom of Jaffarid Arabia: With the Treaty of London signed by both the British and Russian governments, the conflict for Arab independence from all colonial influence, known as the Arab Spring, has concluded. Now a new era has dawned, colloquially known as the Arab Summer. The Sultan Musa Al-Nu'man, as well as the military commander Hamid Al-Qudds, are hailed as national heroes and fathers of the modern Middle East. During the Arab Summer, the Kingdom of Arabia promotes itself internationally as the hallmark of a strong, stable, independent Arab nation, and champions the path forward for all other Islamic nations in both Asia and Africa. As the military is greatly downsized from the massive volunteers of 1880, the younger generation fills the workforce in the new industrial centers across Mesopotamia and Levant. The growing competition among native corporations, within government regulations, fuels the slow but steady growth of industrialization across the Middle East. Iron and steel are both the largest products thus far, along with agricultural products. However, much of that is domestically consumed for now, primarily in the construction of railroads across the Peninsula. The coastlines of Arabia, along OTL Yemen, Oman, and UAE, are heavily invested in urbanization, primarily as crossroads between various railroad companies. Scholars in the House of Wisdom are greatly intrigued by the concept of electricity, and hopes to find investors in the idea in later years. Egyptian scientists from Alexandria are offered a chance to study modern astronomy from the House of Wisdom, pooling their intellectual resources as once done under the Caliphate. Many more Jewish refugees from European pogroms are invited to the Middle East, where Judaism is much more tolerated under the secularized government. Local private organizations continue to vocally speak out against Anti-Islamic factions in East Asia, and continue to promote knowledge of Islam in the region. The modern constitution of Arabia is complete, which is heavily influenced from the constitution of the Rashidun Caliphate, but severely limits the power of the monarch while transfering legislation to the Shay Al-Nass. Theater and novels regain popularity in the Middle East as they did under the Caliphate, in particular stories of both Al-Ankhabut, Al-Najm the Great, and Captain Arabia, all of which acting as cultural samples of the current atmosphere of austerity. An offer of alliance is extended to Belka, hoping to secure their financial investiments to Middle Eastern corporations in exchange for our political support. [BELKA RESPONSE]
    • As Queen Farah sparks interest in research and development of sciences, she accepts the Arab invitation despite protest from parliament and distrust of the Arab proposal by the prime minister. - Egypt
  • Borealia (formerly Nova Belgica): The Constitution Act is passed, which formally creates a confederation of the various nothern colonies under Burgundian control, including Avelskamp, Nova Belgica, and New Netherland. After some debate the name "Arcadia" is chosen for the new dominion, however, after a clerical error the second place name of "Borealia" is chosen. The city of Sint Jan is chosen as the capital, as it is one of the largest cities that is still roughly centrally located, although New Amsterdam becomes the largest city in terms of population. It is decided that the nation will be divided into provinces, or "states", each electing members to the federal assembly. The states and their capitals are as follows: Bovenstland (New Brunswick) with its capital in Willemstad (Fredericton), Nova Belgica (Nova Scotia) witsh its capital in Sint Jan (Halifax), Karelina (Maine) with its capital in Wilhemina (Augusta), Versland (New Hampshire) with its capital in Lelystad (Portsmouth), Maritiemen (Prinz Rupert, Anticosti, and Madeleine Islands) with its capital in Carlijnstad (Charlottestown), Avelskamp (Newfoundland and Saint Pierre) with its capital in Slagstad (Saint John's), New Jersey with its capital in Bloemfontein (Trenton), New Netherland (New York City to Albany) with its capital in New Amsterdam, Lorentia (Vermont plus northeast New York) with its capital in Volendam (Burlington), and Ontario (west and north New York) with its capital in Medama (Syracuse). The position of Prime Minister is created, with an election taking place in November, and until that date the governor of Nova Belgica, Stephanus Joubert, is appointed acting Prime Minister. Joubert wins the primary for the Liberal Party, narrowly defeating former Attorney General Jan van Buren and former Governor of New Netherland, Pieter Schermerhorn. Meanwhile, the Conservative Party nominates Willem Drees, Mayor of Ramaaker, the Socialists select Hendrikus Linden, and Jan Coevorden leads the Democratic Party. The Socialists solidify themselves as a major party when they manage to win the majority of voters in rural Avelskamp, northwestern Nova Belgican cities, such as Noortwijk and Buren, the major city of Borselen, and much of northern Karelina. The Conservatives carry Ontario and Volendam primarily, while the Liberals carry southern Karelina and Nova Belgica. Coevorden, however, narrowly wins a majority overall, having carries various parts of Bovenstland, Versland (including the major cities of Lelystad and Ameland), New Jersey, and New Netherland (including New Amsterdam), and he becomes the first Prime Minister of the Dominion of Borealia, effective 20 January, 1883. Joubertia (the "n" in the name is dropped after a vote), continues to grow, and similar settlements are established in the Burgundian colony, including Pretoria, founded on the western side of the Cavally River. To further integrate the various new states of the union, several infrastructural projects are planned, including new rail lines into upstate New Netherland, and expansion (or construction) of the Erie Canal. This year also sees an interest in exploration, beginning first with an Arctic voyage by explorer Johannes Veth. Veth makes the first ever confirmed, complete passage through the fabled "Northeast Passage", sailing from Slagstad around Vinland, arriving at port in Russia's northern colony. Meanwhile, an explorer named Willem Schuver launches an expedition to Antarctica, landing in OTL Coats Land. He tentatively claims the coast/continent for the nation, however, turns back before reaching the South Pole. The area roughly from OTL Berkner Island to OTL Enderby Land is named Queen Mary Land after the Burgundian monarch.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: China celebrates the twentieth anniversary of China’s modernization campaign, which has seen a high degree of success due to government support and sociopolitical stability — with the integrity of the Chinese people embodied by the Huifu Emperor. As a result, there is a rise in nationalistic sentiment among the public. The current ruling party (the Populists) and the current Department of State Affairs (the executive body headed by the Prime Minister, akin to the Cabinet) continues to enjoy widespread approval and popularity. China continues to experience rapid state-sponsored industrial development, facilitated by the development of an extensive telegraph and railway network. The construction of railway in particular further promotes the production of machinery, iron, and locomotives. Due to the application of steam power, there is a rapid growth in the textiles and chemicals (synthetic dyes) industry. The Bessemer process diffuses to China (with implementation aided by Belkan engineers) and enables the cheap large-scale production of steel. The commercialization of agriculture continues, with farmers cultivating lucrative cash crops due to a labor surplus. In the absence of Indian competition, Chinese plantations try to flood the international market with high-quality cotton. Due to a decrease in the national income tax (to ~10%) coupled with a general upward trend in living standards, the average Chinese now has more disposable income. This accumulation of personal wealth results in a sizable middle-class and the development of a domestic consumer market. The Ministry of War increases the number of personnel involved within the Office of the Navy. Meanwhile, two torpedo-boats are successfully built and commissioned this year. As a result, the number of ships in service this year is raised to 24: two battleships, two torpedo-boats, and 20 steam-powered corvettes. Construction begins on another set of ships (similarly, relying heavily on Belkan expertise and some imported parts) to be commissioned in 1884; two cruisers (one of which is armored), and two destroyers. The fortification of Busan, Dongying, Shanghai and Guangzhou continues. While there is sporadic border activity, the Amur River remains highly militarized and is fortified with medium trench lines. The arms industry continues to increase rapidly, though production is emphasized on breech-loading rifled artillery (utilizing imported Belkan steel) and rapid-fire guns, as there is a surplus of muzzle-loading rifles and carbines. The first shipment of bolt-action rifles (as part of the three-year contract) arrives from Belka and is given to the troops. The standing army remains at ~600,000 partitioned into four regional divisions to facilitate defense and reaction to localized conflict. Levels of educational attainment continue to see rapid growth. A basic two-year course (to learn necessary skills such as arithmetic, algebra and basic literacy) is aimed at providing education to uneducated adults outside the compulsory schooling range. The Compact of Free Association is offered to Vietnam, citing European encroachment into Southeast Asia (MOD RESPONSE).
    • Vietnam says yes. -Sol
  • Republica Ibérica: There is debate in the Assembly as to the future of Iberian colonial holdings in North Africa and abroad. Many proposals are put forward including the annexation of Morocco, creation of a “Union of the Pillars,” or some sort of commonwealth on the Belkan model. For now these debates remain only political fantasy limited to committees and informal meetings. The birth rate remains stagnant, but sizable growth continues. The population is estimated to be 43.4 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. Because of a lack of imports from the UK internal production grows massively and several union leaders question the wisdom of the EEA. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. The Carbon Arc Welder continues to spread as a tool in ship construction. The 1887 Naval Expansion continues, Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and 36 patrol boats. Work continues on the Andalucia Class battleships and the Madrid Class armored cruisers. The Sandoval Rifleworks continues work on a chemical replacement for traditional gunpowder. The rifleworks considers using phosphorus for propellent, but the experiments are a failure. However, some of the engineers develop an interesting explosive device which uses carbon disulfide evaporation as a fuse.
    • Republica de Morocco: The Republic is given partial administrative control over Algeria to reduce Iberian management costs. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects led to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy. The Moroccan Army which suffered decades of neglect is reformed this year with assistance from Iberian officers. The new command structure mirrors that of Iberia for ease of integration into the Iberian military. Furthermore, the 100,000 troops are to be outfitted with Model 1864 Vento Lever-Action Rifles from surplus stores following the adoption of a more modern rifle.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 3.9 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 700,000 are European. Thanks to Algerian immigration to Morocco the native population falls this year as poor harvests in the south cause migration westward. The native economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: Although rarely a priority for the Iberian Government, the Antillas undergo a reorganization this year designed to promote development. Educational practices spread, and the islands, while still poor, see steady growth in sugar, salt and shipping.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber production commences with small returns at first due to the young age of the trees. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa.
  • Russia: Independence is given to California and Oregon under the rebel leadership.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. WIth the export of cotton textiles, cotton farming increases and slavery increases in the Swahili heartland. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. The Bayab School continues to spread in Swahili, dominating Southern Swahili now. With preparations made, the Sultan departs Swahili, escorted by ten of the nation's most powerful ironclads and bringing with him the finest wares, books, machines, plants and textiles of Swahili on a trip to Europe. Several scholars from the major madrassahs, as well as skilled artisans, artists and chefs also accompanied him. However, as the Sultan left, the BYK faction declares surprise elections for the Bugwe Kubwa, citing the rise in social unrest from religious conflicts and smuggling. By sabotaging several voyages of BNS politicians to Zanzibar, the BYK were able to gain a supermajority, effectively putting them in total legal control of the nation. The BYK then passes two acts aimed at curbing BNS and Southern power, the first being the Act of Heresy, in which the Bayab School is declared a heretical school and not Islamic, effectively banning the Bayab School; the second is the Act of Aristocratic Reform, in which the southern aristocratic landlords are targetted by decreasing the inheritability of aristocratic titles.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. The Bayab school gains a large following.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts. The Bayab school gains a large following.
    • United Swazi Emirates: The political organization is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land-grant system continues smoothly. The Bayab school gains a large following.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements. The Bayab school gains a large following in Sefuwa.  
  • Kalifornien: After our independence we for the first time raise the Californian Flag since our our demise in 1820's. Our first provisional government is from Russo-German Landowners, Industrialists and Religious of all branches of churches. This government also publishes a journal with all rights and basics laws of California. This includes the official governmental font and language laws. The lower governmental body is know as "Nationaler Volks-, Industriellen-, Priester-, Landbesitzer-, Händler- und Intellektuellenrat aller Völker, Sprachgruppen und Gesellschaftsschichten in Kalifornien und der mit Kalifornien verbundenen Hoheitsgebiete" and the higher body is know as"Oberhaus aller autonomen Gemeinschaften Kaliforniens und der kalifornischen Einflussgebiete und befreundeten assoziierten Hoheitsgebieten"(sorry moderators). The first party is also founded "Christliche Volkspartei Kaliforniens/Christian Peoples Party of California/Христианская Народная Партия Калифорнии" the rest of the provisional representatives are independent from any political party. The Upper House also declares that the enemy of the state is monarchy. Even with this, the Upper House invites the Royal House of Diltwa which are in exile in Aztlan to discuss matters of property and more topics to keep the peaceful existence of the new republic and the former Royal House.(Aztlan/Diltwas response). The President also by decree creates the Kalifornisches Heer/Californian Land component. This force, at the moment, mostly exists out of former separatists and even a small number of the general staff from the imperial era but they are very old. This army is mostly based around basic infantry and horsemen which carry smoothbore and the elite some early Needle Rifles. The Upper House also has a competition between its citizens to make a better flag for the new republic so it can be represented better.
  • Belkan Empire: With no major moves being made by Belka's Brésilian allies, the Belkan navy in the Atlantic returns to port near Recife turning it into Belka's main port of operations for the time being. This year the invention of smokeless powder in a small workshop in Sarajevo sees the birth of a competitor to the monopolous Zastava arms. The Sarajevo Arsenal is founded and produces the SV-82 - a Bolt action rifle based around the advent of smokeless powder. It proves to be leagues ahead of the Zastava Needle Rifle and Sarajevo is contracted to produce nearly three million of these rifles with the first order of 300,000 to support 30 divisions to be delivered at the end of the year. The Sarajevo Arsenal is surprised at their success but with so much government contract money are able to expand exponentially, growing from a few retooled factories in Sarajevo to a massive swath of Factories of all types for the arms industry in Sarajevo in a few months. The Home economy recovers fully from its recession and the bubble bursting from the Austrian revolt. The laying down of three new Battleships of its first official class, the Trieste Class which are quick/fast battleships armed to tackle quicker screen ships and outmaneuver heavier Battleships. Belka agrees on the modernization of the Egyptian navy and offers to build for them five cruisers, six destroyers, 15 frigates, and one of the new fast Trieste class Battleships. The Same offer is given to Ethiopia. 'Belka also agress to discuss alliance and friendship terms with the Arabians. As per Belkan terms in the Congress of Belgrad, Belkan explorers in droves begin claiming, making treaties and outright expanding into the unorganized territories in Africa. The Arrival of the Ethiopian Army is met with some trepidation however with their training and a modest amount of their officers being Belkan, the Army is immediately taken as redeployed as a major frontal colonial force. It marches into Kanem as its main base of operations and operates heavily in the hand of Expanding and conquering new territory for the Belkan african empire.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civilians continue to move into working there. Further settlement occurs this year with a wave of 5000 settlers reaching the city of Tunis expanding the settler population. Expansion mirroring Spanish Algiers begins to occur. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures throughout the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction. Other railways are also constructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis which wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. The need for a colonial army becomes apparent - and funded by domestic budget, the Maghrebi colonial army is formed around a force of 50,000 with a large reserve of nearly 300,000 that can be conscripted within a short period. They are trained with older equipment but arsenals of modern guns are kept under control in the Tunis and Algiers Citadel held by the Belkan crown garrisons.
    • Crown Colony of Zaire. Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is explored further as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against them. The exploration up the Congo River continues as does expansion. Zaire's first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the coast expanding the rubber boom further. The Colony of Zaire is allowed a colonial milita force of roughly 30,000 with reserves of 400,000 able to be recruited as the Belkan military garrison begins to follow the same policies as Belkan Maghreb.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment of and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins to explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The region's population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route - which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begins with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west.
    • Iztochna Aziya: The development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the archipelago and for the first time some industrial factories opening near Manila. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as do its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily as well as development of some domestic industries. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further into the colony as some cash cropping is expanded. A more modern census of Burma is convened revealing much higher than initial estimates in population - with the region boasting nearly 12 million people. Seeing the need to more effectively defend the Asian colonies, Belkan forces begin training nearly 150,000 troops out of East Asia with a focus on Burma itself - which fields almost 100,000 of this force. Seeing the need to more effectively defend the colonies as well, various cities are fortified in a modern sense. In Burma its major cities begin to have lines of defense built around them to prevent an easy conquest.
    • Theodore happily agrees. -Ethiopia.
  • Ethiopian Empire: The 200,000 men a mix of veterans and green troops are sent to Belka. The University of Axum and Royal Locomotive Company work toward producing a working team engine. The modernization of the country continues as Ethiopia becomes an African "City on a Hill." The central Plateau becomes more urbanized as do the two major port cities. The Ethiopian Army is drilled to the point as its becomes more self-sufficient on Ethiopian industry. Medicine and education continue to improve within the nation. The stock market and banking expanded the economy.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The union of Nova Belgica and New Netherlands is approved by the States-General. Integration of the West Bank continues. As most of the strikes and protests have died down seeing the fall of nationalism to the east, productivity begins to rise. By this year, enough Rhenish have joined the Royal Army that the “Rhenish Division”, some 20,000 strong, is organized. In East Frisia, the Frisian language is given recognized status. In the other West Bank provinces, Burgundian remains taught in schools, but the native Franconian languages are often taught in conjunction. The battleship SMS Sint Sigismund is launched, the first of what are being called the King-class battleships. Her sister ships, Karel de Grousse, Wëllem de Juist, Henri de Shëffsträcht, Frederik de Staark, and Elisabeth de Eisen, remain under construction. The Verwoester-class, the Woede, and Medway-class are removed from the I Battle Squadron due to their obsolescence, and are reconstituted the IV Battle Squadron of the Royal Navy (the II Battle Squadron is reserved for Nova Belgican battleships, same for the III Battle Squadron with Guyanese). The I Battle Squadron, now composing of the 16” armed SMS Texel (flag), and the 12” armed Ameland, Terschelling, Steinbourg, and Emmen, are sent on a training expedition through the Western Mediterranean, with port of calls in Iberia, France, and Papal Italy. This year the cruiser Vuurbol is launched, a new type of warship, and cheaper than contemporary armored cruisers, and faster (OTL protected cruiser).

1883

The Mapuche finally begin to industrialize following a major developments in their capital and their clear access to highly profitable natural resources.

The arrival of French and Belkan forces, specifically Battlegroup Kraken and its battleships, sparks panic in the capital of Argentine the populace full well knowing any coastal city can be razed by the fleets large guns in an instant. 

Why are the Belkan Kraken in New Vichy if Argentine is not at war with Brésil? -KK

The Independence of Kaliforniya (insert new name here) sees it adopt equal rights, freedom of religion and a Federal structure as it seeks to please all the constituents of the newly born state.

