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The Ming Dynasty still rules over the vast lands of China. On the other side of the world, the Hundred Years War continues between England and France. Europe is still stuck in the old ways of feudalism and chivalry while the notions of a New World are considered figments of the imagination.

We welcome you to the long-awaited fourth expansion of that immortal series. Welcome to Principia Moderni IV! Starting in 1400 AD, this is the dawn of the modern world and the tail end of the Middle Ages. The Renaissance is just kicking off in Europe, while the nations in the western side of the continent are locked in the last gasp of the Hundred Years War. The Muslim world is still reeling from the invasions of Turks and Mongols, with the Caliphate resting in the collapsing Mamluk Egypt and the Ottomans on the rise in Anatolia. Make it count.

The first game was the most successful on the wiki, leading all the way to the modern day with mostly plausible posts and little controversy. The second game reached almost to the modern day, but failed due to a plethora of ASB events and moderator bias. The third game was much more worthy of the first, almost running into implausibility but climbing back into a shining glory by the end. Riding on the latest reforms of map games since the end of PMIII, this is the most logical next step in that evolution. Remember, above all other rules, — have fun.

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The Map

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The Wildlings

All users currently on the wiki may play unless otherwise noted.

Banned Users

A ban from plausibility strikes lasts 30 days, after which the third strike is repealed and the banned player is unbanned. However, the newly unbanned player rejoins the game with two strikes, as a form of probation.

  • Bear - 1648

Banned temporarily

Plausibility Strikes

Three strikes and you're out! Each strike resets after 30 years of the most recent strike.

  • Fallacy I
  • Eljefe316 I

Moderator Strikes

These are strikes for moderators and how they moderate. The same three strikes rules apply. If a moderator is banned from moderating. However, they can still play as their nation. Mod strikes can be delivered in one of three ways:

  1. If a sufficient number of players (more than half of all players voting) vote to give a moderator a strike.
  2. If I, Scraw, give them a strike.
  3. If a majority of all mods (i.e., more than half of the total number of mods, excluding that moderator) vote to give a moderator a strike.

Moderators can be given strikes for the following reasons:

  1. Exhibiting bias that would benefit the nation they are playing.
  2. Exhibiting bias that would negatively affect a player they have a personal dispute with.
  3. Making a ruling that contradicts a proven fact from OTL or an established fact from earlier in the game.
  4. Overruling a decision of a majority of moderators.
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The Game

1870

Germanic immigration reaches a major high this year as nearly 500,000 people leave the combined Germanies for the New World. A large influx occurs into Brésil and Aztlan with a minority to other states

The new policies in Aztlan see more and more success as economic productivity skyrockets and the nation sports intense economic growth this year. The Development of her northern provinces with favorable settlement policy is noted for these successes.

Brésil, noted for its own industrial development, sees an industrial boom this year as it becomes an attractive target for immigration, investment and development.

Japan's civil war balloons out as the traditionalist faction hoping to score a serious victory this year suffers a disastrous setback as one of its main armies led by some of Japan's largest lords are defeated by the Imperial army outside Okazaki. The Imperial government now legally forcing the rebelling daimyo and other lords out of the Senate pass a multitude of reforms solidifying the government's hold on the loyal parts of the country. The Imperial armies success is attributed to Burgundian Artillery, and a mix of European weapons delivered to the force.

The Reactionary Faction within China, unhappy with China's adoption of its European benefactors' styles, systems and custom declares "The Mandate of Heaven is lost upon this Dynasty" and expands its power base significantly as many like-minded Chinese flock to their banners. However, some attempts at legitimate legal stopping of the Chinese modernization attempts occur through the Grand Secretariat.

In Novorossiya the settlers this year a predominantly Anglo Frontiersmen who settle in the Santa Cruz Mountains. They avoid much of the Russian authority in the region much for their lifestyle less than their unwillingness to work with the Russians. They do, however, establish an extremely amicable relationship with the natives of the Region. They establish several townships for their 6000 strong in number. 

The French and Swahili, unsuspecting of the extremely warlike nature of the Zulu, are caught off guard by guerrillas which fully impede administrative efforts into the Interior. Their extreme brutality and hostility to the garrisons are noted, and many troops refuse to challenge the Zulu guerrillas sticking to the well-controlled coasts. A notable French unit almost mutinies after refusing to march on the Interior before the Colonel in charge agrees it is too dangerous.

A second major bombing occurs in Trieste killing nearly 40 people as it brings down a theatre in the city. 

Swahili may begin industrialization.