  • Kalifornien: After our independence for the first time we raise the Californian Flag since our demise in 1820's. Our first provisional government is from Russo-German Landowners, Industrialists and Religious of all branches of churches. This government also publishes a journal with all rights and basic laws of California. This includes the official governmental font and language laws. The Federal state governmental body is known as "State parliament of Arcadia" and the Federal Governmental body is know as "Federal Parliament of Arcadia" (sorry moderators). The first party also founded "Christliche Volkspartei Kaliforniens/Christian Peoples Party of California/Христианская Народная Партия Калифорнии". The rest of the provisional representatives are independent from any political party. The Upper House also declares that the enemy of the state is monarchy. Even with this, the Upper House invites the Royal House of Diltwa who are in exile in Aztlan to discuss matters of property and more topics to keep the peaceful existence of the new republic and the former royal house. (Aztlan/Diltwas response). Our President Shimtz Roman Karlovich also with a decree creates the Kalifornisches Heer/Californian Army. This force at the moment mostly exists out of former separatists and even a small amount of general staff from the imperial era but they are at a very old age. This army is mostly based around basic infantry and horsemen which carry smoothbore and the elite some early Needle Rifles. The Upper House also has a competition between its citizens to make a better flag for the new republic so it can be represented better. The political system is based on the idea that each state parliament will have a number of consuls in direct correlation with the federal state population. Each consul will be elected directly from the people by election. Each federal state has the right to tax the people, while the federal government can have small tariffs on foreign goods, tax on luxury items, and tax on interstate commerce. President Smitz also ensures the people that from the moment a treaty defining the border comes into existence that states can be formed and state elections can be started after defining the proportion needed for consuls. President Roman Kalovich also says that all rights of California for citizens and foreigners will be made public in a treaty after a one or two year period. The treaty of Treaty of Lucentum is signed defining the Russo-Californian border and many more issues. It is also decided that from 1st of May wagons and other forms of transport will switch lanes and they will need to drive on the left side of the road. Some Historians and sportmen also create the Azteco-Arcadia Ulama League, which is meant to support to playing of Ulama to promote Arcadian proudness and Aztec friendship.
    • Borealian Diplomacy: Prime Minister Jan Coevorden and the nation's parliament formally recognize the nation of Kalifornien (as far as they know the first to do so) and offer to establish an embassy in their capital, and one of theirs in our capital of Sint Jan.
    • Arcadia Diplomacy: Our Provisional Government sent a small gift of a small metal chipmunk statue to the Borealians to thank them for recognizing us. Our provisional Government says that if the Borealians wants they can have an embassy and a Dutch block in the city of New Constantinople.
    • Sino–Korean Diplomacy: Seeking a market in the New World for its manufactured goods, China–Korea readily recognizes the independence of the Federated States of Arcadia (colloquially known as California or Kaliforniya) from Russia and seeks to establish an embassy in New Constantinople, as well as establish favorable trading agreements and the authorization of Chinese settlement (with the Californian government promising to provide Chinese emigrants access to its social services and guaranteeing them ability to naturalize and acquire citizenship).
    • Arcad Diplomacy: Member of Parliament Frank Eisenberg agrees, in place of the government, for an embassy - but he does note that only basic rights can be ensured and nothing more - for the moment - being due to the administrative burden it would set to guarantee it.
  • Borealia: Prime Minister Jan Coevorden and the nation's parliament formally recognize the nation of Kalifornien (as far as they know the first to do so) and offer to establish an embassy in their capital, and one of theirs in our capital of Sint Jan. The Democratic Party flourishes under Coevorden and his theories of expansion, nicknamed "manifest destiny" are published and spread across the nation. As a result, the earlier settlements in Burgundian West Africa are officially sanctioned by the government. Pretoria is renamed Coevorden after the prime minister, and a settlement named Johannesburg is founded, named for Secretary of State Johannes Verhagen. Unlike the Conservatives, the Democratic Party is extremely lax on immigration, and a new law is passed effectively welcoming anyone to freely enter the country, which is initially unpopular in many of the cities. A party is founded known as the "Arcadian Party", nicknamed the "Know Nothings" for their secrecy, whose ideology includes Arcadian nationalism and nativism. Coevorden's policies also cause friction with neighboring states of Arcadia, particularly New England. A military build up is ordered, including the construction of two more battleships, to be completed in late 1884, and two armored cruisers. A large initiative also begins to combine the armies of the various colonies and create one unified, centralized army for the entire nation. The military hierarchy is restructured, with veteran commanders of the War of the Rhine being tasked with overseeing the overhaul. This year in sports there is a large increase in the number of teams, especially in New Netherland. After a series of disputes the Lakes Cup tournament is nearly postponed. However, new management takes over the tournament and changes its format. From now on the tournament will be held across Versland, with the location changing. Additionally, the number of eligible teams is greatly expanded (the existing teams in Lelystad, Ameland, Havenland, Inhamdorp, Chalon, Icaria, Aalst, Philipsburg, Concord, New Rome, Montbard, Volendam, Rustenburg, Dronten, and Saratoga are included). However, only the top eight teams in this region will be invited to the tournament. In 1883, this is implemented for the first time, with many recently created teams in Lorentia participating. In particular the Yvoir Lorentians and Beringen HC (both small teams near Lake Lorentz) rise in popularity, with the Lorentians even advancing to the tournament. Of the larger teams in the area, Montbard and the Volendam Veerlieden both advance. They are joined by Aalst, Icaria, Ameland, Havenland, and Chalon. In the finals Volendam defeats Aalst to win its first title, and the first ever win for a Lorentian team. In competition for the Stenweide Cup, Volendam is defeated by Koebecstad, but they are defeated by Wilhemina, who wins their fifth title. A second expedition is launched by Willem Schuver to the South Pole. This time he successfully managed to reach the geographic South Pole.
  • Rhineland: The Rhineland aspires to be the greater German nation and decides that the first step is to industrialize and build up a better military. The government institutes the "Great Nation Plan" which states that the nation is to enlist a majority of able-bodied women to begin the industrialization of the nation, as this is the primary focus of the government. It then states that all able-bodied men from the ages of 18 to 35 are to be conscripted to military service for seven years, but all that wish to stay in military service may stay. This is key to building up a military to prepare for a war, the German State can't be caught off guard again. The industry is mostly charged with building rifles, artillery, shells and such other things. The rest of industry is charged with production of steel and synthetic chemicals. Rhineland also recognizes Kaliforniya as a sovereign country. Rhineland also wishes to closen the ties with Prussia and offers to sign the Deutsche Pact which states that each nation will not invade the other and that each nation guarantees the survival of the other if needed. (Need response from Prussia).

Rhineland requests an iron trade with Scandinavia and in return, will export machinery to them. (Need response from Scandinavia in light of past events, the Rhenish people are tired of being walked on and a spark of nationalism lights in the northern Rhineland. Much more is to come for the Rhenish people and for their nation.)

  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. WIth the export of cotton textiles, cotton farming increases and slavery increases in the Swahili heartland. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. The Bayab School continues to spread in Swahili, dominating Southern Swahili now. The Sultan arrives in France, visiting the parliament and presenting many gifts, most notably a giraffe for the Parisian zoo. In Swahili, the BYK government proceeds to brand many BNS politicians and figures as criminals due to their refusal to obey the two Acts and declaration of the election, and thus BYK authority, to be unlawful. As a result, the BNS band together to form a rival government and declare  the BYK government illegal, claiming that they are traitors to the Sultan. The Southern Swahili provinces soon declare rebellion from the Central Government, as well as Huriya, Rowzi, the Swazi Emirates and Sefuwa, declaring their loyalty to the Sofala Government. The southern fleet of Swahili also declares its loyalty, as well as the Sofala army, the Aliwa army and the Malawi Military Academy. As the first act of the majority Bayab government, slavery is outlawed in all territories of the Sofala Government, which faced little resistance due to the original yeomen and military gentry demography. Faced with armed rebellion, the Zanzibar government conscripts tens of thousands of young men to the army. The Southern armies are organized into the Army of Loyalty to Sultan and Love of God and marched northward to liberate the Swahili people from the tyrannical BYK. Hearing the news of the civil war, the Sultan immediately departs. Railroads are temporarily requisitioned and multiple storage warehouses are seized for munitions and weapons. With speed afforded by the use of railroads, the 40,000 strong army arrived near Ibo. The 100,000 strong Northern army, who were marching to crush the rebels, didn't expect their arrival and the Southern army, led by general Duma, ambushed the northern army within a river valley and crushed the outgunned and out trained Northern army, killing and capturing 80,000 men. After destroying the main army of the North and capturing thousands of munitions and guns, the Southern army continues to advance, destroying more northern armies and capturing Dar es Salaam by October with now a 70,000 strong army from reinforcements and Northern armies that swore loyalty to the Sofala government. With the threat of blockade and starvation, the Zanzibar Government moves its centre of governance to Malindi and requests complete support from Somalia, offering to raise Mogadishu back to its historical importance and prestige. At sea, however, the BYK dominates with its merchant fleet, and around 70% of the Swahili navy while the Sofala Government is supported by the few fleets of the Sofala Arsenal and its blockade of Sofala government is already resulting in bullion shortage in the South. However, the companion fleet of the Sultan can change all balance of power once it returns.
    • Huriya: Huriya declares loyalty to the Sofala government and sends an army to support it.
    • Rowzi: Rowzi declares loyalty to the Sofala government and sends an army to support it.
    • United Swazi Emirates: The Swazi Emirates declare loyalty to the Sofala government and send an army to support it.
    • Sefuwa: The colonies of Swahili declare loyalty to the Sofala government and send an army to support it.
    • Arabia offers to grant any supporters of the Sultan haven in our nation
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: Following the launch of Vuurbol, three more protected cruisers of similar design enter service with their sister ship. The protected cruisers, armed with 8" guns and torpedoes, are assigned as a screening force for the battle fleet, to ward off the destroyers some navies have been building. In the West Bank, fortifications are built to secure the region. A strategic defensive line along the Rhine begins construction. The Burgundian language is much more widespread among the lower class since the introduction of universal education, with the exception of the West Bank which as only recently been introduced to it. Queen Mary announces her intention to make a visit to Borealia next year, the first time a crowned Burgundian monarch will be visiting the New World. In other naval news, the armored cruiser SMS Maartinsen is commissioned, the first warship equipped with triple expansion steam engines.
    • Arcad Diplomacy: Frank Eisenberg asks the Burgundine queen Mary if she can make a detour to also visit Arcadia.
    • Burgundian Dip: Queen Mary, excited at the prospect of traveling the trans-continental railroad, agrees.
  • Republica Ibérica: The birth rate remains stagnant, but sizable growth continues. The population is estimated to be 43.95 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. The Carbon Arc Welder continues to spread as a tool in ship construction. The 1887 Naval Expansion continues, Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and 36 patrol boats. Work continues on the Andalucia Class battleships and the Madrid Class armored cruisers. The Sandoval Model 1880 enters large scale production after passing military trials. A breakthrough in the development of a black powder replacement successfully creates a viable powder. With the reliability issues resolved the rifle quickly passed military reviews.
    • Republica de Morocco: The first national census is administered to the Republic, and the population is found to be 7.48 million. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects lead to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy. The Moroccan Army which suffered decades of neglect is reformed this year with assistance from Iberian officers. The new command structure mirrors that of Iberia for ease of integration into the Iberian Military. Furthermore, the 100,000 troops are to be outfitted with Model 1864 Vento Lever-Action Rifles from surplus stores following the adoption of a more modern rifle.
      • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 3.96 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 750,000 are European. Algerian migration to Morocco continues en masse to escape the poverty of interior Algeria. The interior economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of salt and sugar production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber production commences with small returns at first due to the young age of the trees. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Gold and other minerals begin to constitute a major economic section in Senegay, and a rail line is built from Dakar inland toward the mineral deposits. Aluminium production grows this year and port facilities are modernized to facilitate its export.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: With European encroachment into Asia, it is deduced that China–Korea's primary military concern is not domestic security (which has been achieved with the suppression of systematic opposition), but potential European subjugation–fueling fears of colonization and driving desire to achieve military parity with Europe in quality. As a result, the military budget is raised to a third of the national budget, amounting to approximately one-twentieth of China–Korea's total economic output. With the recognition of naval expansion as critical to China–Korea's safety, the Office of the Navy is turned into the Ministry of the Navy (with Secretary Zhang Zhidong becoming a Minister) and is allocated a larger working budget. A legislative bill is unanimously ratified by the Grand Secretariat, planning the construction of 32 additional ironclads (to join the pre-existing four) by 1890. As navies are international hallmarks of power and status, Hua Chinese nationalists hope that naval buildup will grant China–Korea international recognition and deter European attempts to conquer it. With top-tier European powers transitioning to bolt-action rifles, the Needle and muzzle-loading Rifles (being the service and reserve rifles respectively) currently used by the Sino–Korean Imperial Army are becoming increasingly obsolete. As a result, the production of muzzle-loading rifles and their carbine derivatives is halted, due to a surplus. With a need for a standardized firearm, Sino–Korean military engineers launch TJ-83; China–Korea's first domestically-developed service rifle and has a design similar to existing European models. While identical in outward appearance to Needle Rifles, a rubber obturator is installed on its bolt head to provide a more efficient gas-seal (increasing range and accuracy due to stability in flight), while it now fires a centerfire drawn brass metallic cartridge – removing the problem of accumulated residue. While an improvement, it still lacks a magazine-fed mechanism rendering it a single-shot firearm. Due to the success of preliminary tests, a government commences production, with the first batch of units produced by the end of the year. The conversion of factories producing muzzle-loading rifles commences. With an influx of capital from the nationalized Bank of China–Korea plus national funds acquired from taxes, arms production surges: the first batch of bolt-action rifles is produced, as well as carbines (which are remodelled after the new service rifles), rapid-fire guns, and steel rifle-barrelled breech-loaders. Construction on the two cruisers and two destroyers continues, though plans are made to commission eight ships in 1886 (with construction starting next year). A defense-oriented military policy is emphasized. Strategic forts are maintained in Busan, Dongying, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, while the Amur River is consolidated with light fortifications. The second round of major forts are built: in Dunhuang (defending the Gansu Corridor), Tianjin (defending the capital), and Harbin (to prevent a Russian advance into Manchuria). Harbin has a garrison of 100,000 troops, while the other two have 50,000 troops each. In Busan, shore batteries are built, while a lighthouse is built on Yeondo island to complement the one in Daemado island (which monitors boat activity within the Korea strait). The standing army is once again set at ~800,000 troops. Levels of educational attainment continue to see rapid improvement due to compulsory nine-year education. The basic two-year course (offered to uneducated adults outside the compulsory schooling range), once optional, is made mandatory and is lengthened to four years. The increase in basic literacy and numeracy boost human capital, thereby increasing China–Korea's growth potential. There is intensive infrastructural development with the rapid construction of housing complexes and streetcars to accommodate a growing urban population, as well as telegraph and railway. This infrastructural boom has led in the boom in the production of concrete, glass, machinery, and locomotives. Arc lamps are constructed in all public spaces, replacing oil lamps as the primary source of lamp. Meanwhile, sewage systems in major cities is improved. In addition, there is rapid growth in industry: particularly in the production of textiles and synthetic dyes due to the increasing usage of steam power, and most importantly in steel due to the adoption of the Besemmer process (allowing for cheap mass-production). The first commercial steamships are built, and are made to ease movement of people and products along China–Korea's river basins. With the rise in agricultural output (leading to a surplus) due to the usage of ammonia-based fertilizers, the cultivation of cash crops (such as tea, cotton, fibre crops, sugarcane and oilseeds) is encouraged. With this economic and educational boom resulting in the simultaneous rise of a middle-class and living standards, high-end shopping arcades are built. Cosmetic products and dermatological clinics also gain widespread appeal. Meanwhile, a small records industry is established. The adoption of Western attire by government officials is enforced. However, common attire is also modernized. Clothing based on robes and long jackets and with extraneous articles of clothing are discouraged. Simplified versions of the qipao (known as the cheongsam) and the magua (known as the tangzhuang) are promoted, with tangzhuang having two varieties corresponding to the two sexes. However, changshan and traditional qipao remain in use for formal occasions. There is a national prohibition in the public usage of opiates while other measures are enacted to discourage its usage, such as hefty taxes and regulations on its production. However, this just spurs a sudden increase in the usage of cigarettes.
    • Tibet (associated state): Lhasa, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. The Tibetan clergy continue to administer the country, rendering Tibet a de facto theocratic oligarchy, and a de jure limited democracy. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. A garrison of two Sino–Korean divisions is stationed there. One brigade (~5000 troops) comprising of natives is established, armed with muzzle-loading rifles.
    • Dzungaria (associated state): Ghulja, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. To ease administration, the Dzungar government encouraged ranching instead of a semi-nomadic pastorialist lifestyle. Dzungars continue to cultivate larger quantities of wheat and maize as both a staple grain and food for livestock. The local Sino–Korean garrison stationed there is at five divisions. The Dzungarian Gate is fortified with a fort and heavy trench lines. Two divisions comprised of natives are established, armed with muzzle-loaders.
    • Altishahria (associated state): Urumqi, inhabited by ~50,000 residents, continues to see infrastructural development, with various civic buildings built in the capital. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there. Irrigation systems are established around oases. Cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears and walnuts - particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan raisins. Two divisions comprised of natives are established, armed with muzzle-loading rifles.
  • Kingdom of Arabia: The nation continues to flourish and grow after the end of the Arab Spring. Industrialization continues to expand, expecting to be complete by 1886. Steel and iron production from Iran becomes increasingly in demand, but is entirely consumed domestically. This domestic use of resources are funneled to the expansion of modern architecture in city layouts, as well as completing railroads across the entire Middle East. Industrial companies find a significant niche in exports, focusing on the production of cash crops such as wheat, fruit, nuts, and beef. The military is expanded and reorganized, fully commissioning the necessary bureaucracy for the use of full military mobilization in the event of conflict. Each major city now has a significant counterpart, a "newer" version of the city which was entirely built during the industrial era. Urbanization continues over the gulf region, utilizing railroads as encouraging local businesses at juctions. Local governments begin to ban tribal customs in the gulf region, such as hiearchy by Sheikhdoms. Theater continues to make its revival in this new era, as do superhero novels about Captain Arabia. We offer to revive basic trade relations with China, as it was in the days of the Rashidun. [CHINA Response] We also proceed with the original intention to sign a treaty with Belka. [BELKA Response]
    • China–Korea agrees.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Queen Farah surprises parliament and excites the nation with the announcement of snap elections, as she wishes for a new constitution to be signed, and a whole new diverse government to kickstart a new era of democracy in Egypt. The snap elections come with the Royalist Party winning only 20.5% of seats in parliament, the opposition National Party winning 40.1% of seats and the rest going to a wide array of smaller parties who were able to squeeze together enough popularity to gain a few seats in parliament. We continue to build up our infrastructure, with new schools being built every day, along with new buildings, we also expand our major population centers such as Giza, Alexandria and Alia. We continue to fund research and spread of Islamic sciences. We continue building roads along the Nile. Fishing villages are built along the Blue Nile. Forts are built in the Gaza Strip. With Belka helping us modernize our navy, we begin naval drills in the Mediterranean in order for our sailors to understand how to use the new modern warships.
  • Kingdom of East Germany: As the economy remains in a state of chaos, monopolies by Jewish corporations begin to be created and many go into debt after being incapable of paying back loans while the Treasury becomes privatized under the Rodsteins. This stirs further Jewish resentment. Alphonse continues his rallies and regularly does it in his military uniform and now gaining leadership of the National German Party, it's rebranded into the National German Union of Fascists Party. The movement spreads to the Rhineland late this year with an established headquarters being made in Stuttgart. In the meantime, Alphonse continues to gather massive crowds of people due to his great leadership and charisma. He criticizes the Jewish establishment and sees the establishment as a force of evil. The Liberal Party collapses under immense pressure leading to the formation of the Marsanist Party and the Progressive-Conservative Party. Prostitution grows and peep shows are even seen as a common sight in worst parts of urban areas. Christians feel as of this is an attack on their faith and heavy criticism is put on it with the burning of the Weltz Theater. The king dies and with a new leader comes challenges being faced. The Bundestag sees another election on the way with the GUF becoming ever so big, it's predicted that they would take the majority of seats especially due to the collapse of the liberals. Soup kitchens, once disliked, are now supported as the poor struggle to cover expenses for basic items like bread. Employment begins to tick back up although flaws within the government remain. The government focuses on re-supplying the military and a GUF program forms the Veterans Work Initiative with veterans having and being employed by the government to work in training and production for the armed forces. Unemployment drops from 18% to 15%. Women who had been widowed have no choice but to work to provide for their children causing an expansion of an employee base for ever expanding textile mills. The German Navy, to save money, decommissions old ships that have become outdated. Angola expands by 34 px after some jungle exploration and pathways being mapped out. The region seems to be somewhat prosperous. Chemical production is seen as an alternative work field for the educated as it gives a chance for others to work on new breakthroughs within chemistry. Diplomatic policies continue to be working well with our German counterpart after our loss but promises for a better German people are founded and unified military exercises continue on. 12,000 join the military giving it a total of over one million men. What is to be expected remains unknown but a turnaround seems to be around the corner for the Germans.
  • Belkan Empire: Under full assumption the war between Argentine and Brésil, the Belkan Task Force Kraken withdrawing its troops and the 100,000 man task force from Brésil. With the signing of a defensive pact with Arabia, Belka now officially declares its position in the Eastern Mediterranean Secure and begins heavily investing into its naval forces fully hoping to expand its naval forces from its clear cut 110 ships to nearly 250 ships. It begins heavily investing in its battleships with hoping to come up with the next big advancement in battleship technology. The development of the new bolt-action rifle based on smokeless powder continues to heavily outclass the older rifles. Newer artillery continues to do the same. The opening of Arabian markets begins to transform Belka much more into a major trading and naval power based state. Colonies continue as usual.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civilians continue to move into working there. Further settlement occurs this year with a wave of 5000 settlers reaching the city of Tunis expanding the settler population. Expansion mirroring Spanish Algiers begins to occur. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures throughout the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction. Other railways are also constructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis which wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. The need for a colonial army becomes apparent - and funded by domestic budget, the Maghrebi colonial army is formed around a force of 50,000 with a large reserve of nearly 300,000 that can be conscripted within a short period. They are trained with older equipment but arsenals of modern guns are kept under control in the Tunis and Algiers Citadel held by the Belkan crown garrisons.
    • Crown Colony of Zaire. Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is explored further as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against them. The exploration up the Congo River continues as does expansion. Zaire's first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the coast expanding the rubber boom further. The Colony of Zaire is allowed a colonial milita force of roughly 30,000 with reserves of 400,000 able to be recruited as the Belkan military garrison begins to follow the same policies as Belkan Maghreb.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyle. Exploration along the interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment of and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins to explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The region's population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route - which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begins with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west.
    • Iztochna Aziya: The development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the archipelago and for the first time some industrial factories opening near Manila. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as do its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily as well as development of some domestic industries. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further in the colony as some cash cropping is expanded. A more modern census of Burma is convened revealing much higher than initial estimates in population - with the region boasting nearly 12 million people. Seeing the need to more effectively defend the Asian colonies, Belkan forces begin training nearly 150,000 troops out of East Asia with a focus on Burma itself - which fields almost 100,000 of this force. Seeing the need to more effectively defend the colonies as well, various cities are fortified in a modern sense. In Burma, its major cities begin to have lines of defense built around them to prevent an easy conquest.
  • Ethiopian Empire: Theo continues his good rule by going on tour around the nation. The Belkan Indian Ocean fleet is offered to move to Port Theodore. The first steam engine is almost complete with a few tweaks needed. The armed forces continue to modernize as do other parts of the nation and its economy. More government companies are opened to further stimulate the economy. The farms get more efficient and more people move to cities to clean up their image. More factories are built around the nation. With the commissioning of a new fleet the older ironclad frigates are studied intensively until they are sold for scrap.
  • Texas: President Frank W Johnson of the Democratic party wins the elections with Midterm elections expected in two years. The army is reorganized, to be modeled on the Arcadian military administration. The sizable Texan militias left over from the war of independence are reorganized into the "National Guard of Texas." The Comanche-Pueblos, consisting of 23% of the population, mostly support the Republicans. The cavalry force is mostly consisting of Comanche Pueblo warriors. Comancheria is renamed Waco and made capital of the Comanche region. The Comanche-Pueblos begin to discard Portuguese and local dialects in favor of English. Meanwhile, the philosophical idea of a United Arcadia is formed, known as "Pan-Arcadianism." Diplomacy to Arcadia, Borelia and Nova Belgica: We invite you to our first annual Pan-Arcadian Congress. (Player Responses). The economy is mostly agriculture based, with the Democratic Party representing that faction of conservative anglo farmers. However, industrialists are avid Republican Party supporters which has also reached out to the Comanche population. An elite force is created, known as "Texas Rangers."
    • Arcadian Diplomacy: Our Minister of Foreign Affairs openly accepts the idea of a Pan-Arcadian Congress and he even suggests hosting it in New Constantinople or New Mzer.
    • Borealian Diplomacy: (Nova Belgica and Borealia are the same nation) We accept the offer to attend the Pan-Arcadian Congress, and additionally, we request an alliance between Borealia and Texas.
    • Texas Dip: Offers are gratefully accepted.
    • Iberian Diplomacy: We wish to reaffirm our friendship with Texas and offer to aid it in accessing coal reserves so that it may begin to industrialize.

1884

Mt. Krakatoa erupts causing shockwaves across the region and causing an unknown amount of death in the region.

Queen Farah in Egypt is killed during a public appearance by a member of a previously unknown Marsanist group referring to themselves as "Communists"

The Trans-Isthmus Canal in Panama is finally completed officially opening a shorter shipping lane between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

As a result of independence and guarantee of free rights, an immigration wave from Europe reaches Kalifornien.

  • Texas: Iberia's offer for assistance with industrialization is taken. To prepare for modernization, textile production is nationalized, that notion supported by the Republican Party. To keep the Democrats happy, the life of the farmer remains mostly unchanged for now. Views of the Aztecs is generally negative. However, attempts are made to repair relations. Frank W Johnson fears Deseret, and the military stations 1000 "Texan Rifleman", 250, "Comanche Raiders" and 50 "Texan Rangers" near the border. The military adopts lever-action rifles, preferring such "cowboyish" rifles to the more conventional bolt-action rifles. The military cannot afford military uniforms for all men, many dying their own clothes, but the general consensus is gray uniforms. (similar to OTL CSA). The Comanche Raider units wear buckskin. It's time for the first Pan-Arcadian Congress. All Arcadian nations, let's vote for the place it will be held! (Responses, please.)
    • Iberian Diplomacy: Iberia offers to sell 100,000 Model 1864 Vento Lever-Action Rifles and as many uniforms as they may need to supplement internal production.
    • Texas agrees.
    • Borealian Diplomacy: Although Borealia is interested in hosting the congress, we propose that Texas host it, as they are the ones who conceived the congress, and because of their central location.
    • Arcadian Diplomacy:Our diplomats openly tell they prefer new Mzer as it was the oldest city of Mzerkans - one of the oldest Arcadian cities.
    • Texas agrees, seeing Mzer as a very important city in Arcadian history.
    • New Mzer isn't one of the oldest cities in Arcadia, if you mean the continent. Not sure about New Mzer but old Mzer was founded in 1666. Compare that to Kappelsbuerg in 1561, Bilzen in 1532, New Amsterdam in 1547, the Nova Belgican cities in 1584, etc.
    • Arcadian Diplomacy: Our Minister agrees with the Borealians in this case.
  • Borealia: In sports, the Second Burgundian Games are held, this time in the capital of Sint Jan. Queen Mary's arrival in the nation is met with enormous fanfare, and the queen is welcomed to officially open the newly constructed Queen Mary's Coliseum, and also to officially open this year's games. This year marks the beginning of "all star" teams in the tournament, meaning teams assembled from multiple other teams, marking the first year a team is created from across the nation in hockey, rugby and football. As a result Borealia manages to win in many major events, followed by Burgundy and Kuba. Additionally, Guyana unexpectedly wins several medals, having found a niche with football, redeeming their lackluster performance in the 1880 games. After the success of the games the International Olympic Committee, founded in 1879 to plan a future worldwide event, decides to sponsor the creation of an Arcadian-wide games, as a first step toward a larger event. It is decided that representatives from the committee will submit a proposal to the newly created Pan-Arcadian Congress, proposing that a tournament be held in Borealia in 1886 at the earliest. Meanwhile in government, Prime Minister Jan Coevorden, the self credited inventor of the Pan-Arcadian movement, gladly supports the Texan initiative for greater cooperation with other Arcadian nations. He also meets with Queen Mary, securing the blessing of the Burgundian government in regards to his foreign policy plans. Veteran commander of the Rhenish War and the Vinland Crisis, Jan de Brouckère, is appointed head of the military, overseeing the military buildup previously ordered by the prime minister. A number of extensive new fortifications are constructed, or created from previously existing ones, including a military base near Lelystad, one south of Icaria along the Merrimack River and one south of Aalst along the Vers River. The century's old fort at Saratoga is replaced by a more modern fortification east of the city, and is accompanied by two other bases, one east of Lyndenburg and another near Wittevlakten. Finally, two new forts are ordered near Dronten and Niagara, guarding the north of the nation. The standing army is increased to 130,000, while another 500,000 men enter the reserves after new conscription laws are passed. As part of the modernization the nation begins mass producing firearms to replace older models and equip its army. The General Staff is expanded, with peacetime subdivisions being created, specializing in mobilization, geographic and statistical analysis, and military history and study. The nation's commanders are also ordered to participate in war games testing a new model. Generals are to delegate their forces into small, mobile armies, which will pin down enemies so that additional groups can arrive and encircle the enemy (OTL Kesselschlacht). Additionally, the first Burgundian-made machine guns are incorporated into the armed forces. A new prototype is also created (similar to the OTL Maxim gun) based on these old designs, which will begin production within the next year. The two previously ordered battleships for the Burgundian fleet are completed, named Evertsen and Kortenaer. The nation next turns its attention toward the construction of support ships and cruisers. By this year most of the nation is heavily connected with railroads, becoming one of the most densely connected states in the west, if not the world, in terms of railroads per capita. In particular, new high speed rails are ordered in Versland, which will connect the major cities directly to the lines with New England, as well as new lines running north to south from Volendam to New Amsterdam, and west to east from Niagara to Saratoga. The second transcontinental railroad, this time running through Avalon to northern Arcadia/Russian Arcadia, is completed. With new diplomatic ties being created with Texas the nation's capitalists begin planning new routes to Texas, or partner with Texan authorities to propose lines within their nation. Railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt makes a proposal to the Texan government directly, asking for land and some financial support from the government, and his company will construct a railroad connecting Texas' major cities. The Confederation Bridge also continues construction, and is expected to be completed in 1886. The next election of the prime minister takes place at the end of the year, with Willem Bylandt representing the Democratic Party. He is opposed by Gijsbert Mollerus of the conservatives, former Lieutenant Governor Lambert Servais of the liberals, socialist Hendrikus Linden, and Antonie Siegen of the Know Nothings. Additionally, a new party is founded, the Populist Party, which advocates for populism, agrarianism and bimetallism, but does not attract a major following. Ultimately, Mollerus wins the election after narrowly defeating Bylandt.
  • Republica Ibérica: The birth rate remains stagnant, but sizable growth continues. The population is estimated to be 44.5 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. The Carbon Arc Welder continues to spread as a tool in ship construction. The 1887 Naval Expansion continues, Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and 36 patrol boats. Work continues on the Andalucia Class battleships and the Madrid Class armored cruisers. Production of the Sandoval Model 1880 is accelerated to re-equip the armed forces.
    • Republica de Morocco: The first national census is administered to the Republic, and the population is found to be 7.63 million. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects lead to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy. The Moroccan Army which suffered decades of neglect continues its reform with assistance from Iberian officers. The new command structure mirrors that of Iberia for ease of integration into the Iberian military. With the introduction of the Sandoval Model 1880, the Moroccan army is outfitted with Model 1864 Vento Lever-Action Rifles from Iberian surplus.
      • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 4.16 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 850,000 are European. Algerian migration to Morocco continues en masse to escape the poverty of interior Algeria.. The interior economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem, there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of salt and sugar production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice and rubber production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Gold and other minerals begin to constitute a major economic section in Senegay, and a rail line is built from Dakar inland toward the mineral deposits. Aluminium production grows this year and port facilities are modernized to facilitate its export.
  • FS of Arcadia: President Smitz also creates the Ministry of Industry to try to get more industrialisation. This ministry will be led by Geronimo Moore. There will be no taxation and few safety laws for them to get more industry near them - mostly heavy industry like metal working, construction, fabric production and also the beginning of big construction works like building bridges from the New Constantinople area to make it more accessible. There has also been the founding of two parties: the Federalists and the Republicans who want bigger state power while the Federalists want power to the central state. The parties both have quite big support from the people since they are quite as moderate for everyone's party. With new immigration wave the immigrants get welcomed and they get free land if they settle in the Küstenland Federal state since it is quite sparsely populated compared to other states. Also, now with help of adminstrators and local politicians all federal land has become part of a state. The states being: Lucentium, California, Küstenland, Bergsorbien, Saliya and Saskatchewan. With Lucentium being the industrial heart of the nation and with it also having many late Mzerkan buildings. Many new ministers are also apointed for Post service, Defense, transportation and the treasury - although the post service will go to the state level when technology and administative efficiency improve.
  • Rhineland: The Rhineland, an effect due to Prussia, has seen a rise in nationalism in corporate leaders and powerful money holders and an ideology called Greater Statism (Anarcho Syndicalism IRL) in factory workers and local business owners. The Rhenish people begin siding with either and they quickly realize they will not work together. They begin fights in the streets, the police too weak to do anything. On a lighter note, industry is rising in power, the military is getting larger and the economy slowly rises. Although divided, the nation is rising in numbers, but still the Rhenish government is now in disarray. The president has retreated to his mountain retreat in Southern Rhineland and things are starting to get ugly. Change is coming, whether it be Greater German Statism or the National German Militarists. In other news, Rhineland has lined their Burgundian border with counts of military men and their new found artillery and have also lessened border control with the Prussians and tightened border restrictions with Austria, Bohemia and Burgundy. Factories have begun strikes and are smuggling guns, corporate leaders are stealing from banks and hiring men in government positions to steal them info. Times are not good.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: The nation is in utter shock after Queen Farah’s assasination! The nation weeps over the loss of innocent Queen Farah. A succession crisis begins after the assassination, as Farah never married nor had any children, so a council of nobles is formed that decides to elect General Abd al-Taraki as Regent of Egypt. Immediately he orders a manhunt of the perpetrators of the assassination. Taraki postpones the drafting of a new constitution of Egypt, and orders parliament to form a coalition to help stabilize the nation after the loss of a beloved monarch, which they quickly agree, though not expecting this. Taraki proposed to parliament a ban on Marsanism, which they agree. Taraki makes a speech to the nation, vowing to punish those that killed Queen Farah. A funeral is held for Queen Farah, becoming the most expensive funeral in Egyptian history, which Taraki attends. Taraki’s reaction to Queen Farah’s death is well received by Egyptians, and his approval rates soar. General Abd al-Taraki announces a red scare campaign against Marsanism, and mass arrests of suspected Marsanists begin. This is also supported by many Egyptians. Taraki postpones the Rugby Commonwealth Championship that is supposed to take place in Alexandria this year to next year due to the recent tragedy and state of shock of the Egyptian nation.
    • Texan OCC: Calm down there, Satan...
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. WIth the export of cotton textiles, cotton farming increases and slavery increases in the Swahili heartland. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. The BNS government captures Zanzibar following BYK retreat. Meanwhile, the Sultan returns and lands at Mogadishu, where the province of Somalia declares loyalty to the Sultan and the Sultan only. With the return of the Sultan, multiple BYK and BNS ironclads defect to the Sultan. The BNS and BYK immediately seek to gain the favors of the Sultan, with the BNS request being accepted as the Sultan wishes to dislodge trader and foreign influences from the Capital District. The Sultan returns to Zanzibar and the BNS redeclares loyalty to the Sultan. Zayabism is legalized again and the various acts of the BYK government are declared null and void. The Royal Army of Somalia, raised and controlled directly by the Sultan, joins up with the Army of LSLG and General Duma to begin a siege on Malindi. After a short siege of two weeks, supported by siege mortars and naval bombardment, Malindi falls and the BYK leaders flee Malindi through a trading ship, arriving in Mahajanga on the island of Qamar. There, they declared the Republic of Qamar and modeled their government to that of Borealia. However, the Southern forces continued their pursuit, and the Republican fleet, now majority composing of conscripted wooden trade ships, were wrecked by the ironclad force of Swahili. 20,000 Sultanate forces later landed on Mahajanga and, supported by Qamarese loyalists, captured the Republican capital of Antananarivo and accepted its surrender on May 26th, a mere three months after its establishment. BYK leaders are persecuted and many of their trade companies are liquidated by the Sultan. In total, over 70,000 men died in the conflict, and another 50,000 wounded, despite the short war. The high casualty and lack of civilian death, as contrasted with the first Swahili civil war, is attributed to the advances in weaponry and formalised conduct in war. A Convention is held in Zanzibar to discuss political, economic, social and military reforms, which are deemed necessary to prevent another civil war. Meanwhile, in BNS/Zayabist controlled provinces, that is Huriya, Rowzi, and all provinces South of Zanzibar, slavery is abolished.
    • Huriya: Huriya declares loyalty to the Sultan and sends an army to support it.
    • Rowzi: Rowzi declares loyalty to the Sultan and sends an army to support it.
    • United Swazi Emirates: The Swazi Emirates declare loyalty to the Sultan and send an army to support it.
    • Sefuwa: The colonies of Swahili declare loyalty to the Sofala government and send an army to support it.
  • Russia: Having recently lost our colonial possessions in California and Oregon, we set our sights on consolidating our remaining possessions in the Pacific. Our remaining troops in North America withdraw to garrisons on the northern bank of the OTL Columbia River, while Russian loyalists fleeing California and Oregon are encouraged to either resettle in Alyeska or buy land in Hawaii. The latter is part of new efforts to extend Russian influence in Hawaii. Other current efforts remain focused on exercising soft power over the kingdom: We request Hawaii to open a Russian consulate in Honolulu (MOD RESPONSE REQUIRED), while the Russian Hawaiian Islands Company is established later in the year in order to "protect Russian interests in the Hawaiian Islands." The company's ventures are subsidized by the Russian government.
    • Russian Hawaiian Islands Company: After the Company's establishment this year, the company begins purchasing land in Hawaii, potentially to be sold to Russian settlers. Meanwhile, in order to turn a profit, the company begins subsuming Russo-Hawaiian trade.
    • Russia OOC: How much of Novorossiya does the empire still hold? Are Russia's losses limited to OTL California and Oregon, or has all of North America been lost? ~Orange
    • Arcadia OOC: You hold all of the land above the US-Canadian border minus Vancouver Island - Tullin
    • Arcadian Diplomacy: Our parliament makes it clear that Russian loyalists should not fear anything in our lands as they aren't seen as a threat.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: The rise in literacy and a stable middle-class, and the influx of youths educated in European universities has led to a revival in intellectual activity, encouraged by some guaranteed civil liberties (tied with the adoption of the Napoleonic Code) and the abolition of literary inquisition. In particular, there is a revival in Confucian heterodoxy, influenced by the seventeenth century shixue sect as well as incorporating elements of European humanism and rationalism. Due to a greater interest in foreign cultures and historical backgrounds, French and Belkan (the world's diplomatic and financial lingua francas, respectively) begin to be taught as second languages in many higher-level institutions. Conversely, to arouse interest in Chinese culture, the Ministry of Culture plans to host a cultural exhibition in 1890, purchasing land and hiring private contractors to construct a palatial complex (and associated buildings) in Nanjing. Meanwhile, to ease the administration of China–Korea's vast territory, the Grand Secretariat allows the devolution of provincial governments and management in domestic affairs. However, since it still holds the right to dissolve or create provinces, the structure of national subdivisions remains unitary - albeit more decentralized. This also alleviates excess administrative costs, reducing strain on the National Treasury. Amidst national enthusiasm, four new ships are commissioned, solidifying China–Korea as one of Asia's top naval powers. A second batch of ships (consisting of eight vessels) commence construction in the Dalyeon shipyard, consisting of two cruisers, two destroyers, and four frigates. With the manufacture of the second batch of TJ-83s, the entirety of the standing army is now armed with breech-loading rifles (either bolt-action/Needle Rifles). The muzzle-loading rifle is fully designated as a reserve rifle, but are to be scrapped in 1890. Arms production grows rapidly, with bolt-action rifles and carbines, rapid-fire guns, and steel rifle-barrelled breech-loaders, being domestically-produced. Shore batteries are built in Dongying, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Tianjin, alongside pre-existing fortifications. The production of steel, textiles and synthetic dyes continue to experience a boom due to both internal and external consumer demand. In addition, infrastructural development (such as the construction of railway and telegraph lines) has stimulated the production of heavy machinery, locomotives, cement, and glass. Levels of educational attainment continue to see rapid improvement, with investment poured into the research of new technologies in imperial universities. The rise of a nascent middle-class has provided strong domestic demand for goods, and as a result high-end shopping arcades and indoor markets are built to provide a market in which goods are purchased/sold. Other luxury services grow in popularity, particularly dermatological and health clinics and the purchase of their associated products. There is a growth in cigarette usage, though the government remains focused on regulating the consumption of opiates, with ads in the media discouraging it. The government of China–Korea seeks to purchase 18 ships (consisting of ten frigates, four destroyers, three cruisers, and one battleship) from Belka, as a display of commitment to the Beijing–Belgrad Co-Operation Treaty (BELKA RESPONSE).
    • Belkan Dip: We agree
  • Belkan Empire: The Empire, following the return of Battlegroup Kraken, disbands it and begins re-establishing its normal patrol routes across the Eastern Mediterranean with little to no issues. The influx of Belkan troops and investment into Cyprus effectively begins to undermine the nation's status as an independent state and an increasingly pro-Belka faction voting for the island nation's integration into the Belkan Empire proper sees an upswing. The massive economic benefit of doing this is one of the primary reasons for the movement. While continuing to update and arm itself with its new weapons, the full integration of hand crank multi-fire guns as well as research into more rapid fire weapons occurs. The development of naval technology continues with a heavy focus on battleship design. Expansion via Belka's declarations in the Congress of Belgrad continue specifically in Kanem as Maghreb and Kanem expand heavily into surrounding unclaimed hinterlands.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The eruption of Krakatoa brings a devastating amount of damage to the Sunda Strait. A tsunami is caused as a result, destroying many coastal villages in the area. The three-turret ironclad monitor SMS Bourgogne and two other monitors which had been with it, were docked in the port of Merak at the time the tsunami stuck, swamping the three of them and damaging them beyond repair. They are ultimately towed out to sea and sunk. The colonial governments in Sumatra and Java dedicate themselves to relief efforts in the area. In Europe the shock wave from the eruption is detected, and an increase in the wave recorders is attributed to the tsunami reaching Europe. Integration of the West Bank continues, with separatists having largely quieted as Burgundy as worked to improve the region, raising the quality of life for them and their children. On the Rhine, construction of new fortifications (strategic defensive line) is commenced, with a focus on anti-watercraft and counter-battery fire. Railroads are improved between key locations, to be used to quickly move troops from one are to another as needed. In naval news, a new class of protected cruisers, armed with 10” rifles, are laid down. The 14” armed battleship SMS Sint Sigismund is commissioned, the first Burgundian battleship with rifled breech-loading guns larger than 12”, though the last ship of the class, SMS Elisabeth de Eisen, is to be modified to carry 16” guns.