  • Belkan Empire: Tsar Uliyam this year officially brings his son Crown Prince Petar Draculesti under his wing. At the age of ten he is taught heavily in many of the same programs that educated Uliyam who envisions the young crown prince as the carrier of the legacy of the Draculesti dynasty. This year a heavy debate takes place within the Supreme Soviet. The aristocratic elements argue that the current administration has given too much investment and potential issues within its colonies and that a more resource exploitative method needs to be brought about. This is, however, argued by the Royalist and Syndicalist parties who argue that their method - colloquially known as the Civilized uplift or Uplift method - should take precedence. Instead of breeding hatred and issues with colonial rule, the Belkan administration should embark on programs much like Egypt, preparing them for industrial society and using the colonies to fill niches the Belkan motherland cannot itself build with its domestic resources. The great debate takes place. However, in a final notice, many of the Aristocrats and upper-class members of the Supreme Soviet are unable to argue against the massive dividends they have received as a result of the economic model and their votes switch effectively bringing a nearly 80% majority in the Supreme Soviet for the full solidification of the current Belkan model. The fall of the Trieste Opera House galvanizes the Belkans against the insurgency in Austria which has many remembering the Great War in recent memory refusing to see their hard won victory squandered by insurgents. The Belkan army, now refusing to back down, takes the fight to Kruger in earnest with 30,000 troops deployed into the Alps in varying patrol routes and supply to effectively inundate Kruger with Belkan troops. A series of fierce alpine battles showcase Belka's mountain divisions in full force and many who are captured are summarily executed. Kruger, himself, is threatened as the Turkish Mountaineers - as they are now known - assault one of Kruger's main camps in the deep Alpine mountains. The Insurgents, led by Kruger, desperate after years of pursuit and brutal combat, take a stand in Kaltenbach in a valley below the Alps and fight the Belkan mountain divisions to a standstill. Kruger escapes following a second assault which collapses one of his main insurgent armies in the Alps which forces him to reconsider his insurgency against the Belkans in Austria. The Belkan construction of its two new ironclad battleships continues with the Asen and Draculesti slated to be finished next year. This sees another advance, as the Belkan cruiser force sees its first true armored cruisers entering service. Four new ships replacing six outdated wooden sail ships enter service with armor belts and plates protecting the primary internal components and leaving no armor below the waterline. The Belkan navy welcomes these ships with open arms as it adopts an "Iron navy" policy, a policy which will effectively remove its wooden sail ships by 1880 in favor of an all armor-clad navy. The Belkan economy at home continues to expand as it fills its primary niches. Its arms, steel, raw industrial materials (railway components, telegraphs - among other things) as well as its consumer goods industries are open to the entire empire. Its population sees goods and services like never before, and its goods are also exported to the colonies which many buy in great numbers. The Belkan arms industry continues its noted advancement with naval guns making waves in the industry as the Navy continues its expansion. The Belkan army remains supplied with the best equipment that can be manufactured. The tax code begins to be restructured from its austerity level rates as many tax write-offs are put on those who invest in the economy, effectively allowing an effective tax rate of 10% on the Belkan upper-class and aristocracy to invest and save more personal funds as a result. On top of this, it also lowers taxes to 10% on those upper-class who claim roughly 30% of their fortune in invested funds and hard assets knowing a fair portion of their funding is tied up in these investments. Belkan construction of the Suez Strategic Fortress begins.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The colony this year sees further investment into its various profitable economies - specifically light industry - as the new Belkan policy on industry takes shape. With cotton nearby as well as it becoming the hub of Belkan cotton from the colonies in Africa the textile industry takes off quickly challenging even some of Belka's homeland textile companies. The development of them sees an argument to exploit the Maghrebis as cheap labor for the colonial factories, however, with the administration not wanting to give them any more reason to try to revolt. Instead, the industrial magnates take it into their own hands and offer any who work the factories to enjoy the same workers rights and educational benefits as provided in the homeland. This sees many flock to the comparatively few industrial jobs there are and the economy of the region begins a revolution as Belkans bring new opportunity and industry to the colony. Some noticeable changes in religion occur as many Maghrebis of their own volition convert to Belkan Orthodoxy. This is notable as it breaches the almost monolithic presence of Islam in the region. 
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is further explored as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects, but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against it. The exploration up the Congo river continues as does expansion.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the Interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. This is notable as it is mostly through the funding of the Kanem emperor. The Kanem emperor, however, suffers an attempted deposement as hard line Muslims not happy with their nation coming under control of a Christian power, take the fight to the minor Belkan garrison in the city of Kanem. However, the army suffers a disastrous defeat as the multi-fire guns cut down the majority of the army not adapted to modern warfare. The attempted coup sees the Kanem emperor and the arriving Belkan administrators perform a quick and successful purge of much of the radicalist elements of Kanem. The Belkan investment and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem.
    • Iztochna Aziya: The further development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the Archipelago. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as does its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further into the colony as some cash cropping is expanded.
  • Russia: Vissarion Yakov records the first known Russian "Country" song called "Are You Sure Sash' Done It This Way". The Siberian sound expands Arcadian folk musicians like Joseph Resnov who writes the influential song "Rocky Mountain High". The immigrant community of the west coast of Novorossiya has also been impacted by the addicting Bugi-Vugi sound. Peter Frampton in his broken Russian signs onto Salish records in Duwamish, the first true phonautograph producers in the New World. Frampton would record a demo six-minute version, then a monster 14-minute long version of his song "Do You Feel Like We Do". Although he records in English the Russian and German citizens of the area love it. Development of the Trans Bay Railroad continues. However, Pacific Railways institutes a Russian language rule and attempts with minor success to implement the Russian language to the new arriving immigrants. Meanwhile, the ports of Duwamish, Resnov, New Constantinople, and Oakland are improved to house even large ships rather than the poor boats rounding the Straits of Bonaparte. The integration of the immigrants are proving a problem for the Krai governors. Meanwhile, the ethnically Russian Alyeskan and St Gregory areas' governors are limited on resources. However, some Ukrainians who left for the gold rush of '62 immigrate to California from St Gregory. However, they are in competition for Great Valley with the English and Germans there. In Siberia local immigration continues as the Zapad section of the Trans-Siberian Railway reaches the city of Krasnoyarsk. Meanwhile, Pacific Railways unfortunately cuts its funding for its section of Trans-Siberia. Without Pacific, estimates go as far as from eight to 12 years until Zapad builds the railroad to Sakhatsk, the farthest Pacific Rail was able to build west. Russian Ivory Coast is expanded across the coast as a small port is constructed at St Pyotr (OTL San Pedro, Nic put it there since I found out Adbudja was an inland city). Secretary of the Navy Kolchak travels southward to inspect the new Russian fleet, powered by steam. Admiral Kolchack experiments with his designers of the Tsarevich and Volga River. The Volga River would be completed first next year as a broadside type ironclad. Meanwhile, plans for 1873 with a turreted Tsarevich (OTL Miantonomoh Class Monitor). Due to massive population growth the population reaches 57 million people with many moving to Siberia along the Trans-Siberian rail line.
  • China: Ideological polarization within the Grand Secretariat reaches a critical point, with the radicalization of both traditionalist and reformist factions. The recent Belkan aid of the Japanese has led to the disillusionment of many reformists, some of whom flock to the traditionalist faction – which now forms a plurality within the Grand Secretariat (~33%). Many also raise concern over the current government's agrarian-populist platform; which is seen as a euphemism of disenfranchising the upper scholar class. The lower scholar class comprised of mid or low-level civil servants, and the merchant class continue to support these reforms due to the facilitation of social mobility. Many reformists also justify this as adhering to the meritocratic aspects of Confucianism. The introduction of universal suffrage is debated within the Grand Secretariat. However, while traditionalists want to limit universal suffrage to the scholar-gentry class, the reformists want to extend it to all individuals. As a result, this idea is shelved alongside any reforms deemed "excessively radical". The military program is accomplished, with a standing army of 400,000 troops established. However, due to recent political turmoil and disunity, the Huifu Emperor under the influence of the Chancellory (still mainly reformist) establishes the Ministry of Defense, appointing General Li Hongzhang as its head. This places the Jin Imperial Army under the direct jurisdiction of the executive government, keeping them loyal to the current incumbent government. Due to many reactionaries accusing of the loss of the Mandate of Heaven and calling for the replacement of the Huifu Emperor, many reformists see this as an opportunity to replace divine right with a popular monarchy, deriving its legitimacy and support from the masses. As a result, the official title of the Huifu Emperor is changed from the "Emperor of China" to the "Emperor of the Jin Chinese". This further initiates a rapid breakdown of relations between the reformists and the traditionalists, with a group of radical reformists orchestrating a plot to assassinate prominent members of the latter. This plot succeeds in the death of Cixi Taihou (a more moderate member of the traditionalist faction), but fails to kill Kim Haeung. As a result, the reactionaries under Kim Haeung, who fail to muster significant support in Hubei, retreat south to Hangzhou, Zheijiang. However, they manage to attract the support of ~100,000 imperial troops (while the rest remain loyal to the Huifu Emperor), attracted to the prospect of exceedingly high pay. Kim Haeung proclaims himself as the legitimate Emperor (instead of his nephew), and the defectors are organized under the "True Armies of the New Jin". Nanjing is quickly fortified, and ~150,000 troops are mobilized along the Yangtze River. However, the True Armies of the New Jin manage to raid the Nanjing Arsenal, in order to gather additional supplies. There are major advances in the light industries (especially within the production of textiles and luxury goods), while agriculture continues to be commercialized as many farmers shift to the cultivation of cash crops and sericulture. Major road segments are paved with concrete, and preexisting waterways and canals are improved. Industrial facilities continue to increasingly adopt the usage of coal power and machinery. As a result of rising demand, there is a boom in the mining sector, particularly in the mining of coal, copper and iron ores. Gold continues to be mined in vast quantities, in order to underpin the economy and peg Chinese banknotes.
  • Nova Belgica: The expedition to Vinland proves to be a success, and an important learning experience for the military leadership of the colony. We continue to hold the positions that we captured, while at home soldiers continue being trained. The government begins diverting funds to create an updated, locally-produced fleet to help protect the colony, and to supplement Burgundy's naval capabilities in the western hemisphere. The infrastructure for this initiative is already in place, as shipbuilding is one of the largest industries in the colony, with the shipyards of the colony being some of the most productive in Arcadia, but to meet the deadlines placed by the colonial military, the government issues increased funding to improve the shipyards of Sint Jan, Lelystad, Ameland, Borselen, and Rustwyk, and to allow for the creation of steam-propelled, iron/steel plated warships going forward, similar to those built in Burgundy proper, although much more primitively, and on a much smaller scale. Plans are made for the creation of four steam frigates, over the course of the next two years. The ships, called the Haren-class, are to be 64 meters in length and capable of speeds of about ten knots, based on a smaller, modified version of the Burgundian dreadnought-class, which is over a decade old by this point. The city of Borselen (OTL Sydney), nicknamed "The Steel City", becomes a center of steel production in Arcadia. The abundant coal fields surrounding the city, and throughout northern Nova Belgica, become sites of large mines to supply the cities of the colony. The Westen Staal and Kolen Corporatie (West Steel and Coal Corp), or WESCO, is founded in Borselen to capitalize on the western boon, which is a government-funded corporation responsible for the city's mining operations and steel plants. The government also begins construction of a railroad to the city, to connect northern Nova Belgica with the rest of the colony. Later in the year the new steel plant of Borselen makes its first shipment of steel to Burgundy proper, while experts from Europe are brought in to slowly get the plant's capabilities up to specifications with the industrialized cities of the mother nation. Elsewhere, the sport of rugby is brought to the colony from Great Britain and the nearby British colonies, and the first friendly match is hosted in Sint Jan in late 1870, sparking interest in the creation of teams across the colony.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Seeing the level of vulnerability of the confederation, the cantons agree to form alliances with other nations. Thus, diplomats are sent to the Papal States, France and Burgundy with the aim of forming an economic, technological and perhaps military alliance among the nations [PLAYERS RESPONSE NEEDED]. The cantons of Zürich and Bern begin a process of increasing industrialization with the aim of improving the economy. The process is expected to be ready in 1873. The Lombard language begins a decay process and is rarely taught in schools and universities - mainly only in Northern Switzerland.
    • French Diplomacy: President Pelay declines the offer.
    • Belkan Dip: We propose to begin the codification of a treaty with the Swiss in terms of economics and other concerns.
    • Burgundian Dip: The diplomats are received and Burgundy is open to establishing better ties with the Swiss.
  • Republica Iberia: In Congress, the Prime Minister Leão continues to push reform bills through having achieved significant education, sanitation, housing, agricultural, and economic reforms the country grows rapidly. The cities begin to become somewhat over-crowded and construction on tower blocks begins in Madrid, Lisbon and Barcelona. Backlash against the urbanization agenda of the government leads to a cancelling of the stipends and a rise in a political party known as the Democratic Social Catholics. The part advocates for workers rights, assistance for people in need, large families and an end to urbanization policies. Under pressure from this movement, the subsidies are redirected toward the development of rural infrastructure to better connect the towns and hamlets that dot Iberia. The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants, however, have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures, coupled with greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The population in Iberia is estimated to be 33.65 million. With arming becoming increasingly efficient, and erosion issues being tackled food production growth has begun to outpace population growth. The excess agricultural land is dedicated to more luxurious foods which are popular across Europe. Water conservation and erosion projects, of which there are thousands across Iberia, continues to boost land productivity and protect agricultural viability. These reforms, although somewhat destabilizing, led to rapid and extreme industrial, financial and agricultural growth. Unionist activities continue, but mandated brokering prevents the unions from starving out the labor supply and encourages economic stability. Adoption of the Model 1864 Vento Lever Action continues. A joint effort to develop more advanced warships with Burgundy sees changes to the Rápido Class Ironclad Frigates. The hulls are redesigned with Burgundian technical assistance so as to include an armored upper and middle deck, as well as armored belt (OTL armored cruiser hull). The redesign on the eight ships forces significant delays to the project, but the ships are expected to be ready by 1872.
    • Republica de Morocco: The Moroccan Assembly continues to provide support to Reformist Mosques in an effort to promote attendance and conversion. The government provides these mosques with a stipend to use in charitable works that promote Reformist Islam. The practice of using decaying vegetation as a moisture trap and as cover for the insects and other organisms required for the growth of more water intensive plants continues to spread. Its adoption is encouraged by the government and farmers across Morocco begin to use the technique. The rapidly expanding Iberian economy begins to spill over into Morocco as industrialists see the country as ripe for expansion. Extraction of iron ore and coal begins near Oujda, and the city has its first iron works constructed. The first rail lines are also built in this area to connect the mines, the foundry and the port city of Melilla. This raw iron is imported into Iberia for use in construction and steel making. The industrial jobs in Morocco are few, but they are generally well paid compared to the other economic pursuits in Morocco. While Moroccan laborers earn less than Iberians on average, they still make roughly 75% of industrial pay in Iberia.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority European. There are roughly 3.29 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 60,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand Germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stop over for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial Garrison is maintained at 1000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rapid integration of Sulawesi occurs as the colonial government brings the kingdom under its control. The Iberian Makassar Company is given free reign over the island of Makassar so long as they pay a substantial duty to the republic.
    • África Occidental Ibérica: The colony grows rapidly into the Sahel. Meanwhile, exports of gold from the colony continue and prospectors continue to build mines throughout the region. African labor is used to a great extent, and many are forced off their farms to work.
    • Conquistador Controlled Sine-Bissau: Cortez and his men continue exploiting the colony for profit.
  • French Republic: With a lack of recent success and failing health, Alexandre Marsan dies in his sleep on January 6th. His success as a President is debated historically. His successor, Ernest Moreau, takes the role as president of the Communist state. However, within a week into his term as president, he is assassinated by someone of the opposing faction, the Fondation Nationale Française (National French Foundation (NFF for short)). This rapid loss of presidents causes a small federal crisis, and soon major political party members of the Communist Party begin disappearing, with some appearing in major rivers, factories, mangled and missing vital pieces of their bodies. Eventually, the loss of Communist members in both the National Congress and other political factions results in the Hyacinthe Pelay, leader and founder of the NFF to ascend upon the position as President. Since many members of the National Congress are missing/dead, the NFF gains major and substantial political positions in the National Congress, and as expected large reforms are put through nearly reverting France back to where it was pre-Marsanism. Spreading the belief that ethnic Frenchmen are the most supreme race in the world and pushing a xenophobic agenda, President Pelay orders the rounding up and deportation of all Iberian, Dutch, Italian, or German migrants that have arrived since 1854, with the remaining migrants being forced into swearing loyalty to the French flag and President Pelay's ruling. Sweeping reforms occur throughout the late Second Quarter and early Third Quarter, with encouragements, such as tax cuts being made for ethnic Frenchmen to reproduce the population. The Forces Armées Françaises (French Armed Forces) are set to be expanded to 450,000, organized into regiments of fifteen, ten of which being infantry, two being naval, and three serving as a national guard. French youths are encouraged to enlist, and a propaganda campaign promoting French patriotism begins. France announces it will be leaving the Mediterranean Concord by 1872. Infrastructure improves, and education finally becomes a government-operated venture, being able to take up a percentage of taxes collected and charitable organizations to be able to operate efficiently. The Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français (National Society of French Railways (SNCF for short)) is created, and is a state-owned railway company. Many citizens have lost their idea of a perfect democracy, and instead look more toward the older Francia as a powerful ancestral state.
    • French West African Republic: Combining and reforming the French Republics of Nigeria and Mali into the greater French West African Republic (FWAR for short) as a means of trying to increase the pride of being under the French for the natives living in the FWAR, religious and speech freedoms are given. In addition, education is reformed to better teach the natives attending the schools more about France, its culture, language and technology. The first railway connecting the coast of Mali and the Malian capital city, Kangaba, is laid down after years of planning. Nigeria remains a hotbed for agriculture and mining, with deposits of gold, limestone, bauxite, granite, and coal being exported at alarmy rates. Infrastructure greatly improves along the coast of both Mali and Nigeria. Due to a lack of response and the need to push a more populist agenda in terms of increase the rate of production, the neighboring states of the Mossi Kingdom (2000 being sent), Oyo (10,000 being sent), and Warri (1000 being sent) are invaded, sacked and annexed within a matter of weeks, primarily due to the recent import of French top-line weaponry, including the famous Gauthier Gun. The states neighboring Mali that have not responded either, being the Imamate of Futa Jallon and Toucouleur Empire, are invaded as scheduled with 5000 troops each. Much like the wars in Nigeria, the conflicts with Futa Jallon and Toucouleur Empire are finished quickly due to the French superior military. The population of the recently annexed states are allowed more free rights under their new leadership, including freedom of speech and religion. Christianity begins to take large hold in Nigeria, with many Kuzir's combining elements of both religions to make a combined doctrine and new sect for the religions while in Mali, Islam remains the largest religion primarily due to the Maghrebian "Rape" of Mali decades back. The combined population of the French West African Republic is roughly 50 million: Nigeria is 27.5 million (including the states of Mossi, Warri and Oyo), while Mali is 22 million (including Futa Jallon and the Toucouleur Empire. Algos soon).
    • French South African Republic: In the French South African Republic, the war against the Zulu guerrillas persistently gets worse, and with the rise of mutinies against the Zulu, it is to no one's surprise that the situation in the newly re-formed French South African Republic continues to deteriorate. Nevertheless, measures such as cracking down on any suspects that may be aiding the enemy, no squadron moving independently and similar initiatives are taken. A colonial garrison is expected to be created in the coming years. Education and infrastructure greatly improves, with ethnic Zulu peoples attending recently created schools and businesses. All major cities, being Port Louis, Bhisho, Bloemfontein, and the capital city, Marietta, are heavily fortified and remain under strict regulations. Although the tactic for defeating the Zulu guerrillas is less violent than previous measures taken against nations in the past and territory is expected to be lost, the French still see the colony as a major success with all but a few obstacles in the way before the Republic becomes a powerful colony of the French. The population is currently 2.2 million.
    • French Asian Republic: With the Siege of Moresby effectively destroying the capital city and the French flag being placed once again over the state, the state is combined with French Indonesia to proclaim the French Asian Republic. Due to the large population speaking Japanese rather than French, educational systems are reformed to displace Japanese with French, although Japanese remains as a secondary language for individuals to learn if they wish. Japanese infrastructure is removed in favor of French propaganda and national pride. With this removal of Japanese infrastructure, most of the major temples remain intact but are to fulfill their actions in French by the end of the decade. A population consensus is made, establishing the total FAR population at 3.1 million. A National Congress is established in Morseby after reconstruction efforts are finished, and includes representatives of the Indonesian colony and the Papuan colony. As a Republic, the Papua state maintains all jurisdiction over the Solomon Islands, which as a result expand further following the mass movement of Papuans and Indonesians to the region in search of a "fresh start". The remaining islands in the Island chain are properly discovered and claimed under the French flag as usual. Exports of cocoa, coffee and copper ore become major in providing pivotal funds for infrastructure, in addition to standard taxes being levied and enacted.
  • New Granada: In the Kingdom of New Granada, King Tomás I Bragança continues his peaceful reign over the nation. A decade having passed since the last census, the outgoing Cortes Gerais organizes a census to be conducted by the king and the civil service. The results indicate a population of 6.8 million New Granadians spread from the isthmus border with Aztlan down to the southern borders with Peru and Brésil. As the census is taking place, a small influx of Germans arrives in the nation. Eager and ambitious they tend to flock toward larger cities rather than the plantations. The conservative government led by the Palestrante, Fernán do Reis, is generally opposed to major inflows to the cities, fearing urban growth as a potential for industrialization and a move away from the traditional agrarian way of life for the nation. The election that takes place in late 1870 is one of the most tightly contested in recent memory (definitely under the reign of King Tomás), with the Urban and Liberal Party—Miguelista securing a razor-thin majority when including an increase in esquerdo non-inscrits. PUL—M is led by Eduardo Graça, who is duly sworn in as the Cortes' Palestrante. Seeing the recent completion of the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red Seas, Graça begins sending engineers along the isthmus near Balboa Rocha to determine the feasibility of constructing a canal connecting the two great oceans and sparing much hard-traveled distance. Meanwhile, Graça himself invites diplomats from around the world to discuss a financing and assistance project to facilitate the construction of such a canal.
    • Belkan Dip: Belka offers to begin negotiations over a canal zone specifically as it hopes to ease avenues of world trade among other things.
    • Burgundian Dip: Burgundy accepts the invitation of New Granada, hoping to enter negotiations for the canal.
    • French Dip: President Pelay accepts the invitation for the canal. Belka and Burgundy, seeing the offer to effectively make traffic through the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans much easier and cost efficient a select number of ambassadors is prepared to be sent in the case of negotiations being started.
    • Russian Dip: We send a diplomat from both Novgorod and Cinigrad representing Russia and her colonies.
    • Iberian Dip: A contingent of diplomats arrives to attend the negotiations.
    • Brésilian Dip: 19 diplomats are sent to negotiate terms.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Bashir and his men capture most of Alia City, with some parts of the city still being controlled by the remaining government forces who refuse to surrender. In the city, Bashir announces he is no longer to be referred as “Bashir” but as the Mahdi and renamed the city of Alia to “Utopia”. Immediately he begins to purge the city of “sinful” things, and stamping down on Woman’s rights, forces them to cover themselves completely, not allowing them to show any part of their body or face in public. Everything and anything related to or is European culture is banned and stamped down upon, while Europeans are being hunted all across the city and occupied territory of the Mahdi State. Mysteriously, many Coptic Christians begin to disappear after the take over, and many churches are either burned down or converted to mosques. The Mahdi declares that modern and European guns are sinful and corrupt, and that the militia must use proper and godly weapons such as swords or old flintlock guns. Public beheadings are common, and many dissidents are brutally murdered on the street, along with woman who violate the Mahdi’s extreme interpretation of Sharia Law. Meanwhile, up north, government forces continue to crush small pockets of Hafezian rebels, along with many major advances along the Nile and other rebel strongholds. Queen Farah continues to fund research and studying of Islamic sciences in order to help create more loyal mosques and clerics. Queen Farah announces she will make the pilgrimage to Mecca as soon as the Hafezians are defeated, as a sign of loyalty to the Islamic faith. Crown Prince Hafez sends old wooden battleships to deal with the Burgundian ships that are causing havoc in the Nile, they are quickly defeated and the surviving crew become prisoners of the government forces. Government Agents in Giza organize a small anti-Hafez demonstration, demanding better wages and more jobs. The demonstration ends in Hafez’s militiamen violently breaking up the demonstrators with batons. More Burgundian ships are sent onto the Nile. Many more towns are taken by government forces, and eventually, the Egyptian Army arrives at the city of Kharga, and surround it and begin to besiege the cut-off city. Queen Farah once again asks for British aid in the war against Hafez.
    • Ethiopian Diplomacy: The disappearance of Copts is deemed unacceptable by the Emperor and he offers 10,000 troops to be sent to aid the Queen if they are needed.
  • Queen Farah accepts as reports from military intelligence have shown her pictures and details of the reign of terror of this so called “Mahdi” have disgusted her, and allows Ethiopian soldiers to help aid in the liberation of Coptic Christians from Mahdi rule.
    • Belkan Response: As a result of Hafez's highly radical policies and the reports of the deaths of dozens of Europeans, Belkan included, the Belkan support force of 40,000 moves south from its encampment near Damietta. The Force immediately besieges Alia city and the force unleashes a terrifying and effective initial bombardment of the city. Facing off against such a vastly inferior force the Belkan army breaches the defenses in short order and begins rescue operations for Europeans across the city. Unwilling to stop there the Belkan army enraged after coming across nearly 15 dead Belkan citizens in the city, including a cousin of the tsar who had been trapped while he was on a vanity vacation to Egypt as the revolt broke out. With such an act being seen as unforgivable the Hafezian soldiers within the city are slaughtered with extreme prejudice. Hundreds are impaled and the Belkan invasion of Alia sees the Belkan occupation occur shortly thereafter. Upward of 4000 Hafezi troops are captured and all 4000 are executed by firing squad with the worst offenders impaled as per capital punishment. After a week the city sees the Belkan eagle flying from the flagpoles and government buildings in the city. However, Hafez is nowhere to be found.
    • British Dip: Yes, we send our troops in Egypt to support our ally the Queen.
  • The Mahdi responds to this sudden attack with a huge line of militiamen ready to retake Alia City. He also beheads 15 Europeans, a mix of many different nationalities. Soon, he starts recruiting child soldiers into his militia, claiming they are serving their faith and purifying the world of sin by doing this. Egyptian Government Forces around the area soon catch wind of the Mahdi’s activities, due to an increasing number of refugees coming from Mahdi Controlled lands, claiming that its “Hell on earth” in Mahdi Territory, and that they barely survived escaping.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The hull of SMS Verwoester is launched with great fanfare, as it is the first proper ironclad capital ship launched. Later on, the keel of a new ironclad, named Woede, is laid down as an enlarged version of Verwoester and her sister. Open-hearth furnaces are adopted by a few of Burgundy's industrialists after being observed in Belka, including Andreas Carnegie, who uses it to reduce expenditures on the construction of the Karelstad Bridge. King Robert IV passes away after a long battle with cancer, which was withheld from public knowledge and is only now coming to light. He is succeeded by his daughter Mary, who had been acting as regent for the last couple of years. The first queen to rule Burgundy in her own right, her succession is criticized by her cousin, Prince Henri. Despite his being supported by some conservative hardliners, she has the support of the general populace, the States-General and the military, largely due to her popular education reforms and experience in foreign policy. In private, however, she orders the continuation of her father’s Plan Blue. Nieuw Friesland expands 50 px east/southeast along the coast. Nieuw Maastricht expands 50 px west along the coast. Mane expands 50 px northeast.
    • Occupied Rhineland: The succession of Mary receives some celebration in the occupied West Bank, as her recent visit to the Occupied Rhineland created some ties between her and the local leaders. The Nancy-Mainz rail route is opened this year. As the final five years of the occupation come, it is authorized that the bridges spanning the Rhine be improved to allow heavier traffic.
  • Ethiopian Empire: Emperor Ioshua Solomon catches pneumonia after his speaking engagements and fails to recover even with the help of Western doctors in Adulis. Theodore II Solomon takes the throne as Emperor and continues his father's reforms. Mourning is to last ten days around the nation as Ioshua is remembered as a peaceful and benevolent emperor. Theodore is popular among the people. The army is close to being fully modernized with the new model 1870 uniform being issued which closely resembled Belkan uniforms but matched the Earth tone of Ethiopia. Focus is turned to navy with an expanded Adulis. We offer to sell Belka wooden ships and lease two ironclads if they would be so kind. The Royal carriage company begins to envision Ethiopians first train engine (without the actual steam engine included). To honor his father Theodore commissions opera houses and libraries to match the shifting nature of the Empire to be more modern. A zoo is commissioned in Ezana city which is now the fourth most populous city in the Empire. Families set off into the interior from Ezana City and expand the Empires range even further. Needle rifles are shortened to Carbines to match the light infantry tactics of the Ethiopian Army and named the E1870 "Ioshua" Carbine and it shows great popularity with the Imperial guard and Regular Army. The Stock market in Axum is opened to great fanfare and bolsters the economy and shows that Ethiopian is a great investment for Europeans. More roads begin to be paved and bricked in major cities to put up with more carriage traffic. The first city codes a set by the Emperor to ensure that cities are clean and safe for inhabitants. Workshops continue to produce normal goods for the people and unions begin to form after young workers read Belkan works. However, with most workshops being owned by the government and the Emperor being worker friendly most demands are bargained for and works out for all parties and most importantly the nation. The bank of Ethiopia opens a branch in Ezana city and sees loans taken out by investors to speculate interior land. As a sign of friendship with Belka a golden lion is sent to the Tsar for his palace.
    • Ethiopian Mission to Japan: The 500 men of The Emperor's Royal Grenadier regiment, lead by Captain Asgad Amfra, are sent to Japan escorted by the First Rate ENS Theodore I, and Second rates ENS Axum and ENS Seyon. Armed with the new uniforms and carbines they advise close to the front lines but mostly stick close to Belkan troops. Officers take extensive notes on the civil war and tactics of the different different forces. They also advise light infantry tactics to Japan.
    • Belkan Dip: Belka offers to sell 15 ships from its wooden ship fleet updated with iron sheathing as well as two broadside ironclad frigates for Ethiopia. The Belkan administration also accepts the Ethiopian lion with much gratitude and in an act of great providence displays it front and center in the government quarter of Belgrad. It is noted to be the first monument to be erected near the government quarter. Further Belkan construction of the Adulis-Addis Ababa railway continues and a new line begins to extend north toward Egypt fully intending the link Egypt following the civil war.
    • Ethiopian Response: We accept the deal, thank the Belkans profusely, and ask if industrialists may share ways to make cheaper steel so a mock up of the first train engine could be produced quicker. We also offer to buy one steam engine for the train and are willing to pay for steam engineering training.
    • Belkan Dip: Belka does not allow the export of one of its finest technologies but does offer favorable rates on steel to Ethiopia. Belka also offers to sell locomotives to the Ethiopian empire citing Belka's need to maintain comparative advantage in raw industrial goods such as those used in building infrastructure and steel making. We do, however, offer the Ethiopians a deal. If they are able to discover an industrial niche currently unfilled by Belka's home grown industries, we will actively provide the development of it full scale. As a result of Belka's protectorateship over Ethiopia, the state is requested to join in the preferential Belkan trade network as a sort of compensation for Belka's modernization of the state as well as to solidify a future equal partnership between the two states as dynamic and powerful economic partners once Ethiopia is deemed modern enough. This is done on the same standards as many of the agreements offered to Egypt.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: Work continues on the defences at Kismayo. Tariffs are placed on all Belkan goods except food to keep industry strong. We consolidate our gains on the gold coast In the Bay of Kost we expand 25 px to the south along the coast to allow better transport. A lot of cattle growers establish themselves around there. England has a population of 20.3 million, Wales has 1.2 million, Ireland has five million people, and Scotland 2.8 million. In Britain, based in southern England, there are 15,000 professionals and 30,000 men in Ireland, 70,000 European soldiers and 300,000 Indian Sepoys in India spread out across the continent, 25,000 soldiers in Suez, 10,000 British soldiers, 10,000 Sepoys and 40,000 African soldiers at Kismayo. 10,000 in Uluru, 4000 in West Africa. There are two fleets: one at Hull and one at Bristol, each comprise ten first-rate ships-of-the-line, 22 second-rate ships-of-the-line, 45 frigates, and 62 corvettes.
    • India: On the border of China, Myitkyina, Mansi, Hseni, Mongton, Kawkareik and Keng Tung each have 10,000 Indian forces at them while another 80,000 Indian forces and 25,000 British forces the forces are held in reserve at Mandalay and fortify the city. distributed across the country with 5000 British at the British strategic fort on the West Indian coast. India has 220 million people.
    • Uluru: A steady flow of people from Britain - many of them unemployed and Indian (convicts) - is maintained mainly going off to set up their own farms and a militia is maintained.

1871

Further Germanic immigration occurs as disenfranchisement in all three Germanies sees many flee to the New World. Many flock to thier exiled King Napoleon while many other flee to Texas, Aztlan and Brésil. Aztlan in particular is noted to receive the lion's share of immigrants.

A Solidification of Battle doctrine sees the Japanese adopt Burgundian artillery doctrine combined with Belkan shock doctrine both of which speak to the loyalist generals' sensibilities as loyal but modern Samurai. The tactics pay off in spades as many Samurai holdouts and forts are seized and the Imperial government asserts control over about 60% of the Japanese home islands

In Aztlan, the settlement of the frontiers triggers conflict with the Native Arcadians who immediately target settlements encroaching on their territory. Aztlan responds in kind sending in the Dragoons putting down resistance where found and disrupting the natives. The Aztlani-Indian wars begin

The Great Laurentian civil war officially begins after all of Peru is noted to have fallen to the rebellion. Taking on loans from various uninvolved European powers the Peruvian forces outfit a large army which meets the garrison units in the Bolivian highlands quickly evicting the Argentine forces in a surprise assault forcing the Argentine forces to make a costly assault through the jungles or mountains to reach Peru.