1885

The first telephone companies begin being incorporated around Europe as well as with one opening in New England - and Brésil as well.

The first rabies vaccine is tested successfully.

After a political scandal, the pope sees a push toward responsible government and the consolidation of Italy proper, signs away some of his executive power to a budding federal government by way of the Parlamento. This is met with shock but mass appeal as the pope says "I am a religious leader, not one to play with the lives of millions on the grand stage of politics." This is a natural outcome of the decreased power of the pope across the world in areas other than religion.

Russian industrialization is officially recognized to be producing a huge population surplus as its growth effectively becomes the largest in Europe with many people settling Siberia - specifically near Tyumen, Omsk and Novosibirsk. As a result of its central location in Russia, Moscow once again begins to showcase its importance.

Poland, having engaged in huge isolationism since the great war and its rebellion from Russia, sees its legitimate government toppled as its inability to rectify glaring issues with the economy leads to the adoption of Syndicalism. Its leader, Joseph Wladislaski immediately closes all of Poland's borders and the nation's only outside diplomatic connections are to syndicalist, Marsanist and communists all over Europe.

There is a strong backlash to the cult of personality of the late Queen Farah and more generally those of all deceased monarchs. Clerics compare it to the deification of the Roman emperors and denounce the pagan practices as violations of shirk.

  • Kingdom of Egypt: The backlash against the cult of personality is realized by Regent Taraki, who agrees with the clerics and Egyptian people, and announces the taking down of portraits of Queen Farah, and to take down some statues of her that clutter the cities of Egypt. Regent Taraki, who is revealed to be a strong nationalist, announces new economic plans, and announces his intentions to diversify Egypt’s trading partners. We send diplomats and businessmen to France, Iberia and Burgundy, offering the signing of various trade deals, such as Egypt giving some of its cotton (long and staple) to these countries, in exchange for any left over, but still up-to-date weapons, along with any warships (PLAYER RESPONSE NEEDED!!). We begin to grow new kinds of cash crops along the Nile, such as papyrus, henna and flax, along with tobacco, and offer to trade these valuable plants with Belka, so long as they pay a good price for them (FEUD RESPONSE NEEDED!!) The Murderers of the late Queen Farah are caught trying to sneak across the Egypt-Ethiopian border, and are detained, put on trial, found guilty, and are given the death penalty. Marsanism continues to be purged from government and from Egypt as a whole. Taraki orders the fortification of formerly British held territory in the Suez, due to the British having to completely demilitarize from the canal, the same is done with Alexandria, with most naval activity taking place in and around Alexandria. The Blue Nile is fertilized, in order to expand the farms down south. With the money we make from selling cotton to Belka, we buy up modern weaponry such as Needle Rifles, along with stuff to outfit our wooden warships with, plus we purchase modern steam-powered warships. We continue to expand our major population centers such as Alexandria, Giza and Alia. Funding for research and development of Islamic sciences continues. New schools are built and supplies all across the nation. The Museum of Modern Islamic Art opens today in Giza, the first since the War of Succession, and puts on display the masterpieces and hobbies of Muslim artists all around the world, including those native to Egypt. A young musician named “Sayed Darwish”, appears in 1885 Egypt via a time portal wakes up one morning with a certain tune. After much trial and error, he finally creates a song from it; he names the song “Bilady”, after the fact the song is about the fatherland (Egypt), and bilady is sung prominently throughout the song. Two Egyptian exiles in London, victims of the Marsanist Purge, found an ideology together. These two individuals are named “Mummar Gaddafi” and “Gamal Nasser”, and the ideology they create is known as “Rafahiaism”. Rafahiaism is a combination of the Gaddafi and Nasser’s beliefs. Rafahiaism comes from the Arab word “Rafahia” which means “well-being” in Arabic, which fits the ideology well. (If you want to know how Rafahiaism is truly different from Marsanism, it’s basically a combination of OTL Gaddafi’s Third International Theory and OTL Nasser’s Ideas)
    • Iberian Diplomacy: After several days of badgering, the Egyptian diplomats are allowed to discuss an export license for the Model 1864 Vento Lever-Action Rifle. Under the proposed terms Iberia will sell the rifles for a protected percent of Egyptian cotton production.
    • We thank Iberia.
  • Vinland: After heavy debate with the Minister of Infrastructure, Prime Minister Anton Gustavsson declares that roads will be built along with some schools.
    • Borealian Diplomacy: We offer the Vinlanders a formal alliance, and will also propose to the other members that Vinland be admitted to the Pan-Arcadian Congress.
    • Vinnish Diplomacy: We accept The Borelians offer for an alliance and welcome a new era.
    • OOC: I think the denonym is actually "Vinlandic"
  • Kingdom of Arabia: Military and industry continue to expand under the constitutional government. Focus is made on the industrial production of cash crops, mostly wheat, fruit and nuts, with a new focus on production of milk. These industrial centers are all expected to be complete next year. Steel and iron continues to be mined, estimated to reach the fourth of fifth largest production in the world. However, these materials continue to be entirely consumed domestically, funneled into the completion of the nation's architecture and rail systems. Under the Treaty of Ragusa, the military begins to be outfitted with muzzle-loaded rifles, in limited quantities. This year, astrophysicist Amr Salih begins using red shift to measure the distance of galaxies, based in the royal observatory at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. Science fiction literature spreads rapidly in common literature, based on fantastic stories of Arabia's rich literary history. Music has taken a dramtic shift, away from the baroque and classical styles of the early 19th century, and ushering in a new generation of "popular music". Sports are also obsessed by the younger generation, mainly as rugby and cricket. The Sultan calls together a pan-Muslim conference in Mecca. Every Kazi, Ayatollah and Imam from every Islamic nation is invited, including the Caliph himself. 
    • Egyptian Dip. The Regent receives the invitation with excitement, and says he will attend the conference, and will leave for Mecca with the Caliph, if his holiness accepts the invitation. Many other famous and influential Muslim Clerics from around the nation accept the invitation and begin packing their bags for Mecca. This might become the biggest migration of important Islamic figures in history for something that isn’t the hajj.
    • Swahili Dip: Several Zayabist Clerics depart for Mecca, with an additional mission to obtain recognition for the new Swahili government.
  • Commune of Poland: With the successful revolution against the former government of Poland, Józef Wladyslawski, a prominent figure in Polish syndicalism and leader of the revolution, declares the formation of the Federation of Communes of Poland, commonly referred to as simply the Commune of Poland. The new organizational structure for the country is composed of about 7000 communes, each of which is headed by a labour council directly elected by the citizens of the commune. The communes are all divided up amongst 14 regional communes, headed by a regional labour council, whose members are directly elected by all the citizens of the region's constituent communes. The members of all the regional labour councils also make up the National Labour Council (Polish: Krajowa Rada Pracy), the new legislative body of the nation, which elects the General Secretary, a position which can be held by any Polish citizen and holds the executive powers of the nation. Wladyslawski currently holds the position of General Secretary in the current provisional government, but he announces that communal elections will be held in May of next year, with regional and secretarial elections following in October and November respectively, in order to replace the current provisional government. The announcement marks the beginning of campaigning of a sort by all the various syndicalist, Marsanist, and communist groups in Poland, and various political factions begin to coalesce across the country. General Secretary Wladyslawski begins the implementation of syndicalist economic policies, hoping to begin to rectify the economic issues which the former government hadn't been able to, beginning with the promotion of various industrial unions, emphasizing worker control on an industry-by-industry basis. He also reaches out to the various syndicalist, Marsianist and communist organizations in countries across Europe, asking for support in Poland in order to form a base for further revolution.
    • Many Marsanists, still hiding from the Egyptian authorities, give a big “hurrah!” when they learn of the new syndicalist Poland, and many Marsanists sneak off and flee to Poland, or what they call "Utopia."
  • FS of Arcadia: Hurrah! Elections are held regionally, federatively and for the president. At the federal level it sees a coalition between Republicans, Orange Independents and the Christian Peoples Party with the Independents being both in the governing coalition and being in the opposition. With Hans Bakker, a Christian Democrat, being chosen as president with 56% of the federal MP's (252 seats) voting for him. This is also due to the fact that there were two other candidates with one looking extremely authortarian and one being just slight less liked due to his younger age and somewhat poorer and less educated background. Due to the loss of the federalists many of the Blue Independents form a new party just after elections. Their party is known as Esquilo Partido Dos Combatentes e Trabalhadores or better known as the Esquilist Party. They only have minor support and they agree not to disrupt the political situation until next election. Our Minister of Communications, John Stone, hears about the news of the telephone and with it he sees the great potential of the telegram and of telephones. He wants to connect all major cities with telegram lines to each other where it's possible and some important presidential and governmental buildings with telephones. The military also sees the great advantage the telegraph can be for getting messages sooner to the front from the headquarters. The army also to help the Congress begins placing 50,000 troops on the north-eastern border.
  • Borealia: The Burgundian Games conclude and Mary I departs for the rest of her tour, but not before bestowing a special award upon the MVP of the tournament, which the tournament organizers decide to make into a formal award in future editions. Work also begins on planning the first Arcadian Games, to be held next year in Sint Jan. We propose to Arcadia and Texas that Vinland be admitted into the Pan-Arcadian Congress, which will also bring the number of teams to an even four. Regardless, with an alliance signed with Vinland ourselves, we hope to continue to improve relations, and begin trading with Vinland to aid them in industrialization. In the 1885 election the Democratic Party pushes heavily for Coevorden's "manifest destiny", specifically increasing Borealian involvement in international affairs. After the success of the first Pan-Arcadian Congress this proves to be popular, although the Populists and most Liberals and Socialists oppose expansion, both in Arcadia and in Africa. The Liberals point to potentially worsening relations with New England, especially since there are many areas with large Burgundian populations. Toward the end of the year Floris Conrad from the Democratic Party is elected. Gijsbert Mollerus finishes his term by increasing funding for the military, and completing his goal of refurbishing the entire Borealian army with modern guns and ammunition. The earlier prototype, now known as the Gheyn Gun (OTL Maxim Gun) begins heavy production this year. Additionally, several cruisers and smaller ships are completed this year and we begin organizing battle groups comprised solely of Borealian ships to augment the Burgundian fleet. The southern fleet is dispatched to southern New Jersey, another at Roduins, New Netherland, a third at Lelystad, and a fourth at Bergen. News of the telephone reaches us, and the device spreads to major cities, such as New Amsterdam. Additionally, the government decides to invest heavily in the telephone companies, seeing them as a way to increase the rate of communication with units during wartime.
  • Aztlan: We request to join the Pan-Arcadian Congress, and propose to opt out of the Arcadian Games to keep the number of teams at four. We also request the mods to post our military and economic statistics under here.
    • Borealian Diplomacy: We cosign the Aztlan's proposal to join the Pan-Arcadian Congress, and promise to speak with the other representatives.
    • Arcadian Diplomacy: Our Representatives do not want the Aztlans to join until some actions in their nations are taken and so long as they do not accept them (we will say what those are in the page) we will veto any attempt.
    • Aztlan: We request Arcadia to openly post the terms below, in this thread.
    • Arcadian Diplomacy: With change of heart we accept due to presure of the president who sees this Mzerkan distrust as a danger.
    • Aztlan (Private Diplomacy): Aztlan proposes to Arcadia an even division of the state of Providence, with Arcadia receiving the land north of the 35th parallel, and Aztlan receiving the land south of it. [Arcadian response]
    • Arcadian (Private Diplomacy): We think that this should not be discussed yet.
  • Russia: The population boom in Russia greatly improves prestige and industry for both Moscow and the entire country. With new settlements in Siberia, we invest in new infrastructure, roads and railroads leading into Siberia from European Russia. The population boom and industrialization also give us the opportunity to expand and modernize our military forces. Seeing the new threat syndicalist Poland presents, 750,000 soldiers are mobilized to defend our western border. Meanwhile, far to the east, ventures to consolidate our remaining Arcadian holdings continue: people are encouraged to settle in Alyeska or purchase land in Hawaii from the Russian Hawaiian Islands Company.
    • Novorossiya: Still scarred by the loss of our California territories, Novorossiya seeks to retain what territories it still has. We solidify our security at the 49th parallel, while troops patrol cities and towns more prone to revolt or defection.
    • Russian Hawaiian Islands Company: We continue to buy land and assets all over the Hawaiian Islands. The company also buys up trade companies and local industries in Honolulu, the latter sparking some dissent among the population of Honolulu. The Company is already the dominant trading company for Russo-Hawaiian trade, aiming to buy out competitors both local and foreign in Hawaii. Government subsidies from the industrial boom back home also help the Company's prospects.
    • Partition-of-Poland-1880s-PMIV

      The proposed SECRET partition of Poland. (It is worth noting that the land East Germany receives includes Warsaw.)

      Russian Secret Diplomacy: A secret envoy is snuck into East Germany, proposing a joint partition, invasion and occupation of Poland in order to destroy the syndicalist threat on our borders. (EAST GERMANY RESPONSE)
    • FSA Diplomacy: For the second time, our foreign minister notifies that Russians in the FSA do not need to fear and that there is no need for distrust or military action against our nation as our people see the Russian nation as a friendly nation.
    • Russian Diplomacy: Russia reassures the FSA that Russia does not see Arcadia as a threat or potential target, and states that Russia does not plan any aggressive military action toward Arcadia.
  • Republica Ibérica: The birth rate remains stagnant, but sizable growth continues. The population is estimated to be 45.17 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. The Carbon Arc Welder continues to spread as a tool in ship construction. The 1887 Naval Expansion continues, Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and three dozen patrol boats. Work continues on the Andalucia Class battleships and the Madrid Class armored cruisers. Production of the Sandoval Model 1880 is accelerated to re-equip the armed forces. A former lieutenant in the procurement division of the Iberian Army, Brigadier General José Rosel, recalls the 1871 test of the Garzon Machine Gun which he attended. The general, realizing that perhaps recent advances in gunpowder technology might solve the mechanical problems with the gun, requests the procurement division for information on the weapon and for surviving examples. Fortunately, there are two surviving machine guns in storage which General Rosel begins testing in his personal time. The weapons function much more reliably with modern powder. Before the general has the chance to take the gun to the army procurement division for testing and adoption a firing test fails. The gun, not designed for the greater power provided by smokeless powder, violently explodes during 100-round endurance test. General Rosel, who insisted on personally observing the tests, is slain by a piece of shrapnel. However, his wife, Ana Rosel, insists on a meeting with the procurement division to finish her husband's final work. Testing goes well after slight redesigns to strengthen the weapon and production is expected to begin next year.
    • Republica de Morocco: The first national census is administered to the Republic, and the population is found to be 7.82 million. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. Wages hover at just about 75% of those in Iberia, but are rising. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects lead to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy. The Moroccan Army which suffered decades of neglect continues its reform with assistance from Iberian officers.
      • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 4.24 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 920,000 are European. Algerian migration to Morocco continues en masse to escape the poverty of interior Algeria. The interior economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing, and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of salt and sugar production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice and rubber production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Gold and other minerals begin to constitute a major economic section in Senegay, and a rail line is built from Dakar inland toward the mineral deposits. Aluminium production grows this year and port facilities are modernized to facilitate its export.
    • Iberian Diplomatic Envoy to Italy: We once again ask if Italy would like to join the European Economic Area.
  • French Empire: Colonial exports continue. Infrastructure is greatly urbanized, as more people move from the rural farmlands to major industrial cities. Railroads begin to be seen across Nigeria and South Africa.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. Agricultural modernization continues in Swahili. The Convention of the Constitution of Swahili is written after a two-month conference between delegates of different regions of Swahili. The tenants are listed below:
    • As of the adoption of the new constitution, Swahili shall be named the "Imperial Swahili Federation" (The term Imperial is merely a technicality to ensure the legal authority of the Sultan of Swahili over Kings of the Federated States).
    • Swahili shall adopt a federation government, with the capital district of Zanzibar-Dar Es Salaam to be in direct control of the Sultan. As an award for the loyalty of the Somalians, the city of Mogadishu would also be a federal city, and the Sultan of Swahili will have a secondary title of the Sultan of Somalia.
    • Bayabism is proclaimed the official faith, though other religions are tolerated and federated states may declare their own official faith, though Bayabism remains the primary faith in all states.
    • The Sultan shall convert to Bayabism and be crowned head of state of all Swahili constituent states.
    • Slavery shall be abolished in all of Swahili, but all freed slaves must pay a poll tax of 100 dinars.
    • Huriya: Huriya is integrated into Swahili forming the Republic of Huriya.
    • Rowzi: Rowzi is integrated into Swahili forming the Changamirate of Rowzi.
    • United Swazi Emirates: The Swazi Emirates is integrated into Swahili forming the United Emirates of the Swazi.
    • Sefuwa: The colonies of Swahili continues development and expansion.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: China–Korea continues to see a period of immense prosperity. There is a revival in the interest within heterodox Confucian sects and other Chinese philosophies, especially Legalism. As a result, these ideologies are taught as an integral part of the school curriculum. The European ideologies of humanism and rationalism, as well as certain liberal ideals, continue to gain popularity. Rooted in the Emperor's Charter Oath made upon his inauguration and the traditional Confucian virtues, an idea is popularized that every Sino–Korean national should have equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, determination and initiative. This idea is colloquially referred to as the "Chinese Dream", and becomes entrenched into Chinese nationalism, and many within the ruling Populist Party adopt it as part of their political platform. In order to increase political participation, the voting fee is abolished. Meanwhile, a constitutional amendment is ratified by the Grand Secretariat shortening the term length to four years, effective in the third national elections (1887). Construction (by hired private contractors) on the Jade Palace commences in Nanjing. Chinese and Korean cultural artifacts, art and luxury items are collected to be put on display in the National Exhibition, hoping to arouse international interest in Sino–Korean culture. The economy, particularly the industrial sector, continues to grow. Two formal stock exchanges are established in Shanghai and Seoul, to stimulate mercantile and financial activities. A stock index called the Dao–Zhou Industrial Average is also established, to measure the overall health of the economy. Textiles and chemicals (particularly the production of synthetic dyes) continue to be leading industries, though the production of steel, machinery, locomotives, cement, and glass continue to rise due to the infrastructural boom. Telegraph and railway lines are built, connecting all major cities and their satellite towns. The first telephone company (nationalized) is established as the Sino–Korean Telephone Company, with the first telephone lines serving the Seoul and Beijing metropolitan areas. Amid this economic boom and rise in living standards, there is a growing middle class, driving the construction of high-end arcades and indoor markets. Cosmetics gain popularity among the upper class. Levels of educational attainment continue to rise, with nearly universal primary schooling. Due to mandatory night-schooling for adults above the compulsory age, the literacy rate rises to 85%, with illiterate people mainly consisting of non-working elderly or people with disabilities in remote rural areas. Exposure to European literature and higher literacy rates in general has led to new forms of prose fiction which gain widespread popularity. A substantial portion of the national budget is allocated to the improvement of imperial universities. There are advances - particularly on the medical field - with the application of germ theory leading to usage of antiseptic while invasive surgeries are now required to use general anesthetic. Other advances include the first appendectomy performed in the world, and the discovery of the link between thiamine deficiency and protein deficiency which is published in a scientific journal and solidifies the hypothesis of the existence of trace compounds essential to survival. With the purchase of 18 ships from Belkan shipyards, including one battleship, China–Korea hopes to consolidate its position as the prime navy in East Asia. Naval strategists begin to stress the construction of destroyers to counter Japan's jeune-école doctrine (which favors fast torpedo-boats to damage capital ships). The order is expected to arrive in 1886, and is expected to push the navy to a total of 34 ironclads. Arms production continues to grow rapidly, with bolt-action rifles (the TJ-83s) and their carbine derivatives, steel rifle-barrelled breech-loaders, rapid-fire guns, as well as their ammunition being produced. The production of muzzle-loading rifles ends as it becomes a fully-designated reserve rifle, though it is given to overseas garrisons to replace flint-lock smoothbores. The strategic forts of Dongying, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Busan continue to be fortified. The major forts of Tianjin (to defend the industrial heart) and Harbin (to defend Manchuria) continue to be fortified especially in response to news of Russian militarization. Shore batteries are built along the Bohai Pass, particularly on Dalyeon and Yantai.
    • Tibet (associated state): Lhasa, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. The Tibetan clergy continues to administer the country, rendering Tibet a de facto theocratic oligarchy, and a de jure limited democracy. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. A garrison of two Sino–Korean divisions is stationed there. One brigade (~5000 troops) comprising natives is established, armed with muzzle-loading rifles.
    • Dzungaria (associated state): Ghulja, inhabited by ~20,000 residents, is modernized. To ease administration, the Dzungar government encouraged ranching instead of a semi-nomadic pastoral lifestyle. Dzungars continue to cultivate larger quantities of wheat and maize as both a staple grain and food for livestock. The local Sino–Korean garrison stationed there is at five divisions. The Dzungarian Gate is fortified with a fort and heavy trench lines. Two divisions comprised of natives is established, armed with muzzle-loading rifles.
    • Altishahria (associated state): Urumqi, inhabited by ~50,000 residents, continues to see infrastructural development, with various civic buildings built in the capital. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there. Irrigation systems are established around oases. Cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears and walnuts - particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan raisins. Two divisions comprised of natives are established, armed with muzzle-loading rifles.
  • Brésil: The infrastructure projects started by Tomás are finally complete. Around the inland waterways now connected to the sea, steamboats now chug along, ferrying manufactured goods to distribution hubs in the cities. Many new enterprises emerge, some of which are: Pétrole Brésilien et Société, Maunais Bois, Armes de Pierre, and Ferroviaire de Brésil. In Parane, Pétrole Brésilien et Société, (or PBS) discovers an oil well and acquires drilling rights to the area. Armes de Pierre, (or AP) is given F10,000 contract to equip the army with new breech-loading rifled guns, on par with European weaponry, and modern artillery, similar to the OTL 3.2 US Model 1885 Field Cannon, Brésil is quickly becoming a dynamic and vibrant society, with German, Italian and Iberian immigrants pouring in. A railway from Recif to Maunais is completed, with Iberian labor. Tierre de Feu grows as a port, and a small Japanese community forms in New Bordeaux. Also in New Bordeaux, a monument is erected to the great worker's strike, as many are hoping that the Marsanist fire is forever extinguished from this nation.
  • Rhineland: Political chaos has taken over the Rhineland. The Nationalists are losing their foothold in the fight as many Communists, which they now call themselves, adopted from the Egyptians, raid factories of local Nationalist corporate owners. Then, early in March, Nationalists began siding with the Communists, along with much of the military. The Communists in December marched on the capital and demanded a National Referendum. The leader of the Rhineland accepted and on December 26th, 1885, the Rhineland became the Socialist Republic of the Rhineland. The new leader, Frederik Shutzenhelm, began heavy industrialization, even heavier than before. Conscription age is increased to 40 and factory workers are paid better wages than beforehand. The construction of the Trans-Rhenish railway begins and is a long railway with multiple outlets along the way. Research of better weaponry is also initiated. The Rhineland is hoping for a bright and sunny future.
  • Ethiopian Empire: The test steam engine begin to bellow as the researchers celebrate. Work is made for the next year to produce power for factories and ships using steam. The Conscription Law of 1885 goes into effect creating a far larger force of 750,000 active and 1.5 million reserve troops. Western practices continue to improve the quality of life in the empire. After the death of the queen Theodore insists that we are all mortal and that if we were to be struck down today that Ethiopians must continue their way of life and be loyal to the next emperor. More schools and libraries are opened. Construction on the first observatory is started.