Multiple Iberian colonial companies in Africa go bankrupt forcing the Iberians to either bail them out or lose total control of their colonies in the region severely hampering colonial growth and homeland economic growth.

In France, the heavy colonisation and army expansion has led to a long term budget deficit and French government bonds become unfavourable forcing them to offer a higher interest rate. In addition this causes cost to push inflation.

In Austria, Kruger offers to negotiate with Belka otherwise it will stop the insurgency and make a move toward terrorism.

In Russian and Prussian Poland, a nationalist trade union forms and on some important day for the Poles they conduct a 24-hour strike and begin other rolling strikes.

The Traditionalists led under Feng Chenghui launch a surprise assault on the "Yellow River Army" (Colloquially named by European observers) and inflict a stunning defeat on the Imperial army forcing it off the river and quickly seizing Nanjing. While numerically inferior with its core professional force, it is noted the majority of the Officers who defected are ones who were versed in Western "Shock tactics" which effectively led to the defeat of the Jin Loyalists. This brings some legitimacy to the Traditionalist rebellion which begins to consolidate its forces and begins raising more troops and effectively forcing the Jin on the defensive as they re-evaluate.

  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. In the Swahili heartland, the profitability of cloth factories and cotton farming has led to a sharp increase in the number of slaves. Following the end of the war, we ask the Swazi states to accept Swahili protection (tens of thousands of Swahili soldiers are still stationed within these Swazi states). (MOD Response) Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. The Swahili Naval Academy is set up in Zanzibar. The Department of Mineral Sciences is set up in the Madrassah of Aliwa, the Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering is set up in the Madrassah of Malindi and the Department of Actuarial Sciences and the Department of Maritime Sciences is set up in the Madrassah of Zanzibar. In Ibo, which has long become a central producer for medicine into the interior, the Ibo Madrassah is set up, with the Department of Biological Sciences. In Ibo, a factory is constructed, specializing in the extract of quinine for antimalarial medicine. In Aliwa, mining magnates begin investing into a railway line from the coal mines to the ports of Sofala. Dar Es Salaam is constructed through Royal Decree and soon becomes a major industrial center, with the first western-styled factory constructed that creates cotton textiles. The historic institution of the Zanzibar Stock Exchange proves to be catalytic to the industrialization of Swahili, as the first major Foreign Trade Company, Harambe, organized by several major merchants, quickly attracted heavy investment, including money from the Sultan Akida himself. Harambe invests in the construction of a modern shipyard and modern port facilities in Dar Es Salaam. The first Swahili clipper ship is constructed in Zanzibar, under the guidance of Western engineers. Agricultural modernization begins in the Swahili heartland.  The printing press begins a revival with a major translation movement of Western works. The first steam engine is imported and studied in the Madrassah of Malindi, though there were no successes in reverse engineering it yet. (I suppose steam engines have been quite publicised and easy to purchase now).  Western-style weaponry are imported and indigeneous designs are tested.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts.
    • Swazi: The political organisation is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. Numerous soldiers are given land in Swazi (a total of 10,000 professional soldiers). They are given full ownership over the land, regional authority and the weaponry they used in the military. They are given the mission to set up regional militias to defend against guerrilla incursions. Tribes that had been previously subjugated by the Zulu are given more autonomy and integrated into the power structure of the Sultanate of Swazi. These tribes are also integrated under the militia defense plan.
    • Swahili Diplomacy: Mining magnates in Aliwa wish to purchase locomotives and train carriages from Belka and Britain.
    • Swazi states accept
  • China: With the seizure of Nanjing, the Nanjing Arsenal falls under traditionalist forces. As a result, loyalist craftsmen and artisans operating the Nanjing Arsenal are evacuated, in order to starve the traditionalists of any capacity to produce firearms. However, this plan largely backfires, and the traditionalists begins the mass production of rifled muskets and training troops, who are attracted to the promises of higher pay. Under the leadership of General Feng Chenghui and self-proclaimed Emperor Kim Haeung, rebelling militias exploit the retreat of the reformist forces and quickly seize the southern portions of Jiansu and Anhui; allowing them to maintain a hold on the Yangtze River valley. The usage of Westernized tactics (due to defectors) despite boasting a numerically inferior force and a platform of anti-Western sentiment or diplomatic isolationism, startle the loyalist leadership, who begin to be concerned with the loyalty and cohesiveness of the reformist movement. As a result of the reintroduction of the rigid class system and civil examinations within traditionalist-controlled areas (colloquially known as the Southern Jin), peasantry, merchants, lesser civil servants and other people disenfranchised by the system rebel, as exemplified by the violent Ningbo Riots. These dissidents are quickly put to rest, and are systematically massacred or at best, had their properties seize. Due to this harsh treatment, many peasants move northward, causing a massive disruption in agriculture. Conversely, many commoners (many of whom tenant farmers) begin mass lynchings of landlords and high-level civil servants, who flee south en masse. The Hakka people and diaspora are also massacred, due to the assumption they were supportive of the Southern Jin. To further solidify their legitimacy, Emperor Kim Haeung adopts the "Mandate of Heaven" for himself, and declares that his nephew is illegitimate. However, he refrains from adopting an era name for the time being. Meanwhile, the Huifu Emperor begins to emphasize the idea of a popular monarchy, emphasizing the masses rather than divine right. Shanghai is hastily fortified, while ~200,000 troops are sent to guard the borders. Meanwhile, the traditionalist forces grow to a total of ~150,000, with about two-thirds stationed along the border and the other to keep civil order. The Ministry of War and de facto head of the imperial army, General Li Hongzhang, devises a strategy of containment – seeking to send ~50,000 troops in Hubei and Hunan to surround them. After seeing the superior infantry tactics of the True Armies of the New Jin, he decides to employ the increased usage of Belkan-purchased breech-loading artillery, superior to their muzzle-loading cannonry. After noticing the advantages of breech-loading firearms, the government requests Belka for a shipment of ~200,000 units (enough to field a singular army) of Needle and bolt-action rifles each over a period of four years, in exchange for lowered prices of textiles and luxury goods. It requests the shipment of additional units of breech-loading rifled cannonry. In order to boost arms production and prevent seizure by traditionalists, the Guangzhou Arsenal is dismantled. The Tianjin and Seoul Arsenals are designated as Military-Industrial Zones (MIZs), with construction on industrial facilities hoping to double production and storage space within two years. A plan to increase the army to ~500,000 troops (from ~300,000) within the same timeframe. An experimental railroad line is built connecting Tianjin and Beijing, and is hailed as a success. As a result, construction on a railway running from Beijing to Kaifeng (which is linked to the Grand Canal) begins. The postal services industry is expanded, in order to accommodate communications.
    • Belkan Dip: We agree to outfit a singular modern army over a period of four years with Needle Rifles.
  • Republica Iberia: In Congress, the Prime Minister Leão steps down after years of public service. He is replaced by Prime Minister Álvares, a young firebrand who served in the War of the Pyrenees. In his first weeks in office he makes it clear that his government will not sit idle while the French clearly rearm for war. While maintaining as many of the economic policies of his predecessor as possible, Álvares begins rebuilding the military, expanding the active duty core to 250,000 and creating a para-military national guard which will have a strength of 500,000 and a call up time of only two weeks. Work begins on a strategic fort at the far west of the Pyrenees to defend Navarre from the French. Another is under construction in the far east to protect Catalonia. The forts throughout the Pyrenees from before the last war receive much needed maintenance and repairs, and are in the process of being re-equipped with more modern cannon. The Democratic Social Catholics continue to grow in popularity, and change some of their tenants to reflect a more universal mood in Iberia. The party continues its advocacy for workers' rights, assistance for people in need, large families, and an end to urbanization policies. However, it also adopts a highly defensive stance, with many party members speaking of “an armed peace against the violence.” Under pressure from this movement, the subsidies are redirected toward the development of rural infrastructure to better connect the towns and hamlets that dot Iberia. The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants, however, have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures, coupled with greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The population in Iberia is estimated to be 34.59 million. With farming becoming increasingly efficient, and erosion issues being tackled, food production growth has begun to outpace population growth. The excess agricultural land is dedicated to more luxurious foods which are popular across Europe. Water conservation and erosion projects, of which there are thousands across Iberia, continues to boost land productivity and protect agricultural viability. The switch to military reform is surprisingly unimpactful on the Iberian economy. Sure, there are some who miss the stipends for urbanization, but low food prices and increasing demand for arms leads to greater production of steel and iron. The navy begins experimenting with steel for use in military vessels in conjunction with Burgundian efforts. Fortunately, economic growth has allowed the government to build up a significant budget surplus which is put toward the military expansion. Adoption of the Model 1864 Vento Lever Action continues. The Army Procurement board begins work on such a repeating gun as the French developed. The result of this is the Garzon Machine Gun (OTL Kjellman Machine Gun). Unfortunately, the weapon proves to foul too quickly to be used in battle. Work is accelerated on the Rápido Class ironclad frigates, but the delays still prevent active service before 1872.
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority European. There are roughly 3.33 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 90,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand Germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stop over for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial garrison is maintained at 1000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber trees are planted for the first time and a harvest is expected in a few years time.
      • Macaçar Ibérica: Since the victory over Sulawesi, the Iberian Makassar company has been attempted to develop the region despite some native resistance. The diversity of the Sulawesi Islands from Japanese settlers, natives and Iberian settlers has caused some ethnic tensions that may boil over if it is not solved. But the Government has been trying to assimilate or integrate newly acquired subjects / citizens. The company also began to suffer some setbacks due to public confidence lowering toward "company dependent colonization".
    • República Africana Ibérica: The collapse of the Iberian Sahel Company, the Iberian West African Trade Company, the Iberian Dakar Company, and the Trans-Sahara Iberian Company shatter confidence in the company dependent colonization scheme. Thus, the companies are liquidated by the passage of the Government of West Africa Act of 1871 in which the various Iberian company holdings in West Africa are consolidated into the Iberian African Republic. The new government is elected by a vote of Iberian citizens living in the region. Although the shareholders of the companies lose significant sums of money, the liquidizations of the companies’ assets generate a new class of mid-sized trade companies in the region. The Republic of Iberia does provide some monetary support to help invigorate these new companies with low-interest loans.
    • Conquistador Controlled Sine-Bissau: The Government of West Africa Act forces the conquistadors into the colony and Sine-Bissau is annexed in mid-September.
    • Iberian Diplomacy: The Peruvian rebels are offered surplus Sandoval Rifles and ammunition from the War of the Pyrenees.
    • What part of the event did you not understand? -Feud
      • Sorry, just missed that bit when editing my turn. I removed it. -Steph
    • French Dip: Hearing about the situation in Iberia, President Pelay offers the Iberian government an offer of "trading" Iberian Algeria for the remaining French Indonesian (not Papua New Guinea, but the rest of my piece in Indonesia) colony and Futa Jallon (that state above French Mali).
  • Swiss Confederacy: Following the Belkan economic proposals, most of the Swiss cantons agree to make a treaty. Awaiting treaty specifications [PLAYER RESPONSE NEEDED]. The Canton of Biel presents Burgundy with a large number of Konkordatsbatzens, due to the acceptance of the Swiss-Burgundian relations. Other cantons begin processes of increase of industrialization, with estimated term for 1875.
    • Belkan Dip: We ask the Swiss what they are hoping for out of a trade agreement in general.
    • Swiss Diplomacy: The Swiss say they expected nothing special, but just wanted to know if there were any specifications. The trade agreement is accepted.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: The so-called Mahdi attacks Belkan positions in and around Alia City, and once again besieges the city. The heads of Europeans are sent to the Belkan commanders, along with photos of killed Egyptians who dared to oppose the Mahdi’s law. The Mahdi shows no mercy and all POWs are executed on the spot. Egyptian forces in the area quickly catch on to the Mahdi’s activities due to the amount of refugees fleeing from the place they call “Hell on Earth”, and tell local forces they almost died while trying to escape the Mahdi State. Both Hafez and Farah denounce the Mahdi, and both encourage uprisings in Mahdi Territory. Government forces attack Mahdi positions, quickly encircling two Mahdi positions and cutting off all supplies to the divisions. In the north, Egyptian Forces continue to crush Hafezian Rebels in battle, soon capturing all of the north of the OTL Red Sea governate which now, Hafez owns the center of. Khargan is finally captured this year in a bloody decisive siege in which left the city in shambles, but most of it intact. Hafezian Rebels are able to stop the Egyptian advance this year, but are struggling to keep the frontlines under control, but are able to retake a small village they lost a couple months ago. Unrest starts to grow in Giza as the populace is displeased with Hafez’s intolerance for freedom of speech, and protests take place in the city center. Hafez begins to worry. Burgundian ships continue to dominate the Nile, and eventually, are able to take control over all parts of the Nile.


  • French State: Due to the rise in inflation as expected, a new economic theory is implemented, and proves to be relatively successful in terms of alleviating much of the inflation, although the inflational period is expected to remain generally high until 1874. The economic theory, simply known as the Politique Monétaire Expansionniste ((OTL) Expansionary Monetary Policy), is implemented; the policy: expands the money supply, keep interest rates low which in turn would encourage borrowing from companies, people, and banks, and introducing new money into general circulation as previous explained in the expansion of the money supply (Basically Quantitative Easing). Due to numerous polls and a referendum occuring numerous times in numerous different places nationwide, roughly 67% of the population wishes for the state of France to revert back into a monarchy under a more democratic approach, as to not effectively cause the urpsing of another King Louis and to not cause more the build up of one singular faction too much. Therefore, the remants of the Bonaparte Monarchic Faction and the National French Foundation establish a unified party known as the Ordre Impérial Français (French Imperial Order), and announces the return of a monarchic title, but will remain more of a figurehead with cultural importance slightly similar to the Ecumenical Rashidun Caliphs. The President of France will remain in an elective position, as well as many of the local and statewide elections. The total reformation is expected to take until the end of next year. The population rises to 42 million. Industrialization continues as expected, with textiles and coal being produced and sold. The nationwide budget becomes relatively more focused on military build up than other things, such as cultural government output and international efforts, although the situation surrounding the canal in Granada and Peru-Argentine is something of a priority. The situation in Peru-Argentine is greatly of interest and necessity, and soon current battleships and ironclad in the region begins bombarding the Peruvian coast, specifically the city of Lima. 10,000 French Asian troops are expected to arrive in Lima and begin sieging the city and government into direct submission, being aiding by artillery shells and a powerful fleet (Algo soon). The Argentinians are directed to maintain defensive positions rather than starting an offensive, explaining that fighting in the mountains is more difficult and casualty-heavy. French ambassadors in the Granada Canal region begin negotiations, but instead of simply asking for a single-nation effort, they suggest that all European negotiating nations equally help in the process, thus ending the need for a single-nation to rule the oceans by themselves and eliminate the need for one power to remain over-powered, with each nation equally paying the same bill to cross and use. The colonial budget is increased.
    • French West African Republic: Combining and reforming the French Republics of Nigeria and Mali into the greater French West African Republic (FWAR for short) as a means of trying to increase the pride of being under the French for the natives living in the FWAR, religious and speech freedoms are given. In addition, education is reformed to better teach the natives attending the schools more about France, its culture, language and technology. The first railway connecting the coast of Mali and the Malian capital city, Kangaba, is laid down after years of planning. Nigeria remains a hotbed for agriculture and mining, with deposits of gold, limestone, bauxite, granite, and coal being exported at alarmy rates. Infrastructure greatly improves along the coast of both Mali and Nigeria. Christianity begins to take large hold in Nigeria, with many Kuzir's combining elements of both religions to make a combined doctrine and new sect for the religions while in Mali, Islam remains the largest religion primarily due to the Maghrebian "Rape" of Mali decades back. The combined population of the French West African Republic is roughly 51.5 million: Nigeria is 28.5 million, while Mali is 22.5 million. In the recently annexed states, the process of mapping out and planning the regions for industrialization begins. Infrastucture, primarily built by private businesses hoping to open up new markets in Africa, is built.
    • French South African Republic: The war against the Zulu guerrillas continues. Squadrons are decisive in mapping out, searching and targetting any and all occupied regions by the Zulu guerrillas in an effort to effectively end their control over the region, and it is expected for the war against the guerrillas to die out by the end of the decade.
    • French Asian Republic: With the Siege of Moresby effectively destroying the capital city and the French flag being placed once again over the state, the state is combined with French Indonesia to proclaim the French Asian Republic. Due to the large population speaking Japanese rather than French, educational systems are reformed to displace Japanese with French, although Japanese remains as a secondary language for individuals to learn if they wish. Japanese infrastructure is removed in favor of French propaganda and national pride. With this removal of Japanese infrastructure, most of the major temples remain intact but are to fulfill their actions in French by the end of the decade. A population consensus is made, establishing the total FAR population at 3.3 million. A National Congress is established in Morseby after reconstruction efforts are finished, and includes representatives of the Indonesian colony and the Papuan colony. As a Republic, the Papua state maintains all jurisdiction over the Solomon Islands, which as a result expand further following the mass movement of Papuans and Indonesians to the region in search of a "fresh start". The remaining islands in the island chain are properly discovered and claimed under the French flag as usual. Exports of cocoa, coffee and copper ore become major in providing pivotal funds for infrastructure, in addition to standard taxes being levied and enacted.
    • Iberian Diplomacy: 'We would prefer to keep Algeria.
  • Nova Belgica: With no official word from the government of Scandinavia in regards to the rebellion in Vinland, the colonial government temporarily assumes governance of the small territories of Anticosti Island and Prinz Rupert Island, which are under military occupation. Anticosti is largely inconsequential due to its minimal population, while in Prinz Rupert any resistance is put down easily due to the large troop presence across the island. This inspires Governor Pieter Steyn to petition the home government in Burgundy, and the Scandinavian government, for both islands to be handed over to Nova Belgican control, possibly in exchange for a monetary sum. As part of the recent wave of immigration to Arcadia from Germany, the government advertises the colony as a possible place for German immigration, which is successful to some degree, and smaller cities such as Bergen see large German settlement. The weapons industry established in the colony continues to grow, thanks to the recent war and subsequent occupation. WESCO sees a large increase in production, supported by the recent introduction of new railroad lines to Borselen, and the creation of more coal mines and steel plants. After overhearing a complaint by a Nova Belgican officer while deployed on Prinz Rupert Island, in regards to the quality of iron used for cannons, army engineer Henri van Houten designs a new process to use oxidation to remove impurities from iron in steel production. Van Houten licenses his subsequent patent for the design to several companies, although no company is able to get his design perfectly. Finally at the conclusion of 1871 he manages to produce a working version of his design while working with WESCO. The head of the company, Gerrit Kuiper, orders a massive overhaul of the company's steel plant, to take place the following year, in the hopes that the company will solve the demand for large quantities of steel. The first four steam frigates of the Haren-class are completed this year, becoming the first of its kind solely under the control of the colonial government. Due to the war's ongoing nature, the government orders the design and planning for two more ships, known as the Eland-class, this time based heavily upon the Nederland-class of Burgundian ships, which go into production toward the end of the year. The recent popularity in team sports such as rugby and football continue to grow, spread not only to college campuses, but to the cities where teams are created.
  • Ethiopian Empire: With the popularity of football swelling Theo forms the first (semi) professional sports league in the nation naming it the Ethiopian League. Each of the four major cities receives two teams and two hastily constructed stadiums for the first season. Theo leads his Addis Abba Royals to the first ever championship and also earns Emperor's choice award (voted by the players and audience.) He quickly calls his retirement stating he has an empire to run, and is regarded as one of the greatest footballers already after his many years of recreational play. Theo is a man of the people, he often takes carriage rides around the capital just to talk to the people on the street. He is also a flamboyant dresser and womanizer known for having up to ten mistresses but no wife. However, he is an able politician and the Empire knows he will do all he can for them and do it well. He is known as the "Model Ethiopian man." Theo asks if he may take a trip to Belgrade to talk with the Tsar and Supreme Soviet in person. A Greco-Roman Embassy is built for the Belka right down the road from the Royal palace in Addis Abba and features some of the best architecture in the nation. More roads are paved. Land speculators continue to turn a profit selling land to families, until the government orders them to cease stating that all land belongs to the government and can only be leased by officials. The University of Ezana opens allowing students to stay local if they are from the city. Mining in the interior brings back large sums of coal, iron and cobalt.
    • Mission to Japan: Observation and advice is still being given the 500 men who are rotated out with another 500 still led by Captain Amfra.
    • Mission to Egypt: 10,000 men of the newly formed Nile Division led by Seyon Solomon, a distant cousin of Theo, crosses the border and begins operations in Sudan. The tactic used to hunt down Mahdist forces is to scout the desert then surround the area once rebel activity is located. After surrounding the area a frontal attack is commenced with overwhelming fire and then fire and advance. Ethiopian troops are known to bayonet charge with almost full store of ammunition while rebels are reloading to catch them off guard. If a retreat is ordered by the rebels they are caught by the forces behind them. This tactic leads to 100 Ethiopians dead and over 1000 Madhists killed and another 2000 captured. Rebels are tried for treason and are often hung - unless they are willing to give up information. In that case, they will be freed after the war (to Egyptian authorities, of course.) 50 miles deep into Egypt is cleared before a rest is called in late November. 5000 auxiliary troops enter behind the Nile Division to aid the populace with food and medicine if needed.
    • Belkan Dip: We agree to accept Theo to the Supreme Soviet and the tsar.
  • Russia: Despite the strikes in former Polish territory the band Bronstein-Timoshenko Superpower records their greatest song for Tsar Records, "Taking Care of Business". The single records for this song sell out so fast the record factory can't make enough. This single is quickly followed up on the charts by Chernobog's "Who Needs You". In Crimea, the brothers Sasha and Antony Dragovich form a band called the Dragovich Brothers Band and start to record a new type of music based on Bugi-Vugi in Sevastopol. This music will become Ritm i blyuz. The star Sasha Brusilov who had his day of fame with his song "Born To Run" in 1863, releases a full album with multiple records called "Born In The Russian Empire", a supposedly patriotic song about Russia (however, Sasha's father had been killed fighting in Warsaw during the Great War). Along with "Born In The Russian Empire", songs like "Glory Days" and the piano riffed "Dancing In The Dark" become other instant hits. Prime Minister Kerensky refuses to run for a third term for the United Russia Party, and the URP places its bets with the candidate Pyotr Peroshenko who surprisingly loses despite his popularity to Trudovik candidate Andrei Ulyanov. Ulyanov inherits the Polish problem and offers high wages to the Polish workers, and as making sure not to forget the blue collar men in the Volga belt, sets in economic reforms to increase prosperity on the Volga basic industrial cities. However, in Peroshenko's address to the Duma, many Constitutional Democrats and United Russians refuse to stand for Peroshenko's socialist views. However, he does get some applause when addressing the Polish minority problem and the industrialization of Siberia and Novorossiya. In the Azov naval yard the HIRMS Volga River, the navy's first ironclad is launched in August. She is sent on a trip to Sevastopol where she would join the Black Sea fleet in fort. The Volga River is personally escorted by two heavy cruisers on the journey.
  • Belkan Empire: Belka agrees to meet with Kruger and offers Kruger that if he ends his insurgency and possible terrorist efforts, then he will be allowed to run in the Austrian elections coming up. The Belkan diplomat also offers to build legitimate economic cooperation between Austria and Belka along the model of Belka and Egypt which have seen major improvements in relations and development (barring the current civil disturbances). The diplomatic mission also requests that in the event of Kruger's election, Austria allows a status of forces agreement between Belka and Austria in order to preserve a border far away from both Belkan and Austria's main population centers somewhere on Austria's northern frontiers. Homeland development continues with the steel industry continuing to advance in a powerful fashion. The new speed of railways and with railway infrastructure spreading across the whole of the country industrial centers open up in regions where they were previously unable to. In Transylvania, specifically, thousands begin to be employed by concrete and glass factories as well as steel factories which have opened up. Elections occur this year and interestingly enough, the Syndicalist party sees a downswing in popularity in favor of the recently rebranded Slavophile party (now the Federalists) which takes roughly 40% of the seats in the Supreme Soviet after the victory of their united policy with the syndicalists of the unmitigated investment into bettering the colonies. The launching of the BES Draculesti and BES Asen marks a new era for Belka's naval development as the launching of two modern battleships revolutionizes naval warfare. The navy effectively refuses to upkeep its wooden naval fleet now and with the investment into armored ships with turrets effectively outdating the wooden hulled and masted ships. While only temporary, the Navy effectively brings in many of its older ships hoarding a small number as training or museum ships while beginning to break down the wooden hulled fleet. Materials from these ships are sold to pay for the breakdowns as much of it is still useful and the Supreme Soviet, Vozhd, and Tsar all authorize the 1871 naval program which seeks to replace nearly 120 Belkan wooden hulled ships or early ironclads with the new "Steel Navy" concept taking hold. The newest two battleships, the BES Vasili and BES Zaiyetsev, are laid down with Steel superstructured with steel from the superior quality Open-Hearth Process being used. Using funding allocated in the 1871 naval program known as the "Steel Program" the navy adopts a new invention - the Torpedo - which it begins to put on its "destroyer" class of ship historically a heavily armored commerce raider and made for toe-to-toe engagement. The option to build a fleet at a time is taken ahead and the two new Battleships, six Armored Cruisers, nine Destroyers, and 15 Frigates are all put into the shipyards this year as mass allocation of resources is put toward the naval program. It is expected that this fleet of all new iron/steelclad designs is to be finished within the next year or two with the cruisers and battleships not to be finished before 1873. Resources and product flowing in from the colonies, trade partners, and dependencies showcase a further growth in the Belkan economy especially in the world of exotic chinese goods which as a result of the civil war come cheap and easy to the Belkan trade companies. A Belkan squadron of 14 ships including the BES Draculesti, three Armored Cruisers, four older model destroyers and ten iron-sheathed and new ironclad frigates escorting nearly 30 cargo ships deposits nearly 50,000 Needle Guns and Modern artillery to the Peruvian rebellion at Chimbote. Before the voyage the British are requested to provide escort as well for mutual purposes.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civlians continue to move into working there. Further settlement occurs this year with a wave of 5000 settlers reaching the city of Tunis expanding the settler population. Expansion mirroring Spanish Algiers begins to occur
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is further explored as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects, but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against it. The exploration up the Congo river continues as does expansion.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the Interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The regions population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. 
    • Iztochna Aziya: The further development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the Archipelago. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as does its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further into the colony as some cash cropping is expanded.
    • British Dip: Four frigates are dispatched to support the Belkan convoy.
    • Ethiopian Diplomacy: Theo arrives in Belgrade with a surprise for the Supreme Soviet and the Tsar. He brings in three large boxes, one containing A coffee brewer, A lot of coffee beans and sugarcane. A second box containing enough ornate coffee cups, with Ethiopian history hand painted on them, for the tsar, his family and the Soviet. Theo begins to talk of the great taste of Ethiopian coffee and how once they take a simple sip they won't return to the old coffee they consumed. He begins to brew coffee as he speaks of the great friendship of The two nations and great fully accepts the ships deal. He makes references to the Eastern Roman Empire and Axum and how this could be the new form of that. He pours the coffee into each individual cup himself and adds a stick of sugar cane for taste. He proclaims "Once you finish that cup Coffee factories will line the Blue Nile" follow by a laugh. The third box, he reveals, contains cobalt, nickel and copper. He states the the metal richness of his Empire will launch the two nations into an Unstoppable alliance, but only if the mines and refineries are powered by steam. 
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: Concerned by French and Swahili aggression a secretive and publicly denied large scale plan to arm the Zulus is started providing them with thousands of rifled muskets along with ammunition and powder. Work continues on the defences at Kismayo. Tariffs are placed on all Belkan goods except food to keep industry strong. We consolidate our gains on the gold coast. In the Bay of Kost we expand 25 px to the south along the coast to allow better transport. A lot of cattle growers establish themselves around there. In Ireland, demands begin for devolution and home rule. The education system continues to solidify as the rate of literacy rises sharply. England has a population of 21.3 million, Wales has 1.2 million, Ireland has five million people, and Scotland 2.8 million. In Britain, based in southern England, there are 15,000 professionals and 30,000 men in Ireland, 70,000 European soldiers and 300,000 Indian Sepoys in India spread out across the continent, 25,000 soldiers in Suez, 10,000 British soldiers, 10,000 Sepoys and 40,000 African soldiers at Kismayo. 10,000 in Uluru, 4000 in West Africa. There are two fleets: one at Hull and one at Bristol, each comprise ten first-rate ships-of-the-line, 22 second-rate ships-of-the-line, 45 frigates, and 62 corvettes.
    • India: On the border of China, Myitkyina, Mansi, Hseni, Mongton, Kawkareik and Keng Tung each have 10,000 Indian forces at them while another 80,000 Indian forces and 25,000 British forces the forces are held in reserve at Mandalay and fortify the city. distributed across the country with 5000 British at the British strategic fort on the West Indian coast. India has 220 million people.
    • Uluru: A steady flow of people from Britain - many of them unemployed and Indian (convicts) - is maintained mainly going off to set up their own farms and a militia is maintained.


  • Kingdom of Burgundy: With the launch of SMS Donnerwieder, both Verwoester-class battleships (the first Burgundian warships to be formally called as such) are undergoing their fitting out. Both are expected to be completed in 1873. Meanwhile, the Admiral Wacht-class of large armored frigates continue their construction. Grand Admiral Graf Hendrijk vun Lure, Long a proponent of advancing armored warships, uses their construction to order virtually the entire remaining number of Burgundian line-of-battle- ships to be laid up, and eventually retired. Now Queen, Mary vun Brandenburg-Bourgogne continues implementation of her education overhauls. Construction of the Karelstad bridge progresses, and the cost overruns that had plagued the first couple years of construction have now by and large been eliminated, largely due to Carnegie’s supplying foundries adopting the open hearth furnace system. In recognition of Nova Belgica’s contribution to naval shipbuilding, the States-General grants the Navy permission to prefix the ships constructed in Nova Belgica as “SMNBS” (Sijne Majestéit Nova Belgicesch Schëff, or “His/Her Majesty’s Nova Belgican Ship”). Nieuw Friesland expands 50 px southeast/south along the coast. Nieuw Maastricht expands 50 px west along the coast. Garnaalië expands 50 px up the Sanaga river. Maine expands 50 px northeast.
    • Occupied Rhineland: The occupation carries on. In preparation for the withdrawal of Burgundian forces, Queen Mary issues an edict stating that any Burgundian soldier wishing to remain in the Rhineland after the occupation ends, whether due to acquaintances and relationships made with local Rhenish or other reasons, will need to give sufficiently advanced notice so discharge authorizations can be made beforehand.

1872

In France, as a result of the expansionary monetary policies to increase inflation, inflation rises and people's real wages fall. The growing budget deficit leads to payments of soldiers, teachers and all public servants falling late as the government tries to raise more bonds.

In Burgundy, in the latest round of elections, the Provincial Party wins some seats in southern Burgundy and its main campaign is for devolution to the individual provinces or regions rather than to allow a central Burgundian government to dominate the diverse country.

In Austria, Kruger refuses the Belkan offer arguing that he has no interest in economic cooperation wanting full and unconditional sovereignty for Austria. Abandoning the insurgency, his groups starts performing acts of terror in Austria killing collaborators and Belkan soldiers.

Further strikes affect the Polish lands with demands for autonomy - not pay raises.

The Imperial government of Japan launches a massive operation this year bringing the Traditionalist Samurai to their knees and effectively ending their rebellion. However, many in keeping with their policy of serving Japan and the emperor, agree to stand as officials in his army after their clear defeat has proven them wrong. Japan - with its civil war over - begins rebuilding, and more importantly builds the first of its factories around Tokyo.

The Southern Jin, as they call themselves, take over major control over most of Southern China and, having seized some production material from the northern government, move it south to Chongqing establishing their industrial center far in the south. They raise 300,000 troops as well using captured older muskets as well as production of their own rifled muskets. The Central army based around its shock tactics and with its professional force increasing to nearly 200,000, make a move on the Yangtze River Valley with somewhat favorable results.

The Peruvian forces, while losing Lima, do not lose hope and with shipments of arms - specifically a large shipment from Europe - double back and put Lima to Siege.

Aztlan continues to fight its natives in the north with heavy handed tactics meant to disrupt their society. This is compounded as more immigrants move north establishing small towns - some of which begin to be connected by railway.