1886

Regent Taraki of Egypt is assassinated, not by Marsanists but by radical Farahists.

Science.

Independent Communist agitators from the Rhineland begin operating across the Burgundian border with the help of Burgundian Marsanists. Their objective is to break the newly formed Rhenish government to create a true, non-compromising Communist government.

  • Belkan Empire: The Empire continues to see its development internally as its northern infrastructure projects reach completion and more thoroughly link the Carpathian, Transylvanian and Moldavian regions with the core sectors of the empire. Standing at a population of 93 million and effectively out of land to settle within the home regions, the outflow of Belkans specifically to colonies such as the Maghreb begins. Richer businessmen and aristocrats flow to colonies where their opportunities would be better and places like Macau and Hong Kong see an influx of nearly 25,000 Belkans this year. Damietta, a leased port and being close, and the hub of Belkan trade in Egypt also sees its population grow from a modest trading city and military post to the city becoming a modern Belkan city with nearly 65,000 alone this year arriving to settle in the cities underutilized and underdeveloped districts. By far, however, Belkan Maghreb sees the largest influx with nearly 150,000 settlers this year as its open lands and profitable industries make it an attractive location. The main settlement location sees itself in Tunis with Tunis Harbor starting to develop thoroughly into one of the largest ports on the African continent. With some syndicalist sympathies in the government, the Belkan Supreme Soviet extends an offer of an independence guarantee to Poland. The 1871 naval program is officially scrapped as the 1885 program is established looking to increase the Belkan navy into a force of nearly 250 ships at the cost of being able to effectively deploy a large amount of Belkan manpower. It is estimated that the effective troop strength with Belka so focused on the Navy would be 2.5 million men at peak efficiency while any further raising of troops would be of lower quality or reservists. The amassing of military and exploratory units into Belkan claims in Africa continues with nearly 10,000 men organized into exploratory missions throughout the African interior specifically hoping to map a major route from Belkan Zaire to Belkan Kanem. The Belkan government authorizes the sale of the MK1 and MK2 Needle Rifles to both Egypt and Arabia seeking to modernize its allies and those in its sphere of influence. The Belkan government officially dismantles Belkan East Asia as a unified entity and splits it into directly controlled overseas cities of Durestov and Macau and establishes separate colonial governments for Manila and Burma. Belkan construction of the Chinese ships to be delivered next year nears completion.
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is explored further as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against them. The exploration up the Congo River continues as does expansion. Zaire's first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the coast expanding the rubber boom further. The Colony of Zaire is allowed a colonial milita force of roughly 30,000 with reserves of 400,000 able to be recruited as the Belkan military garrison begins to follow the same policies as Belkan Maghreb.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment of and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins to explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The region's population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route - which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begins with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west and now lands to the east and south
    • Governate of Manila: The Governate of Manila now officially split off as its own separate colonial entity is able to more effectively capitalize on its resources and population. Interestingly enough, Manila has seen a rapid and dynamic industrialization as its connection into the Belkan system and its status as Belka's model colony has seen it gain the vast majority of East Asian investment, settlement and attention. With a population now reaching 17 million the influx of industrialization into Manila sees a push in its population which begins to boom with access to modern medicine, technology, new railways and transport, and the official abolition of the feudal system in Manila in favor of a provincial system centered around the well-defended triplicate of colonial governing sites on the main islands.
    • Governate of Burma: The governate of Burma becomes known as the "mountain of jewels" to the Belkan empire as its extraction of precious gems becomes known all across the empire and even the world. Its cities begin to more fully and effectively urbanize in the face of Belkan modernization attempts, and the building of industry under Belkan ownership sees the colony become much more profitable.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civilians continue to move into working there. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures throughout the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction it reaches completion this year as the two colonial capitals are officially linked over land. Other railways are also constructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis which wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. The need for a colonial army becomes apparent - and funded by domestic budget, the Maghrebi colonial army is formed around a force of 50,000 with a large reserve of nearly 300,000 that can be conscripted within a short period. They are trained with older equipment but arsenals of modern guns are kept under control in the Tunis and Algiers Citadel held by the Belkan crown garrisons.
  • Great Empire of China–Korea: Popular music in China–Korea continues to see a drastic shift as modern genres such as baroque rock, and rhythm and blues–both cultural imports from Russia–gain widespread appeal, especially among the urban youth. Korean artist Ma Raya releases her self-titled album, which is also her debut album. In an instant, her singles (mainly ballads) become widely popular and rise to the top of music charts, with her most distinctive feature being her usage of the whistling register. Meanwhile, the annual consumption of phonographs (also known as record players) increases nearly twenty-fold due to the sheer demand for her records. In addition to acquiring revenue from her sales and tours, her parent company the Seoul Entertainment Corporation (SEC) also starts diversifying by investing in the invention (and production) of newer and more reliable phonograph models. As a result, the new phonograph model is capable of a playtime of four to five minutes, instead of just two minutes. Due to the bulky nature of cylinders, they are replaced with discs. The Seoul Entertainment Corporation also starts the production of several ballet and theatre plays. The locally-produced drama play Toll of the Sea and an adapted version of Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake (with a more dark aesthetic) are particularly successful with performances receiving critical acclaim. Other visual arts, particularly painting, become influenced by the French impressionist movement. This development has received backlash from many conventional professional artists, though they intrigue the public and fetch high auction prices from art enthusiasts and collectors. Industrialization and economic modernization continue. The production and export of textiles and chemicals (focusing on the production of synthetic dyes) continue to be China–Korea's leading industries, though the production of steel, machinery, locomotives, cement, and glass continue to rise due to the infrastructural boom. Telecommunications and railway lines are built, connecting all major cities and their satellite towns, therefore stimulating commerce. Meanwhile, the government establishes a deal with a private shipbuilding company to construct 150 steamships in the next three years, which is expected to double the size of the current merchant fleet. A rise in living standards and wages has led to the enlargement of the middle class and the construction of high-end shopping arcades and indoor markets. New legislation is passed mandating better sanitation standards, with sewage networks built in cities and fines on improper disposable of waste being implemented. Many newly-built housing complexes are constructed with indoor plumbing systems. In rural areas, water pumps are constructed to deliver safe and reliable water to communities. The Dalyeon shipyard produces eight ships. As a result, the number of ships commissioned under the Sino–Korean Imperial Navy rises to 36 vessels (with 16 being ironclad), consisting of two pre-dreadnought battleships, four cruisers, four destroyers, and six frigates. Due to their obsoleteness, the corvettes are relegated to auxiliary roles or as patrol craft. The Ministry of the Navy plans to create a new regional fleet stationed in Guangzhou (known as the Southern Fleet) by 1890, consisting of 18 ironclads. Arms production continues to grow rapidly, with bolt-action rifles (the TJ-83s) and their carbine derivatives, field artillery (steel rifle-barrelled breech-loaders), rapid-fire guns, as well as their respective ammunition being produced. The standing army is increased to one million troops, with each of the four strategic forts (Guangzhou, Shanghai, Dongying, and Busan) having a garrison of ~250,000, while the two major forts (Harbin and Tianjin) each have a garrison of ~100,000. Due to the large area of these cities, main fortifications are concentrated to a main area (known as the military district) though protective walls extend beyond this zone.
    • Tibet (associated state): Civic buildings are constructed in the capital of Lhasa, which is inhabited by ~20,000 residents. A theodemocratic state with limited suffrage (restricted to individuals who own land) is established. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. Major crops include wheat, rye, and
    • Altishahria (associated state): Mines are opened up in Aksu, exploiting the Tarim basin's mining resources. Lucrative rare minerals such as soda, borax, and jade are the country's main exports to China–Korea. In addition to grains, cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears, and walnuts. Ranching becomes a highly profitable industry, with many former pastoralists settling down and establishing enclosures for their livestock. More modern methods of raising sheep, in particular, has led to a substantial rise in output, many of which are exported to China–Korea. Processing facilities are constructed in the capital to improve the quality of the wool, in preparation for shipment to China–Korea's textile mills. Due to its position at railway lines, Korla becomes a major break-of-bulk point and sees its population booms to nearly ~50,000 individuals. A garrison of two Sino–Korean divisions (~20,000) is stationed there, armed with muzzle-loading rifles.
    • Dzungaria (associated state): Civic buildings are constructed in the capital of Ghulka, which is inhabited by ~20,000 residents. The Dzungar government begins the exploitation of rich oil deposits in the area. Meanwhile, irrigation facilities are built diverting snow from the mountain's icecaps to farms cultivating large quantities of wheat and maize as both a staple and animal feed. The local Sino–Korean garrison stationed there stands at ten divisions (~100,000), armed with muzzle-loading rifles. In addition, a native force of five divisions (~50,000) is also present. Around two-thirds of the collective military presence in this area is located in the Dzungarian Gate, which is also heavily fortified due to its position as the sole entry point to western China.
    • Sino–Korean diplomacy to Arabia: Due to their mutual close relationship with Belka, Sino–Korean emissaries are sent to Arabia seeking to revive the extensive diplomatic relationship enjoyed during the early Jin dynasty.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Surprise, everyone was lying and there ACTUALLY WAS an legible adult heir! Wow, how did this happen? He succeeds the thrown after Taraki is shot for no reason by Farahists, because for some reason a bunch of men have a crush on her. The new guy is Named Bob Muhammad Ali III, and is 25 years old, and a cousin of Queen Farah. He announces that he will sign a new constitution with the help of parliament this year. After five hours, the parliament and King announce the new constitution and the contents in it, when suddenly a cameraman reveals his camera is actually a gun and attempts to shoot Mohammed Ali III, but barely misses as security tackles him. After the incident, the king is locked inside a bullet proof and not see through closet, and passes notes to the press through the crack beneath the door about the contents of the constitution, saying it officially makes Egypt a Constitutional Monarchy . Muhammad Ali attends the funeral of Regent Taraki, but then meets face to face with a Radical Tarakist Militarist that attempts to beat him to death with a shoe but fails as a veteran pulls a gun out and shoots the shoe out of his hand while security tackles him. The royal palace in Alexandria is rebuilt with bulletproof walls, and a bulletproof glass seal around the balcony. Muhammad Ali III, walks through the garden when suddenly his gardener is revealed to be a Radical Enviromentalist and attempts to forcibly feed him fertilizer, but is shot by Anti-Environentalist, who then attempts to shoot Muhammad for having a royal garden but is tackled by security and beat to death. We continue to expand our major population centers like Alexandria, Giza, and Alia City. Egyptian nationalism continues to be consolidated nation wide. We continue to grow, and trade papyrus, henna and flax, along with tobacco, in exchange for resources not seen in Egypt and weapons. The congress of Mecca has ended, please see the article for more details on what the congress contains. We build schools nationwide, while we mass print school books. The Library of Alexandria seems some revisions this year, that make it bigger and better. Astronomy takes hold in Egypt, as Muhammad Ali III declares “I’ve always wondered what was beyond our blue skies, and I think the Egyptian People do to!” In which he announced state funding for astronomy. Marsanism continues to be purged. Radical Farahism is declared illegal. A cult of personality is developed around Muhammad Ali I, but nothing like Queen Farah’s, and more like OTL Atatürk’s cult of personality.
  • Borealia: Early in the year the first ever Arcadian Games are held in Sint Jan, between Borealia, Texas, Arcadia, and Vinland. Arcadia wins the Ulama tournament, and also comes second in the football tournament to Borealia, while Texas manages to win the rugby tournament. In a much anticipated hockey tournament Borealia defeats Texas, and Vinland defeats Arcadia in a close match. In the finals Vinland defeats Borealia in a huge upset which shocks the nation, and interest in the Vinlander teams this coming season soars within Borealia. Floris Conrad takes office as prime minister, and true to his campaign promises, continues the military buildup, while also pushing for expansion immediately. Later in the year, the tensions between our nation and the formerly English colonies reach a breaking point. The reserves are mobilized, bringing the total size of the army to 700,000. Conrad's government initiates the plan that had been established with Queen Mary, and the nation declares war on Avalon and New England. Our allies in the Pan-Arcadian Congress, namely Vinland, Arcadia, and Texas, as well as our ally France are all asked to join us, as previously agreed. The stated goal is to liberate the former territories of Burgundy that the English had captured, such as Bilzen and Koebecstad. As planned, Burgundian and Borealian forces launch an invasion, under the supreme command of Jan de Brouckère, a veteran general of the War of the Rhine. The Borealian army is split into three main components, the first being a southern army of 200,000 Borealians and a possible 100,000 Burgundian reinforcements, under Hendrik Merlen, which will quickly march west from New Jersey across the Delaware and seize Wilmington, and from there seize Philadelpia, while also protecting the southern front of the nation. He is aided directly by the southern fleet, which is able to move into the region largely unopposed. The second army of 200,000 Borealians and 100,000 Burgundian reinforcements, under Jacob Obdam, is to assault the New Englander enclave around Bilzen, and push to capture the city. Due to this region being disconnected from the New Englanders completely, it is projected that this region will fall easily, and additionally two fleets surround the region from the south and north. Lastly Friedrich Balduin is placed in command of the northern front with Avalon, in command of 200,000 Borealians and 100,000 allied troops, primarily from Vinland. This force is then split in half, with half assaulting Koebecstad, and the other half assaulting Manchester (Montreal). All of these forces are supported by naval elements where applicable, and on the ground are supported by cavalry and heavy Burgundian artillery. Thanks to the recent railroads created to the border of the nation this mobilization is able to happen quickly, and it is hoped we will catch the hostile nations off guard. The remaining 100,000 men raised are left in reserve to defend the major cities of the eastern seaboard, with the area heavily fortified. The Borealian fleet is tasked with patrolling to spot any incoming fleet toward the continent, and to blockade all shipments to the hostile nations. Additionally the Burgundian fleet is asked to aid us and also monitor the British should they choose to intervene, however, we are confident that the threat of a possibility of war with both Burgundy and France will deter them from doing so. In addition to the three fronts that we are directly fighting on, it is planned that our fellow members of the Burgundian Empire, namely Maryland (Florida) and Kuba will strike against Savanna if necessary, while Texas and Arcadia are poised to strike western New England.
    • - Texas attacks western New England, cannot really post due to surgery. - Texas OCC
    • The United Kingdom joins the war in defense of its dominions and begins sending troops across the Atlantic immediately.
  • Kingdom of Arabia: Industrialization is completed, creating full railroad systems across the peninsula and Mesopotamia. Cities are fully modernized with modern hospitals and medical centers, and industrial complexes focus heavily on cash crops. Diplomacy from China is glady accepted by the Shay Al-Nass. The military is also fully modernized with the equipment purchased from Belka. The reforms to military bureaucracy, allowing full military mobilization if necessary, is likewise complete. The population now stands at 90 million, but rises rapidly with the modernzation of the region. With the cultural influence from Egypt, more left-wing groups gradually bring western ideologies into the Middle East, mixed with the homogenity of Arab culture.
  • Vinland: Citing the recent alliance with Borelia, Prime Minister Anton Gustavsson is hereby informing Avalon that a state of war exists between Vinland and Avalon. The 27,000 strong Vinnish army under the command of Jennifer Höganäs marched toward Qubequestad and joined up with the Borelian forces.
  • Aztlan: As Borealia has declared a state of war with Avalon, the Tlahtoāni promises to send 50,000 men to crush Avalon. Let the war begin! In addition, the influx of German immigrants from the past decade drives the Tlahtoāni to recognize German as a national language. Concerning the recent Egyptian assassinations, the Tlahtoāni releases the following statement: "While the expression of new ideas is mandatory and inviolate, the recent radical actions are unbased and completely unacceptable."
  • Rhineland: The Rhenish Government formally names Die Wacht am Rhein as the national anthem. It also makes great advancements in medical science and weaponry. The Magazine-Fed rifle is researched and now being mass produced and being given to soldiers. The Rhenish People's Court, angered along with the government and people, has tried the Rhenish Communist Agitators for treason against the People of the Rhineland and has sentenced them and supporters to death. The Rhenish Ambassador wishes to meet the Burgundian Ambassador in Dijorn to discuss the manhunt for the Rhenish Agitators and the Burgundian Marsanists. (BURGUNDIAN RESPONSE NEEDED) Frederick Shutzenhelm also wishes to closen ties with the Burgundians, rather than burn them like the last government, and forward to sign the Pact of the Rhine, a non-aggression pact, with them. (BURGUNDIAN RESPONSE NEEDED) Frederick moves some military men from the Burgundian border and moves them to the Austrian and Bohemian borders. In other news, the investigation of the mysterious death of Cashnec Gavnick, a well known writer and political philosopher, is disbanded by Leader Shutzenhelm himself. Some people within the People's Department of Law question Shutzenhelm but are quickly silenced. The People's Department of the Military begin planning for constructing a small Navy, merely the size of its neighbors, but enough to protect its coast. It is planned to be put into action in two years. On lighter notes, Football is a massive hit for the Rhenish people, and in the Championship, held in Essen, the Verteidiger went against the Eindringlinge and won 9-4. The Verteidiger team was greeted and congratulated by Leader Shutzenhelm.
  • FS of Arcadia: Our President goes to the soldiers on the northeastern border visits them to salute them for morale boost. Some members of the army are allowed to wear some of their native symbols. This is to make them feel more patriotic and feel more part of the FSA. This speech is held to inspire the new republican army to keep it great. The army for the first time is getting equiped with telegraphs for messaging even if they are carried by a specialist army core. Telegraph in general gets expanded with a net being to be formed in Lucentium, California as the southern net and in Saskatchewan and Saliye. The government does feel slightly troubled by the fact that the northern and southern net aren't yet connected which is the result of low population density and general population. The Esquilists also gain a bit more more support from some Salish and Mzerkans in the population due to the party claims of wanting to restore the chipmunkist mythology as the fate of the nation and having the nation being ruled by a chipmunkist religious leader. Although these ideals appeal to some, a big mayority of even the Athabaskans and Salish does not see any good in these ideals. The first Ulama matches are being held in Lucentium and Neu Leipzig with the Mzerkans and a very small Aztec minority being in proportion much better then any other ethnicity. The federal government also founds the Federal Bank of Arcadia or the FBA. This is meant to have one centralised currency. Federal Government also reaches to Providence to improve relations with them and create a better bond with them. The Internationale Federation of Ulama is founded (IFU) to standardise Ulama and to make it friendlier to other cultures. It will adopt a less showing playing uniform and more safety measures. Our friendly measures to immigration also pay off quite well. With the state government of Küstenland and Bergsorbien offering that immigrants can get all the unused land they farm and if the farm produces for five year they get Arcadian nationality and citizen rights.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: Due to Burgundy's practice of freedom of speech, direct action against Marsanists and communists (who are perceived as trouble throughout the Burgundian political spectrum) is impossible. However, with news of Burgundian Marsanists attempting to destabilize the Rhenish Government, Queen Mary, newly returned from her Arcadian tour, authorized the police to round up those suspected in supporting that operation, and sentence them to death. ”If they want to play spies, they’ll get treated as spies”, Queen Mary states when asked about the sentences. Burgundy also agrees to sign the Pact of the Rhine. The battleship SMS Elisabeth de Eisen, the last of the Monarch-class, is commissioned. Due to her being the most powerful ship in the navy (four 16” breech-loaders, compared to her sisters’ four 14” breech-loaders), she takes over as flagship of the High Seas Fleet from SMS Texel, who, along with the other four battleships with ten echelon turrets, is reassigned to the IV Battle Squadron, displacing Verwoester and her companions to the V Battle Squadron. Two more battleships, SMS Ostend and SMS Skaggerak, are laid down, with completion dates set for 1889. Another class of battleships, dubbed the Ersatz Kinnig Wëllem II-class (OTL Royal Sovereign-class), begins the design process. The rest of the navy is put on alert as Borealia goes to war with New England. A watch on Britains actions begins, and the battleships of the Mediterranean fleet are recalled for service in the High Seas Fleet, bringing the total force to 20 battleships since the commissioning of the Monarchs, as well as 25 armored cruisers, 13 protected cruisers and 15 frigates. Also attached are a score of fast torpedo boats. An initial expeditionary force of 100,000 men are dispatched to Borealia to assist in the invasion of New England. Troops in Maryland fortify their side of the border, should Savannah elect to join the war, and troops in Kuba and Guyana are mobilized to bring their troops to bear. With the British mainland joining the war, the High Seas Fleet is ordered to sea to meet the English fleet.
  • Republica Ibérica: Science! Iberia declares neutrality in the building war in Arcadia, but offers its friends in Texas, Aztlan and the UK armament contracts. Population growth continues. The population is estimated to be 45.73 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. Welding expertise drives innovative designs and advances in the shipbuilding industry. The 1887 Naval Expansion nears completion, Iberian shipyards will complete four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, 12 new frigates and 36 patrol boats. Work continues on the Andalucia Class battleships and the Madrid Class armored cruisers. Production of the Sandoval Model 1880 is accelerated to re-equip the armed forces. The Model 1886 Garzo-Rosel Machine Gun enters full scale production. The few guns that enter service this year are sent to the navy to arm the new ships of the 1887 Naval Expansion.
    • Republica de Morocco: The population is found to be 7.95 million. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. Wages hover at just about 76% of those in Iberia, but are rising. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects lead to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy. Overall, the population begins to feel a sense of goodwill toward Iberia, which has helped to lift millions of Moroccans from the poverty of the past.
      • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 4.58 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 950,000 are European. Algerian migration to Morocco continues en masse to escape the poverty of interior Algeria. The interior economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of salt and sugar production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice and rubber production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Gold and other minerals begin to constitute a major economic section in Senegay, and a rail line is built from Dakar inland toward the mineral deposits. Aluminium production grows this year and port facilities are modernized to facilitate its export.
    • Aztlan accepts Iberia's generous armament deal. Looks like Iberia's gonna profit from this war!
  • Russia: With the growing conflict in Arcadia, Russia chooses to remain officially neutral, while troops remain at the last standing Russian garrisons on the Columbia River; these garrisons are reinforced. With population growth, industrialization and scientific advances in the homeland, Russia begins new education programs to raise the literacy of its massive population; this education system enforces a Russian curriculum in order to assimilate minorities in the hinterlands. Government subsidies for the Hawaiian Islands Company continue.
    • Novorossiya: The building war in Arcadia is a very hot topic for the local government in Novorossiya, perhaps seeing it as a chance to reclaim some old Arcadian lands from a now-distracted FSA. With Russian troops still garrisoning land north of the Columbia River, the Novorossiyan government proposes reasserting claims over these lands, though the proposition has not come to a vote yet.
    • Russian Hawaiian Islands Company: The conflict in Arcadia is no concern to the RHIC for the time being, with this distracting news allowing the company to work more under-the-radar, silently buying up companies, trading rights, plots of land, and even entire industries in the Hawaiian Islands. Many of these are sold to private Russian owners, who are encouraged to settle in the islands. Certain towns in Hawaii, such as Waimea, Wailuku and Hilo, have been dubbed "kamupene towns" ("company towns") by the native Hawaiians, owing to the fact that most or all of the towns' businesses, industries and infrastructure are all owned by the RHIC, virtually monopolizing these towns.
    • Russian & RHIC Diplomacy: An official joint statement by the Russian foreign minister and the head of the Russian Hawaiian Islands Company stated that the Kingdom of Hawaii must remain neutral in the nearing conflict in Arcadia, or else further action will be taken by Russia and/or the RHIC.
    • Aztlan: Aztlan respects Russia's decision to stay neutral in the Arcadian conflict, and will uphold the Declaration of 1845 if Novorossiya is attacked in any way.
  • Imperial Swahili Federation: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespreadAgricultural modernization continues in Swahili. Further industrialization continues. The first entirely Swahili funded railway line, the Southern line, is planned, which will go from Zanzibar to Swazi. With the destruction of major trade fleets in the civil war, a scheme is developed to reignite and modernize the Swahili trading sector. The Zanzibar and Sofala shipyard will begin constructing steam-powered iron container ships, which will be loaned cheaply to prospective merchants, who will then be charged a higher rate in sales taxes and will have to return a share of the profits to the shipyards. Reconstruction begins swiftly in central Swahili. With the emancipation of the slaves, a poll tax is established equivalent to the annual wage of a worker. As the newly freed slaves lack the means to pay, the Commercial Bank of Zanzibar agreed to purchase this debt from the government for 800 million dinars, establishing itself as a major financial player in Swahili. This emancipated population also journeys to either the newly industrialized cities or to the colonial frontier, bolstering industrialization and colonization within the country. With the purchase from the CBZ and seized assets from merchants, the Sultanate begins a period of rapid infrastructural development, with new deep-water ports, railway lines, mines, power production facilities being planned and constructed every day.
    • Sefuwa: The colonies of Swahili continue development and expansion.
  • Brésil: The infrastructure projects started by Tomás are finally complete. Around the inland waterways now connected to the sea, steamboats now chug along, ferrying manufactured goods to distribution hubs in the cities. Many new enterprises emerge, some of which are: Pétrole Brésilien et Société, Maunais Bois, Armes de Pierre, and Ferroviaire de Brésil. All of these companies continue to boom, with a special focus on AdP, which due to its government contract has opened several new locations to access the ever-growing labour pools amongst the cities. Theodore, now in his 30s, announces that he and his wife are expecting a child, which offers significant hope for the people of Brésil. An author named Jean Lapierre publishes a book called le libre-échange à l'ère des machines, which is an essay on economics surrounding tariffs and markets, and argues for the government to raise tariffs. Theodore sends an ultimatum to the British government: remove all troops from Arcadian soil or face Brésilian intervention [MOD RESPONSE NEEDED]. An official navy is established. (WIP)
    • No. -Britain.