  • Nova Belgica: In the 1871 election for governor Pieter Steyn chooses not to run, and instead his conservative party backs Frederik Stenweide, a popular Burgundian nobleman and former captain in the military, on a platform of high tariffs to promote economic growth, generous pensions for veterans and expansionist policy. His primary opponent, Jacobus Ostwald, is narrowly defeated, and Stenweide is inaugurated in 1872. As governor, Stenweide targets corruption in the government and offices such as the postal service, similar to his predecessor. The buildup of the military begun a few years prior is continued by Stenweide, who is also an advocate of Nova Belgican control over the occupied Vinlander territories. With help from inventor and engineer Henri van Houten, and numerous Burgundian experts, WESCO opens its first steel plant in Borselem capable of producing large quantities of high quality steel. Gerrit Kuiper's dream of overhauling the company proves initially successful, with the vast coal fields of the north powering the overhaul and with the new railroads to Borselem playing a crucial role. Cornelius Vanderbilt, one of the colony's largest business magnates, begins the construction of a major railroad, which will connect the colony to English-controled New Rome, and from there to New Amsterdam in the south, connecting all three colonies with a major rail line. To accomplish this task the major railway connecting the major cities of the eastern peninsula, which stops at Holstburg, is to be connected to Tholen, Sint Andries, Inhamdorp, Ameland, and Lelystad, before entering English territory and crossing the Merrimack River. Already immensely wealthy, Vanderbilt also completes the De Brekers mansion in Lelystad, which becomes a symbol of opulence among the elite of the colony. Mark Thijm publishes a book this year, De Vergulde Leeftijd ("The Gilded Age"), satirizing an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. Specifically he mentions the large population of immigrants, many of whom are German, who entered the colony due to the colony's policy of high wages for skilled workers. Governor Stenweide takes an interest in the growing rise of interest in sports, seeing it as an opportunity to possibly increase the prestige of Nova Belgica, while also promoting cooperation with neighboring nations. The traditional Burgundian game of IJscolf is reformed this year, becoming OTL ice hockey, and Stenweide promotes the sport by creating the "Stenweide Cup", a challenge cup for Nova Belgica's best amateur hockey club. By the end of 1872 Wilhemina HC becomes the first champions in the colony, after defeating three rival teams; Sint Jan HC, Queen's University, and the Sint Jan Capitals. Other sports, such as rugby and football, continue to grow in popularity as well.
  • French Empire: Reforms under the Ordre Impérial Français (Imperial French Order) are finished, and soon the French Empire is officially declared by King Charles-Louis Bonaparte, nephew of the late Napoleon I, and President Hyacinthe Pelay. With this, nationalism and ethnic pride rises exponentially, with many seeing the return of France back to its original imperial history during the state of Francia. Although inflation remains generally high, it is expected to stay that way for another year, in which a new economic theory Politique Fiscale Comprimé (Compressed (OTL Contractionary) Fiscal Policy) would be implemented to better balance the economy through the implementation of progressive taxes, where the rich are taxed far more than the poor. Although against much of the original conservative-based ideologies, President Pelay sees this as a chance to fully balance out the economy and establish a perfectionist economic state. The economic system of Belka is closely looked at during the process of mapping out the new economic system. Due to the rebellion becoming increasingly difficult to track and stay ahead of the Peruvians, a formal peace doctrine is called upon with the Peruvian rebellions, officially ending the Union of Laurentia and returning Argentine back to France as a protectorate and Peru back to being independent (Mod Response Needed). 250,000/500,000 troops are moved into reserves, bringing the total reserve count to 1.05 million while keeping the active count at a modest 250,000 for the moment. However, it is expected for a large portion of the French military budget to increase somewhat exponentially following the blancing of the economy, with agriculture and other secots being lowered to allow for a large military budget. As stated previously, the French Empire officially leaves the Mediterranean Concord and thus mounts any Concordat doctrine that is against the French as invalid due to their status being not in complience with the standard rules set out and their membership now null. Colonial conquests are put to a slamming halt, as to be direct the economic measures toward benefitting the mainland rather than the oversea states, as well as the need to fully map out and catalogue the republics. However, one more colonial conquest is expected, to help maintain a larger presense in both Arcadia and Asia. This is slightly funded, with most of the funds being derived from the conquering state rather than the mainland. After a few key migrants visit Nova Belgica return back to France, the sports of Rugby and Football are introduced and soon become a large nationwide sport after a few failed attempts. With this, the Picardy Rugby Club and Picardy Football Club are established, and soon Normandy, Brittany, and Orleanais all feature major league Rugby and Football clubs. French Ambassadors are sent worldwide to China, Ethiopia, Swahili, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and India, on a diplomatic mission to seek out various cultural foods and cultural values from various nations, which are expected to be fully implemented into the key French society, whether it be food, sports or other forms of culture. Due to the success of the Elephant cigarette brand in France, Africa, and Laurentia, an offer to open up secondary branches in Iberia, Burgundy, Rhineland, Papal StatesBelkaEngland, and Savannah are offered, and if accepted, the same tax codes and economic issues are to be followed by the corperation in these countries, whether it be paying corperate taxes or other criteria for operation and manufacturing. (Player/Mod Response Needed)
  • Peruvian Diplomacy: Protectir Paquet, using his full legal authority of still being in Parliament and thus still the de jure ruler of both Peru and Argentine in the form of the Union and recently freed by France from being besieged by the Rebels suggests an alternative to the French plan, that the Union of Laurentia be reformed as the Peru-Argentine Confederation, with Peru and Argentine both having their own devolved parliaments, with Peru no longer being a French protectorate while Argentine remains a protectorate of France. This way Peru and Argentine can both be unified into a stronger state while Peru regains its independence and Argentine keeps its protection from Brésil. The Rebel Peruvian National Congress however,is willing to enter into negotiations with France only after Lima is resieged and liberated by Peru. 
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Queen Farah appoints a new prime minister, ending the brief vacancy of the position for a couple of years. The new prime minister is Egyptian patriot and staunch Farah Loyalist Nubar Pasha. Nubar Pasha takes office vowing to fufill policies that fit the needs of the people, and too aid Queen Farah in winning the War of Succession. Hafez denounces the new Prime Minister calling him “a traitor to Egypt, and a faker” and goes on to call him a puppet of Farah. Egyptian forces make a HUGE breakthrough this year, as a failed Hafezian counteroffensive to regain some land ended up in the total retreat of the rebels, with rebel occupied villages being taken over within minutes. The entirety of rebel occupied center of the OTL Red Sea governate is captured by government forces, as many rebel commanders surrender, and due to the death of a well liked general of the rebel army, morale collapsed for the rebels. Only a few amount of pockets of rebel fighters remain. Hafez begins to go on the total defensive, announcing a new strategy of “No attacking until they retreat!” And begins to control the remaining land he has with an iron grip, shutting down opposition elements, and arrested demonstrators and protestors before they can protest. Meanwhile, down in the Kush Region (OTL Sudan) the Mahdi’s forces see a total defeat in retaking Alia City, as the joint team of Belkan and Egyptian Troops is able to crush the outdated Mahdi militias. Mahdi Militiamen begin to defect on the frontlines, as entire battalions surrender and beg to join the government forces in liberating the land from Mahdi rule. The Mahdi’s dream “utopia” begins to collapse, and the Mahdi Goes into hiding. Meanwhile, back in Alexandria Queen Farah announces that Belkan will be a mandatory class, and all young Egyptians must learn it by the time they get to college, in order to better integrate society into the new reality of the world, where knowing Belkan could help you in getting a job. Queen Farah’s Cult of Personality continues to grow, as statues of her are reserected in cities under government control, such as in suez, Alexandria and Alia City.
  • Belkan Empire: The Empire, seeing negotiations fall through with Kruger and a ramping up of hostilities, offically seals the border with Austria only letting a sparse few people in. The military is withdrawn into purpose-built compounds and terrorists that are captured are tortured in secret to find more of their ilk and their bases throughout Austria. The Czechs, however, are notably more pro-Belka and with help from the Belkan government begin industrialization on a large scale which in all degrees benefits the raw industrial and infrastructural contracting sectors of the Belkan government. In other words, with years of compulsory schooling on the books, the already heavily prevalent Belkan language now finally begins to become the standard in many of Belka's more rural communities. With higher communication between the country's towns and cities being the prime reason for this -especially as smaller towns near larger cities begin to be inundated - as the cities become more crowded. A book is written which champions the success and prevalence of "Yugoslavic" in the modern day as attributed to the policies of making it the official nobility language, and official church language centuries ago near the dawn of the language. The Belkan's shipbuilding sector explodes as the need to expand trade with the colonies as well as selling civilian ships and cargo ships to many other powers specifically the steam powered cargo ships. The 1871 naval program continues to advance as roughly 75% of the screening ships are completed this year and the battleships and armored cruisers are to be completed next year. With the Return of the Asen and Draculesti they undergo a refit of their armor using the combination iron and steel plates from the new Belkan battleships. The Supreme Soviet, after much deliberation, offers steam engines to Ethiopia on the condition that they are owned and operated by Belkans. Industrialization of Belka's northern reaches continues to occur as Visegrad and other cities begin to expand around their newly large concrete and glass factories. the Rosia Montana mine is once again shut down and shelved for later use. A burgeoning steel industry begins to develop in Transylvania as well with its massive iron deposits setting up the perfect development of a domestic steel industry. The Belkan Army this year dismisses nearly 400,000 men from the Army agreeing to budget cuts on the matter of expanding the navy Leaving 600,000 men in the field. 
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civlians continue to move into working there. Further settlement occurs this year with a wave of 5000 settlers reaching the city of Tunis expanding the settler population. Expansion mirroring Spanish Algiers begins to occur. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures through the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction. Other Railways are also contructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis with wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. 
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is further explored as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects, but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against it. The exploration up the Congo river continues as does expansion. Zairs first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its Largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the Coast expanding the rubber boom further.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the Interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The regions population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The Discovery of Gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The Railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues.
    • Iztochna Aziya: The further development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the archipelago. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as does its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further into the colony as some cash cropping is expanded.
  • Russia: Prime Minister Ulyanov agrees to the Polish calls for autonomy. However, local Russians who have voting power there lose all faith in the Trudoviks, and during the mid terms vote heavily for United Russia. The Polish vote goes toward the Trudoviks. Prime Minister Perochenko does not prove to be popular amongst the people as he announces his intent already for the Prime Ministership in 1874. Construction of the Trans-Siberian continues as the population expands out east. Expansion in the Ivory Coast continues. Two more Tsarevich-Class ironclads are layed down at the Azov naval yard. Their names are Tsar Vladimir and Great Crusade. Meanwhile, local Chinese and French settlers of Russian Papua are hired to form a colonial police force in mainly the capital in Menokuri. Meanwhile, businessmen start plantations in the region to produce tobacco.
    • Novorossiya: Continuation of the infrastructure and law enforcement program continues. Construction of Fort Konstantin (OTL Fort Point SF) begins to protect New Constantinople from naval threats. Along with outside immigration, there is a population to a small boomtown in the Mzerka Krai which quickly becomes the capital of the Krai, moving it from Yreka. The towns name is Rostislav (OTL Redding, CA). Several factories are built in Duwamish. Several groups of Russian farms from Alyeska migrate to the Great Valley of Salish. Peter Frampton releases a quick single from Salish Records in Duwamish called "Baby I Love Your Way". Another English songwriter named Joe Walsh comes to prominence in Novorossiya after he releases a record from Bayside in New Constantinople called "Rocky Mountain Way" which features his signature slide guitar.
  • Brésil: A force of 100,000 Brésilian troops is attached to the Peruvian army under Andre Grandé. In addition, arms and munitions are sent en masse to the Peruvian government. Industrialization continues, with immigrants pouring in to the cities in order to find work, while Jean Chevalier makes a healthy amount of money off the operations. A request is sent to Belka, asking for five third-rates, ten sixth-rates, 15 brigs, and 15 sloops, to be paid for in ten years. Two more steam-powered ironclads are built, bringing the number up to three monitors, three fourth-rates, and ten frigates.
    • Nope. -Solace
    • Peruvian National Congress Diplomacy: The Peruvian National Congress thank Brésil immensely for the 100,000 soldiers and the supplies. Now under the leadership of Peruvian General Andre Grandé, the Grand Brésilian Army links up with the Grand Peruvian Army and marches upon Lima to reseige it from the French forces.
  • Nippon: Following the end of submission of many of Traditionalist faction. Emperor Kindai, on the advice of his advisors, pardons the leaders of the Samurai that revolted agreeing to allow them to join the ranks of the new imperial army. Furthermore, the imperial court and senate are restructured by the leaders of the imperial factions. The leaders of the imperial factions a new imperial Diet abolishing the senate. The new Diet is subject to an advisory council led by the Kampaku (imperial regent). The social classes are abolished created a free moving, though the Samurais who rehabilitate with the new society, are integrated into the bureaucracy and military administration. Conscription is expanded to incorporate all of society as a means of restoring social unity and as a first step toward modernizing the military. The new military will expand the armed forces to 250,000 troops by 1875 with another rotation of conscription for all male adults upon turning 18 being eligible for service, with service lasting for two years. Oda Nobunari is chosen by Emperor Kindai to serve as the first Kampaku of the new regime due to his major role in the civil war. The Diet and Nobunari are the representatives of the advisory council and the emperor dispatches envoys to Belka to begin opening up talks for negotiations to import Belkan patents and industrial goods to develop the Japanese economy along modern European lines. Belkan rifles are made the standardized infantry weapon while Burgundian artillery holdout traditionalist strongholds in the north of Japan are snuffed out with those refusing to lay down arms being mowed down by imperial ashigaru (footsoldier or infantry) units  An envoy is sent to China to request peace talks with the reformist faction in China to open relations with them, and relations that have been tense since the Sino-Japanese war.
    • Belkan Dip: We agree to sell the industrial startup equipment to the Japanese and offer a limited contract to outfit 100,000 strong Japanese army with Belkan guns.
    • Jap Dip: Japan agrees.
    • French Dip: Mutual embassies are offered to the Japanese, a French embassy to be located in Tokyo and a Japanese embassy to be located in Paris.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The election of the French People’s Party to seats in Metz and Verdun is noted, but they’re a minority even in those provinces’ delegations to the States-General. Their calls for autonomy for the French speaking community largely fall on deaf ears, as France’s recent actions, from the successive invasions, to the ejection of Burgundian immigrants, to their declaration of Burgundians as an inferior race to the French, garners them little sympathy from the populace at large. Indeed, France’s actions have already caused a noticeable shift in the French community. Many have begun taking steps to distance themselves from France, such as speaking French less in favor of the Burgundian language, and dropping French customs. The recent actions by France also effectively kill any momentum for adding French to the languages taught in schools. Two new ironclad battleships, called Medway and Elba, are laid down in royal dockyards. Also in royal yards, the armored cruiser SMS Lëtzebeurg, first steel warship of the Burgundian, is laid down. While those ships are under construction, a naval architect in the Navy’s Ministry of Construction comes up with an idea of improving upon the central battery ironclad model, of concentrating armor around vital machinery, with enough buoyancy to keep the ship afloat. Intrigued, the Admiralty give authorization to include this “armored citadel” into future warship plans. Nieuw Friesland expands 50 px along the coast. Nieuw Maastricht expands 50 px west along the coast. Maine expands 50 px northeast. Garnaalië expands 50 px north.
    • Occupied Rhineland: The occupation continues.
    • French Dip: Since when have Burgundians been said to have been an inferior race in France? Fake news for sure.
  • New Granada: After a few years of negotiations with various foreign diplomats, the Liberal Palestrante of the Cortes Gerais, Eduardo Graça, announces alongside his king, Tomás I Bragança, that the Kingdom would be entering into an agreement with Belka and Burgundy for the construction of a canal that is to rival Suez in its grandeur, crossing the isthmus. The announcement is widely hailed by the Urban and Liberal Party — Miguelist and the non-inscrits of the left as a victory for their governing coalition. Most people see it that way, as it is bound to bring in new technical jobs that pay well while New Granada retains control over the entirety of the canal zone with a Belkan force to protect the nation and train novagranadino forces. The deal is also anticipated to bring in tons of new investment into the nation, with a focus on steel, lumber and textiles. Graça thanks the various nations that sent diplomats, and assures them that they may peaceably use the canal for a shipping tax, 15% of which is to go to Belka and Burgundy for the first two decades of the canal's operation.
    • Peruvian Diplomacy: We seek to formally establish friendly relations with our northern neighbor and are looking to negotiate trade.
    • New Granadian Diplomacy: Palestrante Graça opens debate within the Cortes Gerais about the situation to the nation's south. In the meantime, King Tomás does send a royal delegation to Peru, signalling his interest in supporting the nation's independence.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. In the Swahili heartland, the profitability of cloth factories and cotton farming has led to a sharp increase in the number of slaves. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. Dar Es Salaam is constructed through Royal Decree and soon becomes a major industrial center, with the first western-styled factory constructed that creates cotton textiles. Harambe constructs the first modern port of Swahili in Dar Es Salaam. Agricultural modernization begins in the Swahili heartland. Mandatory schooling begins to be discussed in Zanzibar. With the number of foreigners and major financial families, Sultan Akida begins to discuss political reorganization with the Chamber. Attempts to reconstruct a steam engine has been made. Western-style weaponry are imported and indigeneous designs are tested.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts.
    • Swazi: The political organisation is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land grant system continues smoothly. The other Swazi protectorates are peacefully organized with the Sultanate of Swazi, forming a loose confederation similar to OTL UAE.
    • Swahili Diplomacy: Mining magnates in Aliwa wish to purchase locomotives and train carriages from Belka and Britain.
  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia): Sultan Abdul Al-Rahman I Al-Jaffar died peacefully in his bed in the Grand Palace of Aleppo, generally beloved by all his people. After seven days of mourning, a grand ceremony is organized in Damascus for the crowning of his successor, Abdul Al-Rahman II Al-Jaffar. The outer court of the ceremony is filled with the most modern amusements, including confetti, string orchestras and a variety of children's games being sold at pitched tents. In the inner court, however, the ceremony is covered more with traditional decor: rice thrown at the feet of Rahman and his two wives, traditional instruments of horns and drums play the theme of the House of Jaffar, and props are used to represent the three traditional treasures of Egypt. Upon being crowned, Abdul Al-Rahman summons the court of the Shay Al-Nass in Damascus to officiate the first laws under his rule. Industrialization has continued the same as it has for the rest of the 19th century: ever since the earliest cottage industry was introduced in 1807, mass production from raw resources has very slowly and gradually increased in the nation. Palestine and Mesopotamia, being the densest urban centers, hold the largest proto-industrial centers. The Arabian Peninsula, however, is far more traditional in appearance, remaining at the same level of early modern technology introduced in the 17th century. (I will post my industrial request soon, I just don't have internet at the moment.) As has been the custom of the Middle East for centuries, the culture of the Arab people are inexplicably tied to Europe, with both artistic, fashion and literary trends making their appearance as they happened. Across Palestine and Mesopotamia, a greater sense of national unity with cultural homogenity continues to form, as it has been continuously forming since the 18th century. Unlike his father, who was very modernized and liberal, Abd Al-Rahman II is determined to revive traditional Islamic culture, as well as champion Islam in general. The Shay Al-Nass proposes to Egypt and the Ecumenical Caliphate the Pact of Al-Damashq, in which both nations will pledge immediate and full military support in defense of the Caliph and Dar Al-Islam in general should it come under any mortal threat. (Egypt and Caliph response). This has been de facto the case since the Egyptian Revolution, but not yet put on paper. At the same time, a great wave of young Muslim missionaries are raised from the new generation, eager to spread their message not only to the Shia communities in Syria, but also abroad to distant missions in Southeast Asia and Anangeia. Diplomatic missions are sent to Persia, in attempt to rapproach some level of communication since their independence. In light of their very close historical and cultural ties, requests are sent to Egypt for military and economic technology, if they have anything to offer. As the navy is vastly updated and upgraded in the both the Red Sea and Persian Gulf (as it has been routinely for the last fifty years), the Shay Al-Nass hopes to increase Arabia's economic presence in the Indian Ocean. A formal request is sent to China, for setting up a permanent embassy for the use of trade in Korea, as had existed since the Abbasid Caliphate. The Shay Al-Nass increases regulations of trade in Southern Arabia to match the naval expansion, especially around the British port of Aden. We ask both France, Burgundy and Iberia for opening cultural centers in Mesopotamia, so as to maintain a close diplomatic connection with all three nations. Military defenses are improved rather modestly on all borders, mostly in Palestine and Caucasus. EDIT: The Sultanate establishes a new cross-Atlantic trading program, in which the nation offers exclusive prices to buy metric tonnage of coal from the New World, specifically the nations of Panama and Brazil (RESPONSE)
    • Burgundian Dip: Arabia has extended an offer to buy Burgundian coal.
    • British Dip: We would sell you coal as well.
    • French Diplomacy: France is willing to sell coal to Arabia for a reduced price.
    • All coal deals are canceled. We need diplomats for aiding full industrialization from any European nation that wishes to do so. There.
    • Egyptian Dip: We agree to Arabia’s proposal.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: With the True Armies of the New Jin overrunning much of Southern China, the reformist government embarks on a massive industrialization campaign. A railway connecting the Beijing–Tianjin area to the city of Hangzhou is constructed, facilitating the movement of troops and resources to the south. This creates a high demand for coal, iron and machinery. Telegraph lines are constructed, allow for easier communications. Investment in the newly-established Tianjin and Seoul Military–Industrial zones results in a boom in arms production, with rifled muskets, carbines and ammunition being produced. It also functions as storage facilities for purchased breech-loading cannons, and Needle and bolt-action rifles. A systematic purge of dissidents occurs, with many dissidents executed and their properties awarded to peasantry. The usage of fertilizers and private ownership of land (instead of renting land from landlords) results in a rise in agricultural productivity, and the government begins issuing contracts to families to provide them a certain amount of agricultural produce in exchange for pay. The Huifu Emperor proclaims the establishment of the "Greater Chinese Empire" (replacing the official dynastic title) echoing the popularization of the notion of a popular monarchy; one in which its legitimacy is built on the masses rather than divine right. An idea of a common Chinese nation based on shared cultural values is promoted to maintain unity, and provide a cause for the army to fight for, improving troop morale. The number of active troops is raised steadily to ~500,000 with ~300,000 stationed along the border (including ~50,000 in Shanghai, which is fortified). An active force of ~100,000 is kept to maintain order and to facilitate the newly centralized administration. The border is highly militarized and fortifications are built there. A relatively modest force of ~100,000 troops is sent southward to break enemy defenses, capture the entirety of Jiangsu and Anhui, including the city of Nanjing. This success is owed to the use of cavalrymen to break infantry lines, as well as the use of heavier, breech-loading artillery, which minimize direct confrontation with the enemy. This stands in contrast to the equipment of the rebelling forces, which relies mainly on older muzzle-loading smoothbore guns as well as lighter cannons. As a result, the border successfully shifts to the Yangtze River. In response to poor treatment of the peasantry within the rebelling territories, raids are launched in border towns while frequent raids are launched on the southern capital of Chongqing (in Sichuan). Diplomats are sent to Japan normalizing relations, while Chinese authorities agree on re-establishing a trading embassy in the port of Incheon.
  • Kingdom of East Germany: After re-establishing relations that had begun to decay between Belka and the East Germans, we continue to help contain violence with posters in our country urging people not to leave but to help out in the insurgency in Austria. Germans continue to join the military with patriotism and with many unitary military programs with our neighboring German brethren, we offer them a unified military council to be located in Hannover (Mod Response). This move also brings the Burgundian Question in once more with the revival of 'Operation Red' to account for other German troops in the scenario and other maneuvers plus attacks to make the plan as foolproof as possible. The results of a unified parade bring a revival of national pride and identity as Germans. As relations sour between Burgundy and the East Germans, any move made against the German populace could lead to a conflict. 20,000 Germans join the military with them being stationed across East Prussia and Silesia for training. Our latest ironclad is almost complete. The colonies establish their own armed groups with 8000 in Greater Hussein and 13,000 in Angola. Fortifications begin being established along ports with Fort Sophia being built in New Berlin.
    • The Rhineland accepts the offer after some initial hesitation. -Solace
  • Republica Iberia: Prime Minister Álvares begins an international outreach program to Aztlan, Iberia’s former colony, and a cultural friend. Iberian diplomats arrive in Aztlan to seek friendship in the New World, and to offer Iberian technical expertise should they desire it. Álvares, in a speech to parliament notes “We should like to find our friends in this world, both in Europe and abroad, that our system, so dedicated to the rights of man may spread and flourish as the pomegranate under the South Iberian sun. Our aims are not only just, but necessary for the defense of representative government by the people.” (Mod Response, Please) The Guardia Nacional begins to form with its first corps of 100,000. Work continues on the strategic forts in the Pyrenees, and in general the Pyrenean Line is fortified. The Democratic Social Catholics continue to grow in popularity. The party continues its advocacy for workers rights, assistance for people in need, large families, and an end to urbanization policies. The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants, however, have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures, coupled with greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The population in Iberia is estimated to be 35.28 million. With farming becoming increasingly efficient, and erosion issues being tackled, food production growth has begun to outpace population growth. The excess agricultural land is dedicated to more luxurious foods which are popular across Europe. Water conservation and erosion projects, of which there are thousands across Iberia, continues to boost land productivity and protect agricultural viability. Low food prices see workers content and bellies full. Increasing demand for arms leads to greater production of steel and iron. The navy begins experimenting with steel for use in military vessels in conjunction with Burgundian efforts. An open hearth foundry begins construction in Tarragona. Additionally, a Karakov Converter is built and opened in Bilbao to produce more steel. Adoption of the Model 1864 Vento Lever Action continues. The Rápido Class Armored Cruisers are commissioned.
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert resumes along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority European. There are roughly 3.34 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 100,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand Germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibericas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stop over for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial Garrison is maintained at 1000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber trees are planted for the first time and a harvest is expected in a few year time.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic stabilizes and begins expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa.
  • Ethiopian Empire: Theo agrees to Belka's deal and returns to the empire. The Ethiopian golden age continues with city planners directing Belkans to factory locations. Theo has paintings commissioned for the "New Ethiopia" which depicts the nation being more western, but still showing African landscapes and culture. The stock market in Axum continues to grow the economy with Europeans slowly beginning to invest in it. Coffee fields are expanded to meet factory demands. More families move toward Lake Victoria in the hope of fortune. The first hospital is opened in Addis Ababa called the Royal Hospital sponsored by Theo. A university is also opened in Ezana City. The first locomotives are held in Adulis for the time being. Troops return to Ethiopia from Japan with multiple memoirs. Tactics used by both sides are studied by tacticians in Axum. Literacy and school attendance continue to climb finally surpassing the 66% mark. The infrastructure of the nation continues to be worked on.

1873

The Chinese civil war turns in favor of the Westernizers as a fair share of their army is destroyed or captured in the battle of the Yangtze. This forces a retreat as well as a full scale stop on the now revealed planned siege of Macau and Hong Kong. The Southern Jin currently only stand holding nearly one-third of their original territory in South China.

Final tallies of the Japanese civil war dead stand at nearly two million as the result of wanton purge and pillage of the many disloyal Samurai domains with a large amount of dead. While considerably brutal, the Belkan advisors publish that it was noticeably effective in ending further revolt and bringing the whole country under control.

Aztlan furthers its industrial programs pushing railways deep into its northern provinces specifically linking up with the developing economic centers in the north to the capital in the south. A crisis of governmental rule occurs in regards to the states with those favoring a federalism model vs a centralist model. The Federalist model wins out, which contrary to the centralists, increases population happiness and productivity. 

The settlement of Kaliforniya continues by German and Anglo migrants who with the promises of extremely fertile land in the central valley see homesteads and towns crop up. The Anglo Frontiersmen expand as well but trade across the border to the east rather than to the west. 

Industrialization begins in a noticeable form in Avalon, Iroquois and Savannah.

Continued insurgency attacks in Austria against Belka and its collaborators.

East Germany needs to stop just recruiting more people and instead say how many people it has in its army. The Polish independence movement continues to escalate.

Iroquois changes its name to New England, a long used internal nickname, as a result of a growing nativist movement.

Thomas Spence is effectively defeated, and decidedly gives up his proclaimed Republic of Vinland. He would be arrested later, but his ideas of independence and republicanism have become common symbols in the society of Scandinavia Arcadia, with some arguing in favor of an independent state.

  • Nova Belgica: Governor Stenweide and his deputy governor, Reinier de Klerk, make considerable progress in addressing the spoils system in government, and corruption in the nation's post office. Several high ranking members of the post office system are arrested and tried for conspiracy. There is also a push for greater funding for education, with Stenweide advocating for a universal education system funded by the federal government. By the end of the year no such law is passed, however, as he fails to get the measure passed an obtrusive parliament. The growth of the steel industry in Nova Belgica continues, with WESCO becoming one of the dominant companies in Arcadia. The company's steel plant at Borselen becomes highly profitable and productive, with the design created by Henri van Houten producing large quantities of high quality steel. A large portion of this steel is sold, primarily to Burgundy, but more and more the growing industries in the nation draw away the resource to domestic needs. The railway constructed by Cornelius Vanderbilt connects the colony to New Rome and New Amsterdam, and also opens the door to Nova Belgican industry and markets farther south. Vanderbilt, meanwhile, turns his attention toward the Vers River region, hoping to connect Lelystad and Ameland to Icaria, Aalst and eventually Philipsburg. These railroads are largely created by German immigrants and other new groups entering the nation, and Icaria becomes the center of a German minority in the south, comparable to Bergen in the north. With the creation of a local navy now officially sanctioned by the Burgundian government, the colony begins work on creating a proper fleet. The colonial navy thus far is largely comprised of steam frigates and outdated Burgundian ships. Admiral Karel Visser is appointed to the head of the colonial navy and tasked with developing a plan for the next few years to upgrade our naval capacities, utilizing the new advancements in iron and steel manufacturing the help strengthen future naval vessels. His team of engineers drafts plans for the Havenland-Class, a group of cruisers 87 meters in length, protected by six inches of armor, and capable of speeds of twelve knots, powered by a combination of steam and sail. Three ships of this class are ordered, to begin construction the following year in Sint Jan, Borselen and Rustwyk. In the meantime Visser orders the current navy commence drills north of Nova Belgica, and garrison the port at Prinz Rupert Island. Construction also begins of a naval base at the town of Winsum on our territory the Madeleine Islands (OTL Magdalen Islands north of Nova Scotia). In ice hockey this year a single-elimination playoff is established between the various amateur teams of the nation, as a competition for the Stenweide Cup. In the final round Wilhemina HC defends their title and defeats the Tholen Wanderers (newly established this year). The Wilhemina team captain, Johannes Siberg, becomes so popular that he retires from ice hockey and successfully runs for mayor of the city of Wilhemina. Although the ice hockey competitions are still largely amateurly assembled, there is a growing push to expand the sport and create a central governing body, as well as expand the sport internationally. A former military officer, Martin Bijleveld, decides to travel back to occupied Prinz Rupert Island and helps establish a team there, which becomes the Cavaliers (after Prince Rupert and the cavaliers). Late in the year a post-season friendly match is held in the city of New Amsterdam after entrepeneur and CEO of WESCO, Gerrit Kuiper, decides to open an artificial ice rink in the city, which proves to be a lucrative venture. In the match-up Tholen HC defeats Queen's University 3-0. In rugby the Sint Jan "Blue Sox" become national champions, and later in the year travel to France to face the Picardy Rugby Club in a friendly match, the first international rugby match of its kind. Meanwhile, the government makes an offer to the Scandinavian government to purchase the two islands that we currently control north of the nation, Prinz Rupert Island and the largely unpopulated Anticosti Island. A large sum of money is offered in exchange for these islands being placed solely under our control, rather than jointly administered, as the Scandinavian government hasn't made any attempt to establish government in the islands. (Mod Response) Later in response to Scandinavia rejecting our attempts to speak diplomatically and responding by dispatching troops to repulse our occupation, this is interpreted as a hostile act, and we strengthen our garrisons in Anticosti and Prinz Rupert Island by 20,000.
  • Scandinavia: We request that European nations sign a declaration of condemnation of Burgundy for undermining Scandinavian territorial integrity. An official request is sent to Burgundy to withdraw from the islands, to preserve our alliance and territorial integrity.
    • British Dip: Yes we condemn said invasion.
  • Belkan Empire: The empire this year continues to see the education of their next Tsar. The targeting of Belkan soldiers and collaboraters in Austria forces a new head in the counter-insurgency, and with terrorists. With the borders sealed there is a very clear lack of families leaving and in many cases families of known terrorists are jailed and imprisoned. Captured terrorists are also displayed in full view and impaled as per punishment. This year a democratic election occurs in Vienna and surprisingly, the pro-Belka party wins, but only by a slim margin as the other parties promote more autonomy from Belka. However, a status of forces agreement is put into place allowing Belkan troops in Austria and allowing a railway to be built through into Czechia. The home front sees further development of industry - specifically in the more rural north which with its recent population growth - has seen major increase in its steel and concrete production. A series of arms factories is also opened. The 1871 naval program sees the first phase complete as the two new battleships launch joining the rest of its screening fleet. The BES Makarov and BES Milosevic join the Belkan fleet and this year Phase Two of the naval program begins with six new armored cruisers, eight destroyers and nearly 20 of the new turreted-class of armored frigates are put into production. Much funding is diverted from other more fleshed-out programs to fund the naval program. Alongside this, a new design of battleships begins being put into development with an armored citadel and a longer length to house more weaponry and stronger equipment for propulsion. The investment into the colonies continues in earnest with Maghreb, Manila and Burma taking precedence. Investment into the colonial railways also becomes a major drive as state sponsored exploration into the African interior continues. Belkan equipment is sent to Panama for the construction of the Canal. Under the naval program more modern designs continue to be concocted as the navy looks to maintain the upper hand in naval development. The Belkan army having seen serious downsizing in personnel in favor of quality sees itself fully outfitted with the new MKII Zastava Needle Rifle and a more stable version of its breech-loading cannonry. Dividends flowing in from Maghreb solidify further the economic policy there.
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civlians continue to move into working there. Further settlement occurs this year with a wave of 5000 settlers reaching the city of Tunis expanding the settler population. Expansion mirroring Spanish Algiers begins to occur. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures through the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction. Other Railways are also contructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis with wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. 
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is further explored as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects, but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against it. The exploration up the Congo river continues as does expansion. Zairs first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its Largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the Coast expanding the rubber boom further.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the Interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The regions population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The Railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begin with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west.
    • Iztochna Aziya: The development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the archipelago and for the first time some industrial factories opening near Manila. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as does its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily as well as development of some domestic industries. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further into the colony as some cash cropping is expanded. 
    • Iberian Diplomacy: Our diplomats will attend the negotiations in Belgrade. 
  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia): Sultan Abd Al-Rahman II sends more permanent diplomatic missions to both Cairo and Alexandria, in order to maintain relations for the Pact of Al-Damashq. Due to our political connection, Arabia asks to import iron ore in large quantities from Egypt, and a similar deal is extended to Ethiopia (RESPONSE). Emanating from the Caliph himself, Islamic mission groups minister to the isolated Shia communities in the Syrian highlands, as well as mission groups to Eore and Bangkok. Classical artists continue to create new pieces in cultural centers of Baghdad and Bosra. However, the Sultan begins to sponsor a counter-movement to reinstate baroque art, in order to revive culture of the former Caliphate. Ishaq ibn Ayyob, a prominent writer and entrepeneur from Beyrut, begins writing a new book on the greater unity of the Arab people, especially their struggle against European colonization of Africa. In order to properly power the proto-industrial technology across Mesopotamia and Palestine, 4000 tons of coal are mined in Lebanon, as the Sultanate has been doing continuously throughout this century. The navy of the Arabian peninsula continues to be expanded, mainly focused in the ports of Aden and Muscat. The modernization efforts of the Shay Al-Nass are mostly progressing as expected, although much information for specific technologies is still lacking. The Shay Al-Nass continues to reach out for European nations to sponsor industrial technology in our nation. A rugby team is organized in Aleppo, in light of the popular trend across Europe, although it is only appreciated by a niche audience in the nation. Elephant cigarettes are imported from France by the wealthiest elites, mostly in southern Arabia and Oman.
    • Belkan Dip: We request the Arabians talk to Belka if they wish to trade with Belka's closed colonial market system.
      • Arabia points out that the Jaffarids are a joint protectorate of Belka and Britain, and therefore the closed market system, in the strictest legality, permits inter-protectorate trade.
    • We agree and give ten tons of iron to Arabia. -Egypt
    • Along the same trans-Atlantic trade mission from last year, we request to by quantiites of iron ore from Brazil (RESPONSE)
    • French Dip: Engines that Arabia wants is sold to them, and, as well as a few key engineers are sent to teach the Arabian society how to properly re-create and use engines and industrial machinery. They bring with them the blueprints for factories, railways, telegrams, and other things that might allow for their society to evolve.
      • As a courtesy from this response, the Shay Al-Nass sends delegates to France to improve relations, especially in light of the consistant positive diplomacy between the Arab and French people over the last 1000 years.
  • Kingdom of East Germany: With another extravagant parade being held this year, German Pride grows more. With the joint military council in place works on plans for future ventures are made while coordinated military training with other Germans continue. The Ethnic Cleansing of Posnan is initiated with the crackdown of the Polish Independence Movement grows with it being outlawed and participants face execution. Any Pole that commits a crime consisting of robbery or murder is ordered to be killed on sight - which also includes Partisan officials. 100,000 troops are sent to the area for occupational purposes to ensure stability remains. We also offer a “paid to leave” program to the Polish people that would be paid to leave the country of Poland or go to a nation of their choice. In the meantime, Operation Red, now fulfilled and seeing the invasion of Vinland, a territory of our ally Scandinavia being invaded, we have been pushed to the breaking point but also seeing that we could use this situation to benefit the Germans. However, the Chancellor and the advisors look at it from a different perspective. The Germans are once again offered Operation Red revised to regain prestige for the nation and and also in hopes of ending the occupation of the West Bank which would allow us to remove any doctrine or moves made by Burgundy during their occupation plus also gain land for the Germans and show that we may not be tread upon (Mod Response). The Naval Fleet expands with the launch of our latest ironclad. Von Celle releases his new book on the Fascist Philosophy. Following that, the book becomes a popular read amongst supporters - while for opponents, it is disliked. Around 183,000 copies are sold. As factories for manufactured goods expand, steel and iron become more affordable - especially with new methods of smelting/production. The rich continuously invest in colonial establishments for their own holiday complexes as the middle-class begins to use them as places to go on holiday. The East German High Command awaits a response from Germany - feeling optimistic.
  • Rhineland: Agrees.
  • Russia: HIRMS Tsarevich is launched as the nation's second ironclad. Following Burgundian naval classification, this monitor is given the name battleship. Kalashnikov begins to work on an improvement for his 1860 repeating rifle. Meanwhile, a new popular rifle springs up across the army. The one shot rifle is made by the Tokarev Arms Company calling itself the Tokarev 1873 breech rifle which fires a large 11.4 mm round (OTL Martini-Henry). Meanwhile, the army adopts Tokarev's new .45 caliber six-shot revolver (OTL Colt .45). The Black Sea shipyards are expanded as they are not frozen over during the winter like the Baltic Sea ports. Industry is expanded as the Trans-Siberian railroad is built. Prime Minister Ulyanov supposedly comes under fire for the Trudovik-Marsanist scandal in which several top Trudovik party leaders allowed French Marsanists to come into exile from France. To get peoples' eyes away from him and stop the powerful Feograd Times from publishing critical articles about him, he passes the National Education Act without the Duma's approval which gets him some flak but no one cares about that. Meanwhile, the exiled Marsanists are driven out by a mob of far right agitators tied to the obscure but known Savinkovist Party. The tsar has a son he names Alexander, which makes his son Alexander III. The French Marsanists flee to Peru. Russian Ivory Coast is expanded as exploration inland continues. The Dragovich Brothers released their landmark single "What A Fool Believes".
    • Novorossiya: Fort Fyodr is established at OTL Fresno. State sponsored schools are opened up in Kaliforniya that teach Russian to the dismay of immigrants. A decree is made from the Cinigrad Duma with the consent of Prime Minister Ulyanov about the distribution of land in the region (roughly equivalent to OTL Homestead Act). However, the Cinigrad government adds the clause of loyalty to Russia to the land agreements. This does piss off some immigrants, but many sign because, hey, it's fertile land! Joe Walsh takes his record studio to New Constantinople and forms a band called "The Eagles". They quickly come out with a debut album simply called "The Eagles". Pacific railways begins to scout routes through the Southern Cascades to build the Grand Salish Railroad.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The five Admiral Wacht-class ships are commissioned this year. Although originally labeled “heavy frigates”, after some debate they are redesignated “Panzerkruiser” or armored cruisers. Meanwhile, the SMS Verwoester, the SMS Donnerwieder and SMS Woede all enter service and are organized into the First Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet. Fleet Commander Admiral Vincent Eikenboom takes Woede as his flagship. Also, this year in naval news, the SMS Texel is laid down toward the end of the year, notable in that it mounts a pair of turrets amidships en echelon, allowing the designers to concentrate its armor around the core of the ship as opposed to spreading it out from bow to stern. It is also notable in the difference in armament from its predecessors, where as Woede, and the Verwoester- and Medway-classes are armed with 12” guns, Texel is set to be armed with 16” monsters. Paulissen shells are distributed among the Burgundian Navy. Fortresses along the northern border with the Rhineland north of the Rhine are modernized. Having been accepted as a co-builder of New Granada’s isthmus canal, Burgundian personnel begin moving to New Granada in preparation for the ground-breaking. Orders are placed with several steelworks, such as the Carnegie and Haussmann Steel Companies, and Nova Belgica's WESCO, for steel to go into the construction. Ships from the merchant fleet begin being requisitioned to be ready to transport the steel to the isthmus. Rugby and ice hockey start becoming popular among Burgundians, such as the Brussels Kings IHC and Dunkerque Pirates RC, are established.
    • Occupied Rhineland: As the occupation nears its end, the military governors begin compiling a list of important items of discussion to bring up with the Rhineland before the Burgundians withdraw. Among them includes securing passage through the Rhine for Burgundy's monitor warships, as Stroussbuerg has rapidly become a favorite building site for them.
  • Ethiopian Empire: The memoirs of Captain Amfra are published detailing the Boshin conflict from the eyes of an Ethiopian soldier. The book is a fast seller with printing presses not keeping up. More memoirs by troops are posted and the nonfiction drama becomes the new fashion. Explorers talk of the bush and run ins with long forgotten tribes. Theo commissions a port in the name of his great dynasty in OTL Djibouti. Officials of the empire are sent to Lake Victoria to talk to locals about "sharing the land." (mod response) Modern medicine is produced at the University of Axum greatly increasing the standard of living and the birth rate. Money minting continues at the pre-European recession levels. More efficient farming tools are brought from Europe to aid farmers in getting more out of their land for the booming population. The older navy ships are sold for scrap as the government prepares for more ships to be acquired from Belka. The armed forces continue to modernize.
    • Please look at the Congress of Belgrad if you wish to stake claims to African land. -Feud
  • Greater Chinese Empire: The rebel militias of the Southern Jin under Feng Chenghui are pushed southward, with territories under their control receding to Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, and Zheijiang. Due to the capture of Chongqing and the entirety of the Sichuan province, Kim Haeung once again relocates the capital and his followers to Fuzhou. The standing army is raised steadily to ~600,000 active troops constituting three armies, each given different roles. One-third of the troops are stationed along the border to consolidate gains into enemy territory, about one-third is sent southward focusing on capturing Guangdong to deprive the Southern Jin of a proper port. The remainder are left to maintain civil order. Five divisions are tasked with launching raids into enemy territories, inciting loyalist peasant revolts, and arming loyalist peasant militias. The current policy of state-sanctioned industrialization and militarization is hailed as a success. Large firms known as "Qianzu" emerge, receiving government subsidies in-exchange for abiding by government policy. Several key industries and services remained state-owned including: railways, banking and heavy industries; many of these industries provide substantial government revenue (particularly taxation booths between major roads and canal routes). The Bank of China is reformed along Western models, becoming a true bank in a sense of issuing loans and credit instead of just simply serving as a bullion vault. The railway system connecting Zhengzhou to Beijing (and their satellite cities) is completed, thus linking the north to the Grand Canal and therefore, the entirety of the Yangtze River basin. This railway system is planned to be extended to the Northeast, aiming to connect Beijing to Halbin (facilitating access to the coal fields of Manchuria) and to the secondary capital of Seoul (with the Dalyeon serving as an intermediate point). Telegraph lines are constructed to ease communication. The Huifu Emperor continues to consolidate his legitimacy due to the increasing popularity of his reforms. With the systematic purge of political opponents, the reformist faction achieves uncontested control over the Grand Secretariat and organize themselves into the Populist Party. Several proponents of the modernization movement, such as former military official Zuo Zongtang, General and Minister of Defense Li Hongzhang, and Prince Yixin attain high levels of popularity due to its success. The Tianjin and Seoul Military–Industrial zones continue to be expanded rapidly, resulting in a boom in arms production, with rifled muskets, carbines and ammunition being produced. It also functions as storage facilities for purchased breech-loading cannons, and Needle and bolt-action rifles. The Ministry of Education constructs vocational schools to accommodate the need for skilled labor, though delays its plan to implement compulsory primary and secondary education. However, the construction of schools and the conversion of old universities into Western-style campuses with sophisticated curricula commences. In partnership with the Ministry of Defense, literacy programs are launched (to further improve communications) while subsidized tertiary education will be offered to veterans in recognition of their military service.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. In the Swahili heartland, the profitability of cloth factories and cotton farming has led to a sharp increase in the number of slaves. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. Export and import trade booms from the already solid financial foundations of Swahili. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. Public compulsory schooling is instituted in some districts of Zanzibar. A small system of representative government is implemented, similar to the States General, representing the clergy, landed nobles, merchant nobles and a small separate chamber for foreigners. The first Swahili made steam engine is successfully constructed in the Madrassah of Malindi, designs are publicised, though they still require the hands of extremely skilled artisans. Western-style weaponry is imported and indigenous designs are tested.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts.
    • Swazi: The political organisation is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land-grant system continues smoothly. The United Swazi Emirates is proclaimed.
    • Swahili Diplomacy: Mining magnates in Aliwa wish to purchase locomotives and train carriages from Belka and Britain.
  • Republica Iberia: Prime Minister Álvares begins an international outreach program to Aztlan, Iberia’s former colony, and a cultural friend. Iberian diplomats arrive in Texas to seek friendship in the new world, and to offer Iberian technical expertise should they desire it (Mod Response Please). Work continues on the strategic forts in the Pyrenees, and in general the Pyrenean Line is fortified. The Democratic Social Catholics continue to grow in popularity. The party continues its advocacy for workers rights, assistance for people in need, large families, and an end to urbanization policies. The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants, however, have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures, coupled with greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The population in Iberia is estimated to be 36.16 million. With farming becoming increasingly efficient, and erosion issues being tackled, food production growth has begun to outpace population growth. The excess agricultural land is dedicated to more luxurious foods which are popular across Europe. Water conservation and erosion projects, of which there are thousands across Iberia, continues to boost land productivity and protect agricultural viability. Low food prices see workers content and bellies full. Increasing demand for arms leads to greater production of steel and iron. More Kharkov Processors and Open Hearth Furnaces are built to supply domestic demand. Naval expansion programs are continued with a class of four light battleships each with two armored turrets and 200mm guns are planned for commission in 1876.
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production. The Republic begins aiding the Iberian African Republic in expansion southward.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite the growth. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority European. There are roughly 3.34 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 100,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand Germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stopover for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial garrison is maintained at 1000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber trees are planted for the first time and a harvest is expected in a few years time.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic stabilizes and begins expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa.
    • Texas agrees. Person.
  • New Granada: An influx of Burgundian and Belkan engineers is welcomed to the Kingdom at the port city of Balboa Rocha in the Istmo province. The first boat is welcomed by King Tomás himself, with a number of other notable New Granadians making their way to the capital of Istmo to meet the assemblage. The Cortes Gerais passes a law that incentivizes rural workers to move to Istmo for labor on the great canal. The groundbreaking is set for the start of 1874, with Cortes Gerais elections due to occur the following year. With a great deal of economic activity taking place in the north, the economy begins to pick up steam. A series of telegraph lines is built, connecting major cities and allowing for greater communication. Elsewhere, the Laurentian Stock Exchange (BVL for Bolsa de Valores de Laurentia) is officially established, with the listings of five prominent companies: United Gold and Mineral; Telégrax Telegraphy; Bank of Bogotá; New Granadian Coffee and Tobacco; and Associated Timber. A number of smaller companies, aspiring to raise additional capital, also list on the BVL. Politically, the Partido do País is rent into two: more liberal conservatives who are supportive of the foreign investment into the canal, and more nationalist conservatives who are opposed to foreign investment. The Cortes Gerais formally recognizes the independence of Peru.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Government forces make a smashing new push into traditionalist territory, and quickly liberate countless villages, towns, and cities from Hafezian rule. Due to the worsening living conditions and Quincy evaporating rights in traditionalist territory, the troops are welcomed with open arms, a surprise to the government troops there. The government forces keep advancing until they are 44 miles from Giza, where they stop and set up camp, hoping to rest and get back their strength before they retake the old capital. A joint force of Belkan amd Egyptian troops liberate a seemingly abandoned village, but soon the troops there find something different.... they find many decapitated heads in what used to be micro-farms, along with what seems to be dead bodies who were killed by submerging their heads into the water for too long. Egyptian forces go inside an abandoned warehouse where they find countless of dead bodies of women, along with banging on doors and screams. They soon find out that it is coming from small rooms where Mahdi forces would keep women who violated their strict sharia law, along with a woman who they randomly kidnapped off the street to be wed to Mahdi soldiers. The troops open up the doors and calm the woman down, saying she is safe and she no longer will have to live in fear. Belkan troops soon discover fields of impaled bodies of dissidents. The joint Belkan-Egyptian forces are disgusted and in shock of what they find in this death camp of a village, and a report is made to Queen Farah about the find, pictures and all. Ethiopian Forces in the south rapidly advance into Mahdi territory, along with Belkan and Egyptian troops in the west and east, the Mahdi war effort soon totally collapses, and the forces quickly defeat the Mahdi Forces, and locate the Mahdi in an isolated location, and quickly besiege his home, and then find him in his room, dead on the floor from suicide. With the Mahdi defeated, both sides can focus on one thing: defeating each other.
  • French Empire: Colonial expansion continues as French ambassadors arrive to Belgrad for the conference about Africa. The island of Prince Rupert's is renamed to Prince Theodore-Charles, after the successor to the Emperor Charles-Louis. The island garrisons stationed by Scandinavia are returned to Scandinavian Arcadia and soon the island is fortified to better protect against any claims by Burgundy or Scandinavia consisting of light defensive fortifications. An envoy of 10,000 troops are shipped to the island to better help in the new French claim. Most of the older Scandinavian laws remain intact. The languages of Basque, Dutch, Scandinavian, and French are made official languages on the island, which just happens to support a large Dutch and Basque ethnicity over Scandinavian or French. A military alliance is offered to Burgundy (Player Response Needed). In December, Nova Belgica and Burgundy are asked to provide garrisons to island. And on December 20th, an invasion of Scandinavian Africa is initiated by 10,000 troops in South Africa, being supported by a heavy artillery and fleet as well as the structure being medium cavalry. The colony is taken within the final week of the year, and soon a treaty is offered to Nova Belgica and Burgundy essentially giving Nova Belgica the islands, although the French troops and defenses located on the island will remain there as a deterrent in the case of Scandinavia attempting to re-sieze the island (Player Response Needed). The siege of Lima in Peru comes to an end being more of a failure than the initial signs of success that were received, and thus the French navy leaves Peru to head back to mainland France. The population rises to 40.6 million.
    • We accept the alliance and concession of the islands and immediately send soldiers to re-garrison the islands alongside the French.
    • Burgundian Dip: Accepted.
    • Egyptian Dip. We send ambassadors to France. The ambassadors bring many Gifts and Egyptian cuisines. This sudden act of diplomacy comes from Queen Farah’s efforts to expand diplomacy and trade with Europe, and especially France.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: British interest is registered in Persia and Jaffarid Arabia with Parliament approving negotiations to begin with them next year. British forces contuine their inalnd advance in the Gold Coast attacking four more territories. Work continues on the defences at Kismayo. Tariffs are placed on all Belkan goods except food to keep industry strong. Industry remains stronger but the lack of exports markets leads to pushes for the government to find more. Rugby grows as the public schools set up teams and begin to play amongst themselves. The navy begins a large scale plan to build ironclads over the increasingly outdated wooden ships as well as move toward breech-loading rifled artillery. It remains a mainly aristocratic sport. Growing demands for home rule in Ireland.  In the Bay of Kost we expand 25 px to the south along the coast to allow better transport. A lot of cattle growers establish themselves around there. In Ireland, demands begin for devolution and home rule. The education system continues to solidify as the rate of literacy rises sharply. England has a population of 21.7 million, Wales has 1.2 million, Ireland has five million people, and Scotland 2.8 million. In Britain, based in southern England, there are 15,000 professionals and 30,000 men in Ireland, 70,000 European soldiers and 300,000 Indian Sepoys in India spread out across the continent, 25,000 soldiers in Suez, 10,000 British soldiers, 10,000 Sepoys and 40,000 African soldiers at Kismayo. 10,000 in Uluru, 4000 in West Africa. There are two fleets: one at Hull and one at Bristol, each comprise ten first-rate ships-of-the-line, 22 second-rate ships-of-the-line, 45 frigates, and 62 corvettes. An offer is made to Scandnavia that between the Orange river and Bay of Kost they be given settlement and investment rights in the area while the British will own all land and mineral rights.
    • India: The British continue rule in various Indian holdings largely from afar. India has 240 million people.
    • Uluru: A steady flow of people from Britain - many of them unemployed and Indian (convicts) - is maintained mainly going off to set up their own farms and a militia is maintained.
    • Scandinavia agrees.
  • Nippon: With a final end to the bloodshed and the new regime consolidating its power over all of Japan, the new government continues to pursue a policy of modernization and westernization. The military continues down the path of standardization and modernization with the bulk of the forces being armed with Belkan rifles. Training is revamped to repeat Belkan military tactics and drilling. The Kindai oligarchy as the leaders of the new regime are rapdily becoming known as continue to push forward their agenda of bringing Japan into the new world that is dominated by the west as equals and not to fall behind and colonized like many of the neighboring countries. This new policy is enshrined in the words Enrich the nation strengthen the military. With the resent purchase of Belka's industrial and economic kit the government sets about developing an infrustructure for industrialization studying Europe's development to improve on the process in a systematic way while learning from the shortcomings of western industrialiation (this occurred OTL in both Japan and in Germany part of the reason these countries developed so quickly) contracting westerners to teach in Japanese universities namely the Imperial University of Kyoto to begin training Japanese in Rangaku (Burgundian studies). Students are sent to the west to study in various fields as well ranging from naval and mechanical engineering to political science, to medicine and thenatural sciences. The Kindai regime continues to push forward its reforms namely enforcing the classless society insteed instilling absolute loyalty in the state and the emperor instead of the classes of society. While many members of the new regime desire to enforce religious uniformity given the central importance of shintoism in imperial culture, and Buddhism through the country given the very large Christian population living within Nippon many of whom make up the rank and file of the military and bureaucracy Emperor Kindai in a public speech the ever given by a member of the Imperial house denounces any potential efforts to route out the Khristians who make up an integral part of Japanese society and indeed ensure the goodwill of the west. Despite this the divinity of the emperor is reinforced within the Shinto-buddhist majority while a letter is sent with an envoy to the pope to promise the continued respect of the large Christian population within Japan but also to secure a promise from the pope that any western attempts to attack Japan using the Christians as an excuse will be denounced by the Catholic church as nothing short of unjustified aggression. Efforts to begin contruction of a railway system begins in earnest linking Kyoto to Edo, and to Kyushu where the country's biggest ports lay. Efforts to modernize the navy also begin with a request being made to Belka and Burgundy to purchase modern ships to revitilize the navy. Schooling is made mandatory.
    • The Pope agrees with this. Person.