1887

The Brésilian populace engages in large scale protests against Brésilian involvement in the Arcadian war. Many see British involvement as justified against the undue aggression from others in the north.

Polish syndicates and individual communists begin going abroad to start their respective parties in nations across Europe entering Russia, Prussia, the Rhineland, making it as far as Spain. 

  • What is this Spain you speak of?
    • Iberia. ~Hdjensofjfnen

As many nations begin to accept the Congress of Belgrad tacitly, the effective colonization of Africa begins as large swaths of territory fall under control of previously established spheres of influence.

An outbreak of cholera likely beginning in Egypt but rapidly spreading to Belka ravages the cities of Europe and the Middle East one-by-one as it spreads rapidly across the continent hitting the rapidly growing urban areas such as Cairo, Damascus, Belgrade and Rome the hardest where growth has exceeded the cities ability to provide sanitation, clean water and food.

  • Brésil: Theodore delivers a speech in front of one of the larger protests. "While it is indeed the soverign right of Britain to intervene on behaf of its colonies, it is likewise our right to enforce that document which has been our policy since the reign of my father. I ask to all of you, as noble, loyal citizens of Brésil, do you value the right of a foreign power over our own? Let us now fight, to further our glory, put aside our differences, and show the world our glory!". Theodore also creates a department of the government, tasked with producing propaganda supporting the war and the monarchy. However, direct involvment will not happen quite yet. Material support is given to the Arcadian powers opposing Britain, and the navy orders construction of two industrial-scale dockyards. One in Recif, the other in New Bordeaux. The three ironclads as well as the rest of the fleet guard the Brésilian coast. with orders that if they encounter the British fleet they are to sail into one of numerous bays that are lined with coastal artillery. The arms contract with Armes de Pierre is nearing completion, and the government has been very satisfied with the results. The Brésilian population, now at about 63 million, increasingly demands new goods, which the growing industry expands to provide. 800,000 people are conscripted, and sent to training facilities inland. The process is expected to be completed next year.
    • Brésil begins to have draft riots in the major cities as many people resist what they see as a pointless intervention. -s
    • Aztlan: While Benito does appreciate the war effort, he advises Theodore to lay it off if his people aren't willing - the worst thing that could happen would be a revolution! Also, how do you have 63 million people? Either you have 6.3 million, or you have more people than the entire Republic of Iberia (including colonies).
  • Aztlan: The Tlahtoāni, Benito I, sees that the new tripartite government movement (see 1880 and 1881) is gaining steam, and so begins Aztlan's transition to a true republic. In terms of the war with Britain, the 50,000 men request Texas and the Iroquois Confederacy for military access to reach Avalon. Meanwhile, 12,000 soldiers board ships at Merida for a naval assault. (Texas response) (Iroquois (mod) response) (Mod response: is putting 12,000 troops on boats plausible?) Concerning Brésilian protests, the Tlahtoāni suggests that the government and people come to terms on the matter of the war. Hopefully, he says, the situation in Brésil will resolve itself without too much conflict.
    • Brésilian Diplomacy: Theodore writes to Benito, offering him a personal guaruntee of Brésilian support
      • Aztlan: Benito thanks Theodore for his offer of support and promises some favors in the future.
    • Texas: We agree to to let Aztlan have military access, as we are fighting also. Despite negative relations in the past, we hope this privilege will make you further take Texan indepedence seriously.
      • Aztlan: So, when to begin reconciliation? Also, the 50,000 troops march into the vast western plains of New England.
      • This can be discussed during Pan Arcadian congress. For now, there is a war to win.
    • Aztlan: My bad! The Iroquois Confederacy isn't a territorial entity.
  • Borealia: This year Floris Conrad of the Democratic Party takes office. After a series of naval victories the blockade in Europe and on the Arcadian coast prove to hold, limiting the British. The four fleets supporting the ground invasion are condensed into three, such that at least three battleships and 30 attendant ships comprise each fleet, with each fleet supporting a different front. The northern fleet enters the Sint Lauwens river and is able to sail up the river largely unopposed, depositing troops and bombarding enemy positions. The central fleet remains at Bilzen, with the southern fleet manages to sail into the Chesapeake Bay. The northern front, consisting of 300,000 soldiers (two-thirds of which are Borealian, the rest from Vinland/Burgundy), are reinforced, with the assault on Koebecstad being carried out almost entirely by Burgundians, while the rest of the force focuses on Manchester. With the fall of the cities it is ordered that fortifications be manned and constructed or repaired. It is requested that Burgundian forces reinforce the advance toward New Gwynedd, where approximately 300,000 soldiers are already deployed. Additionally the Burgundian forces on standby are asked to join the front in Maryland. It is estimated that up to another one million soldiers could potentially be raised from Guyana, Kuba, and Maryland, with some of these men joining the front in Savanna, and supporting the Texan-Aztlan divisions. On the ground each advance is supported by heavy artillery, with a large number of units being supplied by Burgundy. Both ours and the Burgundians artillery units are hardened and battle tested from the defense against the Germans, and are quickly brought to the front thanks to the network of railroads in the nation. In total, about 100,000 cavalrymen are also deployed alongside the infantry, making up a sizable portion of the army. Again we request that France join us, as they had previously promised. With the capitals and major cities captured, we sign an armistice with the states at war with us. The conflict ends, while diplomats confer in New Gwynedd to negotiate a treaty.
  • FS of Arcadia: President Bäcker officially declares the federated states of Arcadia Neutral and he personally will welcome refugees of the waring nations. Esquillists also getting more support with now having around 1000 party members. Although this is verry small some consider on a ban of the party due to their view to destroy state power and the opressing of the English people from the nation. Ulama also for the first time gets a big stadium where around 20,000 people can be seated, the stadium being located in New Leipzig which is the capital of the Federal State of California. This stadium has been built with local support as they see it as a good way to get more publicity and importance back since its minor decline from the imperial days. The Republican fleet of Arcadia is also officialy founded on decree of the Federal Parliament. This navy mostly at this point exists out of old boats left over from Russia and some even from the old Kingdom of California. Due to this fact many in this navy ask for foreign support from nations like Iberia, Russia, China, Japan, United Kingdom and Burgundy. (Player responses) The industrial sector of New Constantinople is henceforth commissioned to the construction of new ships for the Republican fleet, based on the same design but with slightly older weaponry. Two new ships are constructed this year in the capital's harbor with them getting the name FSS Admiral Geronimo and FSS Utopia. The FSS Admiral being named after the greatest Admiral of the region since his first naval experience. Our ministers also invite the ministers of Providence to have a meeting with the Arcadian Parliament to talk about their nation and to talk about a possible deal.(mod response)
  • Kingdom of Arabia: As a natural consequence of a highly developed, western nation, the Great Plague of 1887 becomes disastrous among lower class workers in many industrial centers, the worst infestations being in Damascus, Beyrut, Mosul and Bosra. A total of 350,000 people perish from the plague, almost entirely from the lower classes, before medical communties manage to slow it down. In reaction to this crisis, the Shay Al-Nass writes up a full detailed plan for the reformation of the sanitation system across the nation. This plan is approved by the Sultan Musa Al-N'uman. However, logistically it will not be feasible to complete over the entire country in one year, so insteda it is planned out in phases. This year, focus is brought to complete the sanitation process in Damascus, modeled closely off of the sewage system in Paris. As for the plague itself, the Royal Medical Association in the House of Wisdom develops a direct scheme for quarantining and containing the plague, utilizing records of the modern Caliphate from the early 17th century. (Cholera spread from fish imported from India can be seen in my turn posts, from which I invented the earliest forms of modern western medicine). Thus, utilizing this historic information from the Caliphate, modern medical practices are employed to minimize and prevent any future spread of cholera, and these same practices are offered to our allied Muslim states.
  • Republica Ibérica: The Cholera outbreak hits Iberia with a low intensity. Iberia's extensive system of water management has the side effect of protecting clean water supplies from contamination and effectively provides a layer of sanitation. However, the government recognizes that Cholera still poses a huge threat. Work begins immediately to clean up the streets of vulnerable cities and to create a system of sanitation to defend the population from the disease. The population is estimated to be 46.23 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. Welding expertise drives innovative designs and advances in the shipbuilding industry. The 1887 Naval Expansion is finished this year with the completion of four new battleships, ten new armored cruisers, twelve new frigates and three dozen patrol boats. The Rhineland is offered the sale of a selection of ships including the Libertad Class, the Resoluto Class and the Rapido Class. Iberia offers to refit these ships with modern armaments and improved hull armor for a sum of 31 million Rhinish Marks. The new influx of cash is put toward the construction of four new battlecruisers and six more protected cruisers which are expected to be finished in 1889. The new battlecruisers are moderately armored with a new steel hardening process (OTL Harvey Armor) that increases both the frontal hardness and the internal toughness. The armament is concentrated in four turrets, one at both the stern and bow, and two more turrets located on a diagonal from amidships. The guns have a 350mm bore and 8.3 meters in length. In addition to the main battery, there are a variety of smaller weapons mounted in barbettes. The protected cruisers are armed with 200mm bore cannons with 5.8 meters of length, as well as a large number of machine guns and smaller 100mm and 75mm guns. Production of the Sandoval Model 1880 continues, and the majority of the armed forces has been re-equipped. The National Assembly determines that mandatory service should increase to a reserve of 750,000 rather than 500,000. Furthermore, the standing army is increased to 250,000, with another 50,000 expeditionary troops. These increases will take place over the next two years. The Model 1886 Garzo-Rosel Machine Gun enters full scale production. The guns prove very popular with the troops thanks to their high rate of fire and relatively lightweight. The border forts with France are the quick to receive the weapons which are installed in concrete bunkers along the vulnerable passes.
    • Republica de Morocco: The first national census is administered to the Republic, and the population is found to be 8.12 million. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. Wages hover at just about 77% of those in Iberia, but are rising. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects lead to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy. The Moroccan Army which suffered decades of neglect continues its reform with assistance from Iberian officers. The decision is made to equip the Moroccan Army with Sandoval Model 1880s.
      • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 4.8 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 1.15 million are European. A huge wave of Iberian migrants reaches Algeria this year. Algerian migration to Morocco continues en masse to escape the poverty of interior Algeria.. The interior economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem, there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of salt and sugar production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice and rubber production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Gold and other minerals begin to constitute a major economic section in Senegay, and a rail line is built from Dakar inland toward the mineral deposits. Aluminium production grows this year and port facilities are modernized to facilitate its export.
  • Vinland: Two newly raised brigades are sent to the front to help Borelia against Avalon.
  • SR of the Rhineland: Supreme Leader Shutzenhelm demands a full crackdown on Anti-Rhenish Communists and sets up the People's Department of National Security, a Secret Police enforced with the capture, interrogation and execution of Enemy's to the State. News on the Cholera outbreak is light in Rhineland, but is spreading. The People's Department of Health set up hundreds of areas for medical examination and it is announced that every citizen, infected or healthy, is to report to the nearest heal checkpoint. Borders are closed, no one in, no one out, until the issue is solved. Those with Cholera are quarantined depending on how severe it is, and given the best medical treatment the country has to offer. They also use this time to advance medical studies. The country also demands that any foods should be cleaned thoroughly when delivered to a market and when taken home. They are not sure if the water is contaminated, so citizens are told not to drink tap water or bathe, or do anything else with unpurified city water for about one hour. The People's Department of Water took a food inspection of the water supply. It was only lightly contaminated and nothing to worry about now. Rhineland is extremely happy with the offer Iberica has offered and gladly accepts. Supreme Leader Leader Shutzenhelm goes there himself and comes back with a newly found fleet, which is now docked in Frederickshaven (OTL Wilhelmshaven). The build up of the military is continued. Men are going to the army with pride for there country. The army is about 650,000-strong now due to conscription. It will soon be larger. The research of Land Ships is being done, a heavily armored vehicle with a Heavy Cannon and multiple MGs. Another mysterious murder, Gonst Vonskit, a Polish man, is murdered, and the investigation is again, dismissed. Costal defenses are being built, along with land defenses. Supreme Leader wishes to again meet with Queen of Burgundy to discuss the growing distress of the Marsanist and Syndicalists.
    • Just so you know, cholera is only communicated through infected water/feces, and so isn't communicable by contact. ~Hdjensofjfnen
  • Texas: Aaron Burr of the Democratic Party wins the elections. Most Texans support the war, due to the fact the industrialists of the "gilded age" have more resources to exploit, and that the "cattle ranchers" of the Democratic support base will have better land to farm and graze animals on. Cowboy culture continues to develop, including a notable cowboy, Jesse James. He has been robbing banks and outposts, and is wanted "Dead or Alive." Yet he is known as a "Texan Robin Hood." General John Bell Hood, a war respected general leads the front against Avalon, however, demanding his troops be separated "from these damn Mehicans." While a general distaste for Aztlans exists, they are seen as beneficial in defeating Avalon and getting more land. They come to be known in Texas society as "useful idiots," compared to the Avalon reputation as "useless idiots."
    • Aztlan: We are willing to separate our troops from the Texan army. However, we would like General Hood to acknowledge that we are Aztlans, and not Mehicans. (The adjective "Mehican" refers to the regime before the revolution of 1824-5.)
    • OCC: Vinny, it actually wasn't meant that way and more of a term related to native Aztec power and government of the "new era."
      • "Vinny"? I'm Hdjensofjfnen.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The Naval victory over Britain is widely celebrated as news of it becomes known. The official name given by the Navy is “The Battle off the Isle of Sicily” to give the impression to the public the battle occurred in British waters even though it took place well out in the English Channel. The British battleship HMS Johnson was captured after damage prevented her from escaping with the rest of the Royal Navy and her crew failed to scuttle her. As such, she is the first major warship to be captured by the Burgundian Navy in over a hundred years. As the first fleet engagement between battle lines of iron and steel battleships, every report, from that of the fleet’s commander - Vice Admiral Wëllem St-Lauwens - to those of gun captains are analyzed scrupulously. One item of disappointment, is the dismal performance of SMS Elisabeth de Eisens 16” rifles, with a safe life expectancy of 75 shots. Because so, the flagships main battery had to cease fire after only 300 total shots were fired, a milestone reached somewhat early in the engagement. It is noted of the possible morale effect the flagship keeping her guns silent during a battle would have, and so Elisabeth de Eisen is earmarked to be refitted with the 14” rifles her sisters have after the war. Another conclusion reached is that the seakeeping abilities of future battleship classes must be improved, and any range advantage their guns would have would be negated by the need to close distance in rough seas. The best way to do this, it is decided, is to increase the freeboard of these future battleships, and as such the design of the Ersatz Kinnig Wëllem II-class is adjusted accordingly. The battle also proved the obsolescence of muzzle-loading rifles, as the V Battle Squadron (all equipped with muzzle-loaders), with lower range and slower rate of fire, were the last to engage the Royal Navy. The replacement of these as frontline warships then becomes a new priority for the navy. The victory raises the morale and national pride of the population and their willingness to fight, as it capped off a string of victories from the new world. As such, when the States-General issues a call for 200,000 volunteers to form a second expeditionary force, the ranks fill up quickly, and the force departs for New Amsterdam to lead the push toward New Gwynnedd. A sizable portion of these are Rhenish Germans, hoping to find land to claim as their own after the war. An additional 50,000 troops from Kuba, and 100,000 from Guyana reinforce the armies in Maryland for their push into Savannah. Queen Mary agrees to meet with the Rhenish Supreme Leader to discuss courses of action over the Marsanists and communists. Meanwhile, German immigrant Karl Vaillant and his wife Bertha open the Vaillant Motor Company, the first private automobile company in Burgundy.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: “Well... we are screwed” says King Muhammad Ali III not talking about getting assassinated, and instead is talking about the deadly plague going around. He and his prime minister work together to defeat this plague, and send out an order for the best doctors in the Kingdom to be rounded up, decontaminated and sent to the major cities, along with Cairo, which reports say is also experiencing the plague. Humanitarian sites and mini-hospitals are set up all around the major cities once the doctors get there, and immediately people rush to bring their loved ones to get treated. Death toll rises to 20,000, soon to reach 30,000. Parliament gets united in a coalition to deal with the plague. For the first time in decades, the nation is truly united. Everyone in Egypt is ordered to go get a checkup, and local clinics are set up in villages to enforce this. We request Arabia and Egypt work together, from a medical union, and help each other out during these troubling times. (Nate response needed at most!).
    • Arab Dip: The Shay Al-Nass officially sanctions the creation of the Arab Medical Union, a non-profit intergovernmental organization to promote medical science within the Arab world.
  • French Empire: Colonial exports continue, as Nigeria is proclaimed a crown colony of the French Empire. Paris, and France in general, remains somewhat secured from the plague, primarily because of the more domestic isolationism and the closed borders that accompany the isolationist policy. The Gauthier guns become more modernized and more lightweight in their primary form. These advances, that have been consistantly made over the past two decades, allow for the creation of a handheld and one-person operated gauthier gun-type weapon. This new weapon, titled the Rigal machine gun (OTL Madsen machine gun), was created under the premise to hopefully allow for "machine guns to walk", in addition to have them make a more impactful scene in sieges and non-trench warfare. The offer to war against the British is dismissed after the death of King Louis-Napoleon, who is replaced by his heir and successor, Louis-Napoleon "Napoleon IV", who gains the titles of Emperor of France and King of Francia. His son, Victor-Napoleon, becomes the "Prince Imperial", and thus becomes the new heir to the throne. As a young adult, he takes interest in language and foreign culture, learning Iberian, Italian and the German languages and taking a more direct role in funding the development of French Mali and French South Africa, going as far as using some Iberian-French infrastructural hybrid designs in Mali. The new infrastructure and cult of personality that he has created for himself makes him widely popular across French Africa. The Solomon Islands are further colonized. The Elephant Cigarette Company sees very large expansion as more and more of the cigarettes are found across French Africa, and additionally the world. Defensives lines are updated.
  • Imperial Swahili Federation: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespreadAgricultural modernization continues in Swahili. Further industrialization continues. The sudden increase of the urban population from both industrialization and liberation of the slaves, meant that the epidemic struck Swahili quite devastatingly. Fortunately, the historic traditions of medical practice, originally devised from preventive medicine before voyages and expeditions into the jungle, and the net of multiple innovative madrassahs, meant that medication was soon developed and produced in Ibo (not particularly effective, but still fairly good medication), which has long produced quinine and other medications with cooperation with the Madrassah of Ibo. The Sultan also passes a law, incentivising the construction of clinics, both private or public, in every town of Swahili. The Southern line begins construction and the newly constructed trading fleet proves competitive with its modern designs, including faster speed and greater cargo storage. Following the civil war, new military organisation is developed in Swahili. A second convention is planned to be held next year to discuss a reformed parliament.
    • Sefuwa: The colonies of Swahili continue development and expansion.
  • Great Empire of China–Korea: China–Korea continues to see a flourishing of both popular and folk culture. Ballet and theatrical plays continue to gain widespread popularity, while enrollment in the country's various music academies (most notably the Seoul Music Academy) booms due to an increased interest in orchestra. The Toll of the Sea, a tragedy whose plot revolves around a Chinese prostitute and her French lover, becomes a massive hit with multiple productions being each simultaneously. The historical drama Mister Sunshine revolves around the Anglo–Burgundian Intervention, with the two protagonists being a Chinese officer in the British Navy and the daughter of a bureaucrat. Gone with the Wind, which is also an epic historical romance–drama, sees success as well. Set in the mid-17th century during the Jin Conquest of Tali, it revolves around Su Jiale, and her romantic pursuit of Ha Sheli (who is later married to his cousin, Mei Lani), and her subsequent marriage to Le Balie. The latter in-particular sees critical acclaim upon its release, with critics praising emphasis on characterization rather than plot events to further the plot. The demand (and production) of record players continues to rise exponentially, due to the popularity of new music genres, especially among the urban youth. Korean-language artist Ma Raya continues to experience massive popularity with the release of her self-titled album last year, with her debut single "Vision of Love", a sentimental ballad, managing to sell millions of copies. She starts writing and producing her highly-anticipated second studio album, "Emotions", which is to be released next year. The four-member Jade Shards, from the same parent company, also debut and are notable for their harmonization, and utilization of percussion and piano in their instrumentals. Their single "Uptown" sees strong sales and manages to reach the second position on music charts, though the album itself does not fare as well. Educational attainment rises, with virtually all children within schooling age enrolled. Primary and junior high school (a period spanning nine years) is compulsory, with the curriculum centering on the core subjects of mathematics (arithmetic, geometry and algebra), language and literature, general sciences, history, and geography. In addition, there is a course teaching morality along Confucian lines, as well as two electives. The urban youth begin taking senior high school, which is seen as preparation for university. The adult schooling campaign also sees success, and the literacy rate has risen to 85%, with all except elderly being literate. Rapid industrialization and economic modernization continue. The textiles and chemicals sectors continue to be China-Korea's main industries, though the steel, machinery, locomotives, cement, and glass-making sectors are also prominent due to the infrastructural boom. Telecommunications and railway lines are built, connecting all major cities and their satellite towns, therefore stimulating commerce. The construction of basic infrastructure is complete, with the establishment of extensive telecommunications and transportation networks, implementation of arc lamps into all public spaces, and the establishment of complex waste drainage and plumbing systems. The Imperial Navy now consists of 54 warships, of which 34 are ironclad. The Bohai Fleet (the sole regional fleet) now consists of the following: three pre-dreadnought battleships, seven cruisers, eight destroyers, sixteen frigates, and twenty corvettes. Arms production continues to grow rapidly, with bolt-action rifles (the locally-developed TJ-83s) and their carbine derivatives, field artillery (steel rifle-barrelled breech-loaders), rapid-fire guns, as well as their respective ammunition being produced. The standing army remains at one million active personnel.
    • Tibet (protectorate): Civic buildings are constructed in the capital of Lhasa, which is inhabited by ~20,000 residents. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. Major crops include wheat and rye. A garrison of a single brigade (~500) is stationed there, armed with Needle Rifles.
    • Altishahria (protectorate): More mining facilities are opened in Aksu, exploiting the Tarim basin's mining resources. Lucrative minerals such as soda, borax and jade are the country's main exports to China–Korea. In addition to grains, cash crops are grown - specifically grapes, melons, pears, and walnuts. There is a ranching boom, with many former pastoralists establishing enclosures for livestock. The main product is wool (from sheep), with processing facilities established in the capital and other major cities as preparation for further processing in China–Korea's textile mills. Korla becomes Altishahria's largest city due to continuous migration and its position as a major break-of-bulk point, with a total of ~100,000 inhabitants. As a result, the Altishahr government relocates there, and various civic buildings are constructed. A garrison of two divisions (~20,000) is stationed there, armed with Needle Rifles.
    • Dzungaria (protectorate): Civic buildings are constructed in the capital of Ghulka, which is inhabited by ~20,000 residents. With the discovery of rich extensive oil deposits in the area, the government establishes the Dzungar Oil Company and begins drilling, with the aid of Sino–Korean capital and equipment. Oil refineries are built nearby and supply energy to Dzungaria itself and northwest China, and to provide kerosene (via distillation) for street lamps. A garrison of twelve divisions (~120,000) is present, armed with Needle Rifles. The bulk of this military force is stationed in the Dzungarian Gate, which is heavily fortified due to its position as the sole overland entry point into Western China.

1888

The largest library in Europe is opened by private investors in Attina (Athens) by wealthy aristocrats and scholars from all across Europe.

Many Russians rally against further intervention in their former colony hoping to not waste their newfound wealth and industrial potential on a far away war with an already far gone colony

The Cholera outbreak continues throughout Europe expanding into Western and Central Europe hitting many heavily populated cities. This forces many nations to reconsider their sanitation infrastructure in cities.

Syndicalist, Communists and Marsanists continue to crop up across Central and Western Europe forming trade unions and other major actors for socialism. Nations with accepted Syndicalist elements seem to be unaffected as their progressive policy and involvement in government keeps the radical elements at bay.

The Mapuche continue to industrialize opening more and more factories and importing much equipment from Europe - specifically from Britain, Belka and France.

  • Ethiopian Empire: After three years of further steam development, most small-to-medium factories run on Ethiopian steam. This also leads to the first Ethiopian ironclad built in Port Theodore. So coastal villages see more tourists as naturalists paint beautiful scenes of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The military unveils a new domestic rifle called the E1888 which follows the short rifle format of the last two service rifles. More rail is built around the nation, while more roads are also built. We ask Belka for a national telegraph system. (Player Response) More university branches are opened in more rural areas to encourage a city building system based around educational institutions.
    • Belkan Dip: We Agree
  • Belkan Empire: The Empire continues to see its development internally as its northern infrastructure projects reach completion and more thoroughly link the Carpathian, Transylvanian and Moldavian regions with the core sectors of the empire. Standing at a population of 93 million and effectively out of land to settle within the home regions, the outflow of Belkans specifically to colonies such as the Maghreb begins. Richer businessmen and aristocrats flow to colonies where their opportunities would be better and places like Macau and Hong Kong see an influx of nearly 25,000 Belkans this year. Damietta, a leased port and being close, and the hub of Belkan trade in Egypt also sees its population grow from a modest trading city and military post to the city becoming a modern Belkan city with nearly 65,000 alone this year arriving to settle in the cities underutilized and underdeveloped districts. By far, however, Belkan Maghreb sees the largest influx with nearly 150,000 settlers this year as its open lands and profitable industries make it an attractive location. The main settlement location sees itself in Tunis with Tunis Harbor starting to develop thoroughly into one of the largest ports on the African continent. With some syndicalist sympathies in the government, the Belkan Supreme Soviet extends an offer of an independence guarantee to Poland. The 1871 naval program is officially scrapped as the 1885 program is established looking to increase the Belkan navy into a force of nearly 250 ships at the cost of being able to effectively deploy a large amount of Belkan manpower. It is estimated that the effective troop strength with Belka so focused on the Navy would be 2.5 million men at peak efficiency while any further raising of troops would be of lower quality or reservists. The amassing of military and exploratory units into Belkan claims in Africa continues with nearly 10,000 men organized into exploratory missions throughout the African interior specifically hoping to map a major route from Belkan Zaire to Belkan Kanem. The Belkan government authorizes the sale of the MK1 and MK2 Needle Rifles to both Egypt and Arabia seeking to modernize its allies and those in its sphere of influence. The Belkan government officially dismantles Belkan East Asia as a unified entity and splits it into directly controlled overseas cities of Durestov and Macau and establishes separate colonial governments for Manila and Burma. Belkan construction of the Chinese ships to be delivered next year nears completion. The outbreak of Cholera looks to have killed upwards of 750,000 people in its first year and its expected another 400,000 will die this year however a huge emergency spending measure is put down to improve sanitation across the entirety of the European empire. Belka also agrees to help egypt with its own sanitation and disease problems
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is explored further as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against them. The exploration up the Congo River continues as does expansion. Zaire's first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the coast expanding the rubber boom further. The Colony of Zaire is allowed a colonial milita force of roughly 30,000 with reserves of 400,000 able to be recruited as the Belkan military garrison begins to follow the same policies as Belkan Maghreb.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
      Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment of and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins to explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The region's population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route - which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begins with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west and now lands to the east and south.
    • Governate of Manila: The Governate of Manila now officially split off as its own separate colonial entity is able to more effectively capitalize on its resources and population. Interestingly enough, Manila has seen a rapid and dynamic industrialization as its connection into the Belkan system and its status as Belka's model colony has seen it gain the vast majority of East Asian investment, settlement and attention. With a population now reaching 17 million the influx of industrialization into Manila sees a push in its population which begins to boom with access to modern medicine, technology, new railways and transport, and the official abolition of the feudal system in Manila in favor of a provincial system centered around the well-defended triplicate of colonial governing sites on the main islands.
    • Governate of Burma: The governate of Burma becomes known as the "mountain of jewels" to the Belkan empire as its extraction of precious gems becomes known all across the empire and even the world. Its cities begin to more fully and effectively urbanize in the face of Belkan modernization attempts, and the building of industry under Belkan ownership sees the colony become much more profitable.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civilians continue to move into working there. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures throughout the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction it reaches completion this year as the two colonial capitals are officially linked over land. Other railways are also constructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis which wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. The need for a colonial army becomes apparent - and funded by domestic budget, the Maghrebi colonial army is formed around a force of 50,000 with a large reserve of nearly 300,000 that can be conscripted within a short period. They are trained with older equipment but arsenals of modern guns are kept under control in the Tunis and Algiers Citadel held by the Belkan crown garrisons.
  • Republica Ibérica: The cholera outbreak continues, but as in last year, the Iberian water systems help to prevent absolute catastrophe. Sanitation efforts continue with modifications made to the water systems that help prevent contamination. These improvements help mitigate the danger in the smaller cities, but Barcelona, Madrid and Lisbon still suffer. The population is estimated to be 46.90 million. Literacy rates in Iberia continue to climb steadily, especially among the young. The economy experiences strong growth this year as internal demand leads to greater production of household goods. High international demand and the huge government contract for ships means that the shipyards of Catalonia remain busy. Welding expertise drives innovative designs and advances in the shipbuilding industry. Work continues on the construction of four new battle-cruisers and six more protected cruisers which are expected to be finished in 1889. Production of the Sandoval Model 1880 continues, and the majority of the armed forces has been re-equipped. The National Assembly determines that mandatory service should increase to a reserve of 750,000 rather than 500,000. Furthermore, the standing army is increased to 250,000, with another 50,000 expeditionary troops. These increases will take place over the next year. The Model 1886 Garzo-Rosel Machine Gun enters full scale production. The guns prove very popular with the troops thanks to their high rate of fire and relatively light weight. Expeditionary forces receive a lightened version of the gun with a limited rate of fire.
    • Republica de Morocco: The first national census is administered to the Republic, and the population is found to be 8.28 million. The economy of Morocco continues to grow rapidly due to Iberian investment and technical aid. Wages hover at just about 78% of those in Iberia, but are rising. The steel industry expands rapidly as does the rail network. Phosphate production becomes a major sector of the Moroccan economy as does the synthesis of phosphorus fertilizer. Agricultural mechanization along with water conservation and management projects lead to aggressive growth in the agricultural sector. Reformist Maghrebi Islam spreads with government support. Meanwhile, the educational reforms of the previous few years have contributed to rising literacy.
      • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite it. The population of Algeria reaches 4.82 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 1,350,000 are European. A huge wave of Iberian migrants reaches Algeria this year. Algerian migration to Morocco continues en masse to escape the poverty of interior Algeria.. The interior economy remains very poor with limited adoption of modern technology. Meanwhile, along the coast and in Mostaganem there is rapid development as European migrants begin implementing modern farming, manufacturing, and financial methods from their homes.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of salt and sugar production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice and rubber production. Educational reforms spread as the government promotes literacy and basic mathematics.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic continues expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Gold and other minerals constitute the major economic sector in Senegay. Aluminium production grows this year and port facilities are modernized to facilitate its export.
  • Vinland: Vinland invites all Arcadian members to celebrate reaching one million population. The election is held as usual and Prime Minister Anon Gustavsson is reelected with 67.87% of the votes.
  • FS of Arcadia: A Polish immigrant called Konstanty Gruca or by his pen name Paulus Krakowic wrote a book as reaction to the Polish politics of Marsanism which in the begining he agreed with. He was, in his younger years, known as a good student and he in his native Poland learned much about politics. His favorite were history and philosophy. Coming a rich farming family getting well educated he also had a grasp of Latin, German and even Old Church Slavonic and Russian. When he was in the cities and met the urban poor he saw how bad their living was, his Marsanist teaching taught him that they should unite and have common property - but after discussions with one of his university teachers, he began to disagree with it. He began to question if many must suffer for those who do not take what they can and just wait for others to give it to them. Paulus questioned why do they not take what they want. After these disagreements and his fears of the Marsanists made him move to the FSA where he settled after living in Burgundy and then Texas. The book called Unser Eigentum (our property) was written. In this book he writes how he believes that the only way to live is following materialistic needs of yourself. Critique on Religion is Great as he claims it tries to forbid the want of material and ownership over everything you want,and in the book it has been said "Religion is what tries to rid humans of property." His critique on religion also goes on how it makes people believe in a greater being which he says is even wrong due to human evolution wanting only the best and that religion tries to make men small and achieve nothing at all. With his idea of Marsanism being that it is a version of religion but worse due to it actually by design being against private ownership and joy in his opinion. He also speaks out against languages and believe humans should just speak one to unite men and all their minds. All believe to restrict humans and should be banned from yourself. They are only inventions and spooks of the mind which have been created by culture and religion and even Marsism which tries to enslave you into believing this, even if they try to deny it. The last sentence of the book is "Take want you want and want what you can take". Life in his opinion is only to make when free from limitations of spooks and from the moment spooks are no more existant can someone pursue materialistic wants and needs. Due to the behavior of bordering nations our government begins the small nation policy where all nations in Arcadia will defended from any agresion no matter their politics to our country. This is done to keep the Balance of Arcadia so that peace and democracy in all nations will be there. Our army also seeks contractors from all over the world to get new army materiel such as guns, uniforms, boots and ways to conserve food  (Player responses). Our navy also begins to build more boats in cities like New Constantinople. In total ten more ships are being built with most being made to explore and go long distances. These ships are not yet the best but are planned to improve when new contractors come to Arcadia.
  • Aztlan: Aztlan celebrates its 100th year of independence, and celebrations are held throughout the country, with the most notable in Merida (where several blanks are fired from a frigate docked there.) As for matters in New England, struggles in crossing the Appalachian Mountains result in the loss of 8000 men out of 50,000. The remaining troops march toward New Essex (OTL Cape Charles, VA). Meanwhile, the 12,000 convoyed men land on the British half of OTL Hispaniola and begin their assault. In other dealings, Aztlan tries to buy Baja California from Providence for what would be today in OTL 75 million dollars. (Mod) Also, Benito I offers to host the next Arcadian Games in Tenochtitlan. (Borealia, Arcadia, Texas, Vinland) In an attempt to prevent a possible cholera transmittance to Aztlan, the government works on trying to help the impoverished find the nearest source of clean food and water. However, these attempts are rudimentary at best.
    • Arcadian Diplomacy: Our government warns the Aztlans that they see any taking of land from providence even if peaceful will not be tolerated and seen as aggression from the Aztlan aggression and a bid to disrupt the balance of power on the continent.
      • Aztlan Diplomacy: Benito I, slightly frustrated, attempts to advise the Arcadians to try to perceive the Pan-Arcadian Congress as a single united and allied entity, and see the purchase of land from Providence as beneficial to the union as a whole.
      • Arcadian Diplomacy: Our government disagrees and sees it as an action that would unbalance the power of balance of this region. One of the reasons our government allowed the Aztlan nation into the congress was to prevent their expansion in that region. So we notice that we will not allow any land gain at the expense of Providence.
  • SR of the Rhineland: The Cholera issue has died down a bit due to the quarantines, treatments and sanitisations. Supreme Leader meets with Queen Mary to discuss the fact of the leftist groups and the threat they pose. He suggest both countries deal with the issue immediately. Meanwhile in Rhineland, Leftist crackdowns have been taken to extreme levels. Polizei and Volkspolizei are given the right to kill any person suspected of Anti-Rhenish activity. These acts become known as Slaughters on the Rhine, and are used as propaganda to depopularize the leftist groups. Rhineland inquires Belka if they have any naval ships they are willing to sell to the Rhineland With a slight shortage in fuel, German Scientist Otto Himsik develops steam powerplants, powered with water and heat, and is successful. Otto is made Head Scientist of the Rhine. Steam factories and steam transport as those become popular and Steam begins to reform the Rhine as it leaks into the military. Armored "Walkers" and such begin to be researched and prototyped.
  • Great Empire of China–Korea: The 1887 Elections results in Li Hongzhang securing his third term as Prime Minister. China-Korea remains a one-party dominant state, with the Populist Party forming the majority of the Grand Secretariat, while the remaining being independents. However, the Populist Party begins to split into noticeable two (conservative and liberal) factions, differing on the issues of morality laws, government intervention in the economy, and diplomatic policy. The recent cholera crisis in the Western Hemisphere sees the Grand Secretariat increase funding for infrastructural growth, as well as place regulations on traffic to and from affected countries. The sewage system and indoor plumbing are expanded in urban areas while being extended into rural areas. Ma Raya's second album "Emotions" is released but surprisingly peaks at only number two. The Jade Shards also release their second studio album "He's A Rebel", and peaks at number one, preventing "Emotions" from taking the top spot. The demand (and production) of record players continues to rise exponentially, due to the popularity of new music genres, especially among the urban youth. Traditional European arts such as orchestra, ballet and theatre continue to flourish. Educational attainment rises, with increasing enrollment into imperial universities. Rapid industrialization and economic modernization continue. The textiles and chemicals sectors continue to be China-Korea's main industries, though the steel, machinery, locomotives, cement, and glass-making sectors are also prominent due to the infrastructural boom. Telecommunications and railway lines are built, connecting all major cities and their satellite towns, therefore stimulating commerce. The Imperial Navy now consists of 64 warships, of which 44 are ironclad. The Guangzhou Fleet is established, consisting of the following: a single pre-dreadnought, three cruisers, four destroyers, and twelve corvettes (a total of 20 vessels). The Bohai Fleet, meanwhile, consists of the following: two pre-dreadnoughts, six cruisers, eight destroyers, 20 frigates, and eight corvettes (a total of 44 vessels). Arms production continues to grow rapidly, with bolt-action rifles (the locally-developed TJ-83s) and their carbine derivatives, field artillery (steel rifle-barrelled breech-loaders), rapid-fire guns, as well as their respective ammunition being produced. The standing army remains at one million active personnel.
    • Tibet (protectorate): Civic buildings are constructed in the capital of Lhasa, which is inhabited by ~20,000 residents. Sedentary living is encouraged, with the little available arable land being intensively cultivated. Major crops include wheat and rye. A garrison of a single brigade (~5000) is stationed there, armed with Needle Rifles.
    • Altishahria (protectorate): More mining facilities are opened in Aksu, exploiting the Tarim basin's mining resources. Lucrative minerals such as soda, borax and jade are the country's main exports to China–Korea. In addition to grain, cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears, and walnuts. There is a ranching boom, with many former pastoralists establishing enclosures for livestock. The main product is wool (from sheep), with processing facilities established in the capital and other major cities as preparation for further processing in China–Korea's textile mills. Korla becomes Altishahria's largest city due to continuous migration and its position as a major break-of-bulk point, with a total of ~100,000 inhabitants. As a result, the Altishahr government relocates there, and various civic buildings are constructed. A garrison of two divisions (~20,000) is stationed there, armed with Needle Rifles.
    • Dzungaria (protectorate): Civic buildings are constructed in the capital of Ghulka, which is inhabited by ~20,000 residents. With the discovery of rich extensive oil deposits in the area, the government establishes the Dzungar Oil Company and begins drilling, with the aid of Sino–Korean capital and equipment. Oil refineries are built nearby and supply energy to Dzungaria itself and northwest China, and to provide kerosene (via distillation) for street lamps. A garrison of twelve divisions (~120,000) is present, armed with Needle Rifles. The bulk of this military force is stationed in the Dzungarian Gate, which is heavily fortified due to its position as the sole overland entry point into Western China.
  • Kingdom of Arabia: Industrialization continues, as does the modernazatino of both the military and the full recruitment of the military. A naval plan is drawn up to construct four battleships over the next seven years, placed in the Red Sea ports of Jeddah and Aden. We ask China to arrange a joint Trans-Asiatic conference in a place of their choosing, which will include the nations of Persia, Oman, Afghanistan, Minor Turkish States, and whatever states China wishes to invite themselves. Cricket and rugby are two national sports that are widely popular. Comic books are written based on the Arabian nights. The Library at the House of Wisdom is massively expanded, with a general call to update its contents of books from around the globe, particularly from Britain, Japan, Australia, Brazil and Arcadia. At the same House of Wisdom, a group of scientists collectively determines that the Universe is, in fact, expanding at an increasing rate, and physics begin to investigate the nature of this phenomenon as a means of measuring the shape of the universe itself.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: We continue to set up clinics in our major cities. We close off the capital, Alexandria, to the outside world and no one can go in or out. Mass quarantining of people who are suspected and are confirmed to have cholera takes place. We request some Belkan aid to deal with this outbreak, but understand if they can’t as they are dealing with it as well. (FEUD RESPONSE NEEDED)
  • Imperial Swahili Federation: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespreadAgricultural modernization continues in Swahili. Further industrialization continues. More rail lines are being planned, while a telegraph line is first constructed from Zanzibar to Dar Es Salaam. Sewer facilities are being constructed in Zanzibar-Dar Es Salaam, and several opera houses are also constructed. With the rapid modernization, the historic manga artform approaches a renaissance as it become popular reading material for the working class. A new military system is developed, with a core federal army and navy commanded from Zanzibar and loyal to the Emperor, which is supported by militias and regional militaries. This military structure allows different regions to develop highly specialized militaries. For example, Aliwa and Rowzi will be famed for their mountain infantry. A newly reformed parliamentary system is devised in Swahili, based on each federated state holding a certain number of representatives in the two houses of the parliament. The Emperor remains head of state.
    • Sefuwa: The colonies of Swahili continue development and expansion.
  • Brésil: The draft is cancelled, not wanting to see another New Bordeaux occur. The coast is still patrolled, and material support is still sent to Aztlan via the Veracruz-Recife route. The propaganda office begins attempts to sway Brésilian public in favor of interventionism in Arcadia and Laurentia. Industry is booming, the shipyards are almost complete, and immigration continues, but at a lesser extent due to the war.
    • Aztlan Diplomacy: Aztlan thanks Brésil for its support in the war greatly. "This is a pact," Benito I says, "that will hopefully outlive the two of us."
  • Texas: Aaron Burr exits the Pan Arcadian Congress for Neutrality. It is revealed that Aaron Burr was forced to join the war, something Aaron Burr capitalizes on for political points.
  • Russia: Following the unexpected public opposition to our pressure on the FSA, the Russian government decides to back down on its claims on land north of the Columbia River, instead focusing on new infrastructure projects within our borders. Subsidies to the Russian Hawaiian Islands Company continue, however. Also back at home, the government launches a new propaganda campaign combating far-left ideologies such as communism and syndicalism, citing that the great prosperity brought upon our realm has resulted from our current economic system.
    • Russian Hawaiian Islands Company: We continue to buy up more and more assets in the Hawaiian Islands, and fund infrastructure projects in Hawaii. A recent development has been the utilization of company land in order to construct, with subsidies and help from the Russian government, a company-owned factory in Honolulu. The RHIC extends an offer to the Hawaiian government: if they are willing to sign for a 20-year lease on the sovereignty of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, the RHIC will build up the infrastructure and create economic prosperity on the two islands. (MOD RESPONSE REQUIRED)
  • Borealia: The war ends the previous year (1887), and 1888 begins with the country at peace, with the Treaty of New Gwynedd being signed. The additional 100,000 men that had been waiting in our territory as reserves also had joined the fighting in the final months, adding an additional force to the push into New England. The majority of our reserves are demobilized, but a standing army remains in the occupied territory to aid in the transitional period. The provinces of Bovenstland, Karelina, Versland, Lorentia, and Ontario are all expanded in some way to make more natural borders, while the majority of the territory is set aside to create new states. The Bilzen enclave is to be admitted as a new state as of 1888, as is the territory south of Ontario. Former governor and famed former hockey star, Johannes Siberg of the Liberal Party, is elected Prime Minister on a platform contrary to the Democrats, calling for an end to jingoism within the nation. He also begins working to repair relations with the neighboring states, although this is initially not well supported. Within the nation integrating the new states with railroad lines and other infrastructure begins. The third Burgundian Games are also held this year in Brussels, Burgundy.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: with the end of the war, the first of the troops arrive home victorious, though some have remained behind to help Borealia and Maryland garrison their new territories until they’re under firm control, and some had wished to stay to settle on lands in the new world. The navy has a victory fleet review, though Queen Mary is unable to attend and so her children Crown Prince Eduard and Princess Viktoria attend in her place. Afterwards, the V Battle Squadron - consisting of the old muzzle-loader equipped battleships Verwoester, Donnerwieder, Woede, Medway, and Elba - are put into reserve until they can be re-armed with breech-loading guns. The battleship Elisabeth de Eisen is put into dry dock so her short-living 16” rifles can be replaced with the 14” guns her sisters carry. The Monarch-class battleships Frederik de Staark and Wëllem de Juist are reassigned to Malta, along with the IV Battle squadron - battleships Texel, Ameland, Terschelling, Emmen, and Steinbeurg - to form the battle line of the Mediterranean fleet. The new battleships Ostend and Skagerrak are launched this year, and expected to enter service next year. While preparations are finalized for the Burgundian Games, it is announced that Queen Mary has passed away. A week of mourning is announced by the States-General, and thousands attend her funeral. Prince Eduard ascends to the throne as King Eduard I. A hardline conservative, Eduard had made a name for himself by cozying up with similarly conservative members of the Lords, and it’s been expected he’ll try to expand the powers of the House of Lords at the expense of the Senate and House of Representatives. However, through the Burgundian Games he is barely visible, showing for the larger events such as rugby and football, and even then only briefly. It’s unknown why until three months after Queen Mary’s death, when it’s announced King Eduard has also passed away due to cancer of the throat. As he had no issue by his wife, Margaret of Nassau, the crown passes to his sister, Viktoria. Although an avowed pacifist, she is a believer of peace through superior force, alleviating concerns she’ll order cuts to the army and navy. Meanwhile, Bertha Vaillant, wife of Karl Vaillant, the owner of Vaillant Motor Company, makes the first long distance journey by automobile, traveling 70 miles to a friend's house in Breda. The trip gets nationwide attention, as no other automobile had made such a trip before. That it happened during the Burgundian Games helps get the Vaillants' attention from across the Atlantic, and soon the couple is opening a new shop to cope with the increased orders.

1889

The Cholera outbreak spreads East to Russia and farther west now having reached Britain and Iberia, respectively.

 Albeit, it does begin to die down in its initially infected regions due to the improvements in sanitation

A series of recoil-operated machine guns are invented concurrently in all of Europe's major powers within just a few years of each other.

Rugby begins to become one of the primary sports in Europe as many regional minor leagues form to challenge each other across Europe with the most notable game being between an Iberian Team and a French Team with the match drawing record numbers of attendants.

Hawaii declines the Russian offer attempting very obviously to remain more independent of Russian Affairs.

Angered at the end of the so-called Commonwealth war and what they feel to be an annexation and a kin to being nothing more than an enslaved people in lands taken by Borealia and Burgundy. In London, a group of volunteers comprising both civilians and soldiers from Britain, New England, Avalon, Savannah and elsewhere across the English speaking world form the League of Empire Loyalists. Receiving heavy support to allow them to equip themselves with modern rifles, small artillery, horses and explosives they infiltrate into the occupied lands and start a guerrilla war primarily in Bilzen but across the occupied lands of Avalon, New England and Savannah with heavy support of the locals who join the insurgency and shelter the League attacking the occupying forces and any other foreign-looking people in hit and run raids.

Reprisal units are formed by the LoEL who carry out assassinations on pro-war/occupation politicians in Borealia only right now and businessmen and begin to start taking out quite a few.

  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The appearance of the League of Empire Loyalists raises questions as to how the matter should be dealt with. In the end, Queen Viktoria decides to take as subtle an approach as possible. Taking a cue from Belka’s response to the Austrian insurgency, small teams of frontiersmen turned specialized soldiers venture into the annexed territory of Maryland as counter-insurgents. The deployment of counter-insurgency forces instead of conventional troops means some element of success is had, through tracking and ambushes several cells are able to be destroyed. Those League members taken alive are treated as enemy spies, as are civilians caught aiding League members. Queen Viktoria confirms that the Maryland legislature will recognize the election of anti-annexation representatives, and as such when several are elected they take their seats. However, each representative of the Maryland legislature - not just the openly anti-annexation ones - is made to sign an acknowledgement that collaboration with the League of Empire Loyalists will constitute as treason. They are free to voice their disagreements and displeasure, but aiding a terrorist organization will not be tolerated. In naval matters, the first three of the Austrasien-class battleships (the official name given to the Ersatz Kinnig Wëllem II-class) are laid down. Five more are planned to be laid down. The old battleships Verwoester and Donnerwieder are re-armed with 16 breech-loading rifles and sent to Singapore by way of the Suez Canal, forming the new core of the East Indies Squadron. The similarly old Woede, Medway, and Elba, are slated to join them when their armament is replaced as well.
  • FS of Arcadia:The book " Unser Eigentum " Made a hit over time.In the first month only selling 500 copies but after the third month it was selling 2 500 books weekly .The book was mostly selling well to German and English comunity with it also getting a compacted version transelated Into Mzerkan Déne.Even With it being a hit in the southern states,Scollars even begin to discus some of the matters that weren't fully or not at all explained.These themes are how to spread these ideas and the implimentation of the Propeterial cause. The idea of minimalist guide is also hanging around where all human interaction are bassed on this minimum guide so that decency can in one way or form still exist.
  • Aztlan: With news reaching Tenochtitlan that the Commonwealth War is over, the army straggles its way back to the homeland, barely half as strong as before. Meanwhile, the 12,000 men en route to Haiti are hastily recalled. Overall, the war is a slight loss for the Aztlans, with no gain whatsoever. However, it's not a time to look back. With his final action as signing the Treaty of New Gwynedd, Benito I turns his power over to the new tripartite government, with Geronimo Fontes as Gran Gouvernor. The government quickly tries to advise people to get their water from wells and dump their waste in rivers. May this new era last!

Vinland: Vinland expands its army with two brigades. Following the victory in the commonwealth war the "Queen's Right Act is passed giving women the full right to vote and serve in the military.


  • Belkan Empire: The Empire continues to see its development internally as its northern infrastructure projects reach completion and more thoroughly link the Carpathian, Transylvanian and Moldavian regions with the core sectors of the empire. Standing at a population of 93 million and effectively out of land to settle within the home regions, the outflow of Belkans specifically to colonies such as the Maghreb begins. Richer businessmen and aristocrats flow to colonies where their opportunities would be better and places like Macau and Hong Kong see an influx of nearly 25,000 Belkans this year. Damietta, a leased port and being close, and the hub of Belkan trade in Egypt also sees its population grow from a modest trading city and military post to the city becoming a modern Belkan city with nearly 65,000 alone this year arriving to settle in the cities underutilized and underdeveloped districts. By far, however, Belkan Maghreb sees the largest influx with nearly 150,000 settlers this year as its open lands and profitable industries make it an attractive location. The main settlement location sees itself in Tunis with Tunis Harbor starting to develop thoroughly into one of the largest ports on the African continent. With some syndicalist sympathies in the government, the Belkan Supreme Soviet extends an offer of an independence guarantee to Poland. The 1871 naval program is officially scrapped as the 1885 program is established looking to increase the Belkan navy into a force of nearly 250 ships at the cost of being able to effectively deploy a large amount of Belkan manpower. It is estimated that the effective troop strength with Belka so focused on the Navy would be 2.5 million men at peak efficiency while any further raising of troops would be of lower quality or reservists. The amassing of military and exploratory units into Belkan claims in Africa continues with nearly 10,000 men organized into exploratory missions throughout the African interior specifically hoping to map a major route from Belkan Zaire to Belkan Kanem. The Belkan government authorizes the sale of the MK1 and MK2 Needle Rifles to both Egypt and Arabia seeking to modernize its allies and those in its sphere of influence. The Belkan government officially dismantles Belkan East Asia as a unified entity and splits it into directly controlled overseas cities of Durestov and Macau and establishes separate colonial governments for Manila and Burma. Belkan construction of the Chinese ships to be delivered next year nears completion. The outbreak of Cholera looks to have killed upwards of 750,000 people in its first year and its expected another 400,000 will die this year however a huge emergency spending measure is put down to improve sanitation across the entirety of the European empire. Belka also agrees to help egypt with its own sanitation and disease problems
  • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is explored further as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against them. The exploration up the Congo River continues as does expansion. Zaire's first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the coast expanding the rubber boom further. The Colony of Zaire is allowed a colonial milita force of roughly 30,000 with reserves of 400,000 able to be recruited as the Belkan military garrison begins to follow the same policies as Belkan Maghreb.
  • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment of and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins to explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The region's population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route - which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begins with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west and now lands to the east and south
  • Governate of Manila: The Governate of Manila now officially split off as its own separate colonial entity is able to more effectively capitalize on its resources and population. Interestingly enough, Manila has seen a rapid and dynamic industrialization as its connection into the Belkan system and its status as Belka's model colony has seen it gain the vast majority of East Asian investment, settlement and attention. With a population now reaching 17 million the influx of industrialization into Manila sees a push in its population which begins to boom with access to modern medicine, technology, new railways and transport, and the official abolition of the feudal system in Manila in favor of a provincial system centered around the well-defended triplicate of colonial governing sites on the main islands.
  • Governate of Burma: The governate of Burma becomes known as the "mountain of jewels" to the Belkan empire as its extraction of precious gems becomes known all across the empire and even the world. Its cities begin to more fully and effectively urbanize in the face of Belkan modernization attempts, and the building of industry under Belkan ownership sees the colony become much more profitable.
  • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civilians continue to move into working there. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures throughout the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction it reaches completion this year as the two colonial capitals are officially linked over land. Other railways are also constructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis which wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. The need for a colonial army becomes apparent - and funded by domestic budget, the Maghrebi colonial army is formed around a force of 50,000 with a large reserve of nearly 300,000 that can be conscripted within a short period. They are trained with older equipment but arsenals of modern guns are kept under control in the Tunis and Algiers Citadel held by the Belkan crown garrisons.

Footnotes

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  • Benin

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    • Eseseso, Benin slowly declined according to game Canon, first splitting into two states with Mali restored, than Mali got wrecked by morroco, ...
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  • Principia Moderni IV Algorithms

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    • This is exactly what stopped me from entering. I also don't know where I'm supposed to updates to my country.
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