1874

Rhineland and Prussia are now in a state of war with Burgundy.

Believing the Austrian elections to be rigged, even though there is no clear evidence, it is really suspicious. Most of the non- Belkan parties walk out of the legislature leaving it worthless as a mouthpiece of the Belkan occupation.

The insurgency continues with the same energy constantly raiding the railways and targeting members of the pro-Belka party.

Violence in Poland is ended by heavy repression from Prussian forces.

New England and Savannah go to war with Texas over Mississippi River access. 

  • Nova Belgica: The Arcadian Hockey League (AHL) is founded this year to formally organize tournaments of ice hockey in the nation, to formalize any rule changes, and to oversee the sport. For the forseeable future competition for the Stenweide Cup uses the challenge system, where the reigning team is challenged throughout the season by different teams, rather than using a formal playoff bracket. The year ends with the Tholen Wanderers reigning as champions after defeating the Wilhemina HC. The Icaria Lakers are founded this year, quickly becoming one of the most dominant teams from the south of the nation. After founding New Amsterdam's first ever artificial ice rink the previous year, Gerrit Kuiper sponsors a team in the city known as the New Amsterdam Jagers, helping to popularize the sport in Nova Belgica's southern neighbor. An exhibition match is held in New Rome in an effort to spread the sport to English Arcadia as well, and later in the year another is held in Cinigrad, Novorossiya. In rugby, the Sint Jan Blue Sox return from their first international victory in Picardy, and go on to have a good season this year as well. They are ultimately defeated by Nassau RC in a large upset. In a prearranged deal between French president Hyacinthe Pelay and Governor Stenweide our forces temporarily exit Anticosti Island and Prinz Rupert Island and instead are deployed to the northern sections of the nation, with large garrisons and fleets being placed at Winsum and Borselen. Throughout the end of 1873 our withdraw is marked with the arrival of French forces, who take our place in the fortifications on the island and continue our work of constructing further defenses. As expected the islands are sold to us via treaty and the troops stationed in the north standing by are sent to the islands to join alongside the French. By the time the treaty is formally signed granting us the islands in the trade, 20,000 soldiers are already guarding both islands, side by side with a French garrison. Our naval assets, including the recently completed ships of the Havenland-Class, and the best of the colonial navy and Burgundy's stationed west fleet, also move into the region to guard the waters around both islands making any approach difficult. The provisional government that had been ruling both islands from 1868 to 1873 returns and continues business as usual. Thanks to the previous year's migration, in which the Scandinavian and Basque populations opposed to any shift in government were moved back to Scandinavia, the island's population is more receptive to the change in government, and consists of a large number of Burgundians and those who are thankful for Burgundy's help quelling the earlier rebellion years prior. Another 50,000 reserves are also mobilized and stationed throughout the nation in case they are needed. The French are also thanked for their help in restoring order to the islands, with the government expressing its desire to work and trade with the French nation in the future. There is some debate in the colony's parliament, with Stenweide's conservative party, currently in control with a majority, supportive of the move, and some of Stenweide's opponents against the move. The most vocal opponent, Jan de Vries, announces his intentions to run for governor on an anti-jingoistic, anti-expansion, and anti-annexation platform. There is a virgorous yellow journalism campaign across the nation which helps to turn public opinion highly in favor of the move. Cornelius Vanderbilt begins planning a possible "Trans-Continental Railroad" under his company's direction, that will involve connecting the existing lines in the northeast into the nation of Iroquois, and then west into Providence and Russian America. There are already preexisting railways in many locations in the mentioned nations, and after much planning, crowdsourcing and negotiations, workers Vanderbilt's Union Central Railroad Company arrives in the midwest to complete the final links of the route. The possibility of conflict erupting in Europe and in Vinland has the nation on alert, with military-related industries seeing a major boon. Thanks to new contracts with the Burgundian and colonial governments, WESCO sees another profitable year, helping to fuel the large increase in ships for both navies. Additionally, several more advanced ships are ordered midway through the year by Admiral Karel Visser. Also this year a new stock exchange opens in Sint Jan for businesses in the country and throughout Arcadia.
  • Scandinavia: A major fort is built at OTL Sagueny with 20,000 troops sent to defend it. An additional fort is created at Blanc Sabon with 5000 troops. In response to growing Republican setiment, Vineland is given freedom as a dominion (along the lines of New Netherland) with the exception of Baffin isand. 40 ships are moved in defense of Rekejavik and Nuuk with 510,000 troops defending each of them. 
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The declaration of war from Prussia and Rhineland does not come as much of a surprise, it has been known that the occupation of the Rhine’s West Bank had been a sticking point for relations. In their following of War Plan 'Blue - the contingency plan made in case the Rhineland and/or Prussia declared war prior to the end of the occupation - every bridge spanning the Rhine to the unoccupied Rhineland is destroyed and the local garrison commanders fortify their positions further and make the transition from occupation to war readiness. Queen Mary, in a speech to the States-General, delivers a rousing speech to the States-General declaring Burgundy's defiance, that "Burgundians will not bow, bend or break before those that see fit to solve their issues by force of arms". She concludes her speech by ordering a general mobilization of the army and after a month, some 400,000 additional men have been mobilized from the reserves. By now, the railroads built to facilitate trade between Burgundy and the West Bank post-occupation, now serves as vital supply lines to the front lines, running reinforcement to support the defense. The 100,000 men who had been the occupation garrison in the West Bank are gathered in Mainz as the Army of the Rhine. Another 200,000 men of the Army of Lorraine are sent to Koblenz, and the 150,000 strong Army of Luxembourg is sent to Bonn. As more men are mobilized, they are gathered in the northern Netherlands as the Army of Gelderland. Queen Mary gives orders for the Navy to blockade the coasts of Prussia and the Rhineland, and whenever possible, launch raids against ports and harbors. River monitors begin heavy patrols of the Rhine, helping in the destruction of bridges and support of ground troops. As part of the war effort, the Burgundian Navy begins bombardment of Prussian cities along the coast. During one such bombardment, at Cuxhaven, the SMS Donnerwieder suffers a misfire in the left gun of her forward turret, and unaware of it, the loaders rammed in a new charge and shell. The double loaded gun was fired and subsequently burst under the pressure, killing 11 and wounding 35. The gun is exchanged out the next time Donnerwieder is in port, but the incident causes the Admiralty to decide to give a new look at heavy-caliber breech-loading rifles. Meanwhile, a small watercraft is developed and launched, designed specifically to carry and launch Woultersen torpedoes. It is called SMS Blëtz (OTL HMS Lightning). As spies relay information regarding German troop movements, reinforcements are dispatched. The 50,000 strong Army of Metz are sent to defend Alsace, while the recently organized 150,000 strong Army of Holland are sent to Utrecht to defend the northern Netherlands. In Maryland, the government sides with New England and Savannah, invading Texas in conjunction with their troops.
  • Republica Iberia: Prime Minister Álvares sends a diplomatic envoy to Texas and another to Burgundy offering support in their wars. Texas is offered small arms and horse-drawn cannons, along with tactical advisors trained in the Zapico Style of War, that is insurgent High-speed combat from horseback (Think Boers). Additionally, Texas is offered the A Republica as a means of supplementing its navy and to defend the Mississippi. Burgundy is offered material support of ammunition and arms. Both are offered the supplies on terms that the expense will be repaid after their respective wars are concluded. (Mod/Guy Response) Work continues on the strategic forts in the Pyrenees, and in general the Pyrenean Line is fortified. The Democratic Social Catholics continue to grow in popularity. The party continues its advocacy for workers rights, assistance for people in need, large families, and an end to urbanization policies. The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants, however, have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures, coupled with greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The population in Iberia is estimated to be 37.06 million. With farming becoming increasingly efficient, and erosion issues being tackled, food production growth has begun to outpace population growth. The excess agricultural land is dedicated to more luxurious foods which are popular across Europe. Water conservation and erosion projects, of which there are thousands across Iberia, continues to boost land productivity and protect agricultural viability. Low food prices see workers content and bellies full. Increasing demand for arms leads to greater production of steel and iron. More Kharkov Processors and Open Hearth Furnaces are built to supply domestic demand. Naval expansion programs are continued with a class of four light battleships each with two armored turrets and 200mm guns are planned for commission in 1876.
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production. The Republic begins aiding the Iberian African Republic in expansion southward.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite the growth. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority european. There are roughly 3.40 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 150,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The Majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibericas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stopover for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial Garrison is maintained at 1000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas:The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber trees are planted for the first time and a harvest is expected in a few years time.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic stabilizes and begins expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Construction begins on a railroad to connect Dakar with the gold fields of East Senegay.
    • Texas consents. Person
    • Burgundian Dip: The ofter is accepted.
  • Russia: In the Duma, Prime Minister Ulyanov announces his support for Burgundy in her war. However, declares Russian neutrality due to "other matters at home and in Arcadia". Ulyanov sends a telegram to the Prussian king telling him, "If Burgundy was under the presence of utter destruction, Russia would intervene". To back this up, Ulyanov mobilizes 50,000 soldiers near the Prussian border. The Trudoviks nominate Ulyanov as the PM candidate while United Russia nominates former Secretary of the Navy Andrei Kolchak as their PM candidate. Meanwhile, in the Russian music scene, a group of young home grown boys from Far East Siberia form a band called Lavr Sikorsky associated with Siberian Records produces the song "Simple Man", based off the average Trans-Siberian Railroad worker. Meanwhile, Bronstein-Tymoshenko Superpower disbands after 14 years of existence as Vladimir Bronstein goes solo. The National Education Act continues to build schools across the nation, many farmers are required to undergo one-hour sessions to learn how to read and write. Joseph Fyodorovich dies in Cinigrad and is mourned by many of his fans. A new sport starts to grow in Russia, particularly on weekends for the Siberian Railway workers. It is called "Baseball", after the running to bases after hitting a ball.
    • Novorossiya: A Novgorod government-selected representative of the Pacific Railways is sent to Sint Jan in Nova Belgica, with the Russian approval for the Trans-Continental Railroad to New Constantinople. However, it seeks to complete a Bay Area-Resnov Railroad first. The first tracks of the Trans-Pacific Railroad starts as a small gold rush occurs near Mt Shasta.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: Giza is besieged. A coalition of foreign armies and government forces attack the self-proclaimed traditionalist capital. Hafez vows he will not flee the city, and he shall stay to fight with his men. The coalition forces move in, taking the outskirts of the city and setting up their positions. They quickly slash through the defending rebels. Hafez leads his men into battle on his own trusty camel, and fights in the frontlines, making morale very high for the Hafezian soldiers, making the siege more difficult for the coalition forces. Coalition forces soon completely surround the city, cutting off any open pockets, effectively destroying the rebel’s chances of restocking supplies. Days pass by, with only a stalemate in effect, but soon the coalition forces break it by making a surprise attack on sleepy and wandering Hafezian Troops. Soon one-half of the city is taken by coalition forces, while forces in the west begin to move in. The old royal palace is taken back along with old police headquarters and the post office. Clerics in mosques call on all Muslims in Traditionalist-controlled Giza not to trust Hafez, and to lay down your arms (because a lot of the clerics have lost faith in Hafez), which effectively disables most of Hafez’s main fighting force. Eventually Hafez surrenders and the rebellion crumbles, effectively ending the War of Egyptian Succession. The aftermath is that a majority of Giza City is utterly destroyed or damaged, and that rebuilding will take some time. Queen Farah begins to pack for her pilgrimage to Mecca, which she will take next year and also announces that as the war has ended, and Egypt is once again whole and a United Kingdom again, that a new era of "National Reconstruction" has begun. Queen Farah announces the renewal of ties between Egypt and the Belkan Empire, with Egypt agreeing to officially and fully join the Belkan Commonwealth. She also requests Belkan aid and support in industrializing the Kingdom of Egypt (FEUD RESPONSE NEEDED!) Queen Farah thanks all the European nations that helped her government out and promises the safe return of their soldiers who fought for her back to their own countries. Now I will go to bed, so glad I could wrap up this war. LOL
    • Belkan Dip: We agree and accept Egyptian membership into the nascent Belkan Commonwealth.
  • Belkan Empire: The resultant step up of hostilities in Austria and the abandonment of the democratic government sees the Belkan sympathisers and the Anti-Belkan protesters take to the streets in mutual protest. These protests break out into major fighting between both parties which forces the Belkan army to intervene to quell the rioting. Upward of 2000 people are arrested in Vienna alone and the Belkans effectively force the Austrian administration to force a curfew not allowing people out after dark. While somewhat troubling, the Belkan forces garrisoned in Austria and over by Trieste are informed and prepared for the worst. The stock market takes a small dive from the issues in Austria but solid gains in the Czech economy and Belkan investment there equalizes the gain-to-loss ratio. The Belkan industrial base in its northern states continues to build up as solid steel, concrete, glass, and armament industries expand significantly. The Supreme Soviet, surprised at Queen Farah's offer and consideration of their relationship as a "commonwealth", runs away with the idea and with full support declares the full creation of the Belkan Commonwealth. This will be an intergovernmental organization consisting of Belka, colonies and territories which achieve a responsible government, Egypt, and in a surprise vote, Ethiopia is offered a place within the commonwealth. Seeing this as a victory in foreign policy the Belkan government doubles down on its policies specifically in the development of Manila, Zaire, Kanem, Burma, and Maghreb. The development of the naval program continues with four more of a new design of armored cruiser being launched this year, ten more armored frigates, and four destroyers. Battleships are put on hold until newer designs are fully fleshed out. The program also sees the development of new frigate and destroyer designs as well as testing out many new concepts on unique single class ships as the hunt to test out new and find the best design concepts begins. The Belkan army remains in its position fully equipped and armed and the home army is put on high alert with the Germano-Burgundian war breaking out. The first modern warfleet is sent to the Asian headquarters consisting of the BES Draculesti, three armored cruisers, ten frigates, and six destroyers and it immediately begins picking up patrol duty for the sea lanes. Belkan development of the canal in New Granada continues as the initial breakthroughs are made in the first sector of the canal. The push on the front line of battle vs set piece battles continues as it seeks to overrun trench fortifications before they are completed or fully ready for manning by frontline troops. Further investment into the colonies continues and surprisingly this year almost 100,000 Belkans leave for the colonies specifically Maghreb with tertiary groups heading to Zaire, and Manila as hotspots for administrative work.
    • Ethiopian Dip: Emperor Theodore gladly accepts.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: Li Hongzhang launches an assault into Guangxi and Guangdong, cutting off rebel militias from a viable port and forcing Kim Haeung and his supporters to flee to Jiangxi, specifically in Ganzhou. A total of 150,000 troops surround the decimated rebel militias to the west (who number at a mere ~100,000, one-third of their peak), while ~50,000 surround them to the east in the mountainous terrain of Fujian – where they establish fortifications. In April, Li Hongzhang launches a final assault into Jiangxi, with a small force of ~25,000 troops (but utilizing superior breech-loading cannonry and Needle Rifles) capturing Ganzhou bringing the rebellion to its end. The Huifu Emperor announces the end of the Chinese Civil War, which has led to the deaths of seven million people. The occupation force is joined by a loyalist peasant militia, and kill Feng Chenghui in retaliation to the brutal suppression of the Ningbo Riots. Kim Haeung is sent north to be imprisoned and is to be tried for treason next year. However, many of his notable followers receive their trials in December, and are sentenced to death via firing squad or stoning depending on the severity of their sentences. The five-year long civil war, plus the systematic purge of opposition that coincided with it marks the start of a government dominated by reformist elements, and has resulted in an era of political stability and uniformity. A new constitution is swiftly drafted and implemented, establishing a constitutional monarchy with the Emperor/Empress still retaining much of his/her power. Meanwhile, its civil policies heavily borrow elements from the Napoleonic Code. Through this document, the three branches of the government are codified: the executive Department of State Affairs, the legislative Grand Secretariat (divided into the lower Secretariat and the upper Chancellory), and the judicial Court of Justice. Universal suffrage is extended to all males above the age of eighteen, and Li Hongzhang becomes the Prime Minister, with General Zuo Zongtang replacing him as the Minister of War. A standing army of ~600,000 troops is maintained, with five years of fighting resulting in the development of a modestly-sized veteran force. Their presence allows the stabilization of the south, and hastens reconstruction. The Jin Imperial Army is divided into three separate armies corresponding to China's three regions (North, Central and South). These three armies are placed under the jurisdiction of both the Ministry of War and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (a tribunal consisting of China's highest-ranking generals); albeit the Huifu Emperor remains the de jure head of the forces. Members are made to swear an oath of allegiance to both the Chinese state and its people, which is embodied by the Emperor; solidifying their loyalty. The Populist Party, which has established a monopoly within the Grand Secretariat, establishes a platform of "Hua nationalism"; advocating for the unity of all "Hua peoples" (based on the princple of 花). The Tianjin and Seoul Military–Industrial zones continue to be expanded, resulting in a surge boom in arms production: rifled muskets, carbines and ammunition are produced. It also functions as storage facilities for purchased breech-loading cannons, and needle and bolt-action rifles. A request is sent to Belka requesting the purchase of ironclads and for aid in the establishment of a modern naval force (BELKAN RESPONSE). Due to the success of the foreign advisor program and their key role in winning the Chinese Civil War, the number of foreign advisors (mainly of Belkan origin) reaches a peak of ~3000. In order to build up human capital, the Ministry of Education begins to enact compulsory education for both genders, with a three-year transitional period. The nine grades comprising elementary and junior high school are mandatory, though senior high school is optional, and is often used as a preparatory period for entry into tertiary education. The thousands of former scholars sent overseas prior comprise the majority of the teachers, though foreigners are hired to teach certain subjects. Meanwhile, a national network of state-operated Imperial Universities (many being renovated Confucian Academies) is established, with the most prestigious being the Tianjin University due to its large expansive Western-style campus and the variety of available courses (due to a higher number of foreign teachers). In addition, many pre-existing educational institutions established by Christian missionaries are recognized. Meanwhile, for adults, literacy schools are established aiming to teach basic mathematics (arithmetic, algebra and geometry) and literacy. The Veteran's Act of 1874 provides subsidized tertiary education to military veterans and their immediate families, in-recognition of their military service. A diplomatic mission is sent to the Chinese Embassy in Fukuoka recognizing the legitimacy of the victorious imperial forces of the Kindai Emperor (JAPANESE RESPONSE).
    • Xizang (protectorate): Lhasa, the capital, is expanded and modernized. The Tibetan clergy continues to administer the protectorate, with its leader, the Dalai Lama, being considered a vassal or substitute monarch. Many Tibetans are encouraged (via financial incentives) to become more sedentary, with food instead being supplied from nearby Sichuan (thereby reducing overreliance in inefficient herding). A garrison is 20,000 troops is stationed there.
    • Dzungaria: Civic buildings are established in Ghulja. To ease administration, the Dzungar government encourages a sedentary lifestyle, while Chinese emissaries teach the Dzungars on the cultivation of wheat. A garrison is 20,000 troops is stationed there.
    • Altishahria: Various civic buildings are built in the capital, based in Urumqi, with a garrison of 20,000 troops stationed there. The census reveals Altishahria has a total of 1.5 million inhabitants. Irrigation is established in the oasis around which the cities are situated.
    • Belkan Dip: We offer to sell the first generation ironclads BES Triumphant and BES Hurricane to the Chinese. We make a point on delivery that these are not Belka's top-of-the-line battleships such as the Draculesti which patrols in the South China Sea - but for a newly modern Chinese navy these are fine ships.
    • Chinese Diplomacy: We express our sincerest gratitude to our Belkan partners for accepting the request, and propose a contract in which China receives three ships annually, and proposes joint-naval exercises between them in order to gain further knowledge on how to operate a modern navy.
  • New Granada: In the Kingdom, much energy is poured into the creation of the Trans-Istmo Canal. The work is back-breaking and arduous, but with technological and engineering innovations from the Burgundian and Belkan experts, progress continues to be made. The canal is due to wind starting near Balboa Rocha and end up in the Pacific Ocean - greatly reducing the time to travel between the two great bodies of water. Palestrante Eduardo Graça revives the concept of uma nação, um mercado, which was originally developed by the first Palestrante, Teobaldo Candezón. To this end, Graça puts many men to work on construction projects such as new roads between provincial capitals and telegraph lines to ease communication. Politically, it appears that Graça's Partido Urbano e Liberal-Miguelista will win another mandate next year as the Partido do País is still engaged in internal struggles. At the PdP's conference, the nationalists who resent the contract with Belka and Burgundy walk out of the convention and are expected to contest the election as non-inscrits of the right (não inscritos - direito). The mood of the nation is overall one of optimism and encouragement as the investment of foreign nations fuels economic growth.
  • French Empire: Seeking better resources in the north, wishing to capitalize on whales in the region, and to properly seek revenge for the Great European War, war is declared on Scandinavia. Raising almost the entirety of the nationwide budget to help with supporting the military effort, the army is raised to a maximum of 500,000 after the decommissioning of a few key ironclads and raising the taxes. Using a large number of cruisers and frigates that are being guarded by the remaining ironclads, 20,000 troops are initially transported, and soon a second and third voyage increases the number to 50,000 total. Using the island of Prince Rupert's/Theodore-Charle's as a forward operating base into Arcadia, and soon a full out assault on Scandinavian Arcadia begins after the deployment of 10,000 troops assisted by a single ironclads, five second-rate battleships, and seven cruisers in OTL Rigolet. Due to the weak and un-updated garrison in the region, the 1000 soldiers there are defeated with ease. 10,000 troops, being transported and assisted by a single ironclad, three second-rate battleships, and five cruisers, make landfall in OTL Salluit, taking it within a matter of days after a mob of 500 is defeated, occupying the northernmost state of the region of Vinland. With this, the 10,000 troops from the east and the north begin descending down through Scandinavian Arcadia, occupying most of the region until stumbling upon the fort of OTL Sagueny. Using superior military technology and general luck, the troops are able to effectively lay siege to the fort. However, it is expected for the siege to finish out by the end of the year. The remaining 30,000 troops are moved into Blanc Sabon, and soon the garrison is soon defeated. Meeting up with the rest of the troops in OTL Sagueny, the city falls apart and the remaining Scandinavian forces are defeated and surrender. The 50,000 troops, after either killing or imprisoning the troops, move around all of Quebec to maintain stability under French occupation. In Greenland, 10,000 troops are transported via one ironclad and ten frigates to siege the capital city of OTL Nuuk with relative ease due to the lack of population in the area. Having been outfitted with winter clothing and supplies, the troops maintain the city with little resistance and thus the region of Scandinavian Greenland is occupied. An invasion of Iceland begins after 10,000 troops are transported via the same way that the invasion of Greenland was made, with the landing at the capital city of OTL Reykjavík. Defeating the local garrison through overwhelming men and advanced military technology, the state of Scandinavian Iceland is put under full occupation, and due to the lack of population, the entire region is easily put under French suzerainty. Due to the ease of these invasions and the lack of resources that were used, a separate invasion of the capital city of Scandinavia, Riksdale, is made after three ironclads that were used in the separate invasions in Scandinavian colonies were transported back to the mainland for re-fueling and arming the battleships with troops. Transporting the three ironclads, six second-rates, seven cruisers, and eight frigates, an invasion of Riksdale begins after the landing of 50,000 troops catches the Scandinavian government unexpectedly. Fighting against an army of 40,000, the city becomes a chaotic battleground as the Gauthier gun rips through the Scandinavian defenses and killing a large portion of the general population itself. The siege is expected to last into next year, but the successes made in Vinland, Greenland, and Iceland promotes the image of French victories and soon citizens become eagerly nationalistic and prideful, expressing the full return of the imperial French state before the collapse of Francia. Seeing the Prusso-Dutch War occuring nearby, the French President decidedly takes advantage of the French-Dutch alliance and declares war on Prussia. With this, an invasion of Prussia's Gold Coast colony begins after 100,000 a decently armed garrison soon enter the colony in an invasion from French Nigeria. In the Lower Kongo, frigates located in Zulu and Nigeria are sent in a surprise during a dark and stormy night, with 20,000 total troops entering the state through the capital coastal city of Lobito. Assisted by a recently moved ironclad and a few second-rates, the city is properly bombarded before artillery moved into the beaches begins laying heavy siege and raining fire onto the city. Patents for weapons are successfully bought by various different weapon producers, and the newest additions to the French arsenal are expected to occur next year.
    • FSAR: Infrastructure continues being built along the coast, with roads spreading across the entire state hoping to connect all major settlements within the following years. After positioning troops along the coastal state and transporting via numerous carrying naval ships and a few battleships, the Prussian Lower Kongo state is invaded with 20,000 troops assisted by heavy artillery units and a powerful fleet.
    • FWAR: Gold, iron and limestone continues being exported out of Mali while agriculture and coal are imported from Nigeria. Consolidation of the new territory into Nigeria is made, with infrastructure improving in these newly conquered regions and roads being built. 100,000 troops invade Prussia's gold coast colony, easily conquering the state and forcing the Prussians into surrendering.
  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia): The Neo-Baroque movement sponsored from the monarchy works on several projects, including a redesign of the Citidel of Aleppo and the Grand Mosque of Antioch. However, classical art continues to remain most popular across most of the major cities in Mesopotamia and Palestine. Southern Arabia sees a new market for French Elephant cigars, which quickly rises to the level of "most profitible industry" for three weeks, before reaching equilibrium. Rugby becomes very popular as well across many cities in Mesopotamia, mostly Bosra, Mosul, Damascus, and Jerusalem. Many new missionary groups are sponsored from the Sultan to minister to Shia communities in Syria, as well as special missions to Southeast Asia. In order to officially declare a pact that had been de facto true for many centuries, Sultan Abd Al-Rahman II offers to extend the pact of Al-Damashq to various Muslim local governments across Africa (local Emirs and Sheikhs), specifically in the regions of Maghreb, Kanem, Congo, and Ethiopia (MOD RESPONSE). With the industrial blueprints and trainng from France, as well as the supply of coal from Lebanon and iron from both Egypt and Brazil, the Shay Al-Nass institutes government regulations. These regulations permit any private company to take up the training and resources of industry to use for their respective firm's use. A telegraph line is detailed and designed by one such company, planning the wiring necessary to connect all the major cities of the kingdom. Many companies adopt the factory model run on steam engines, as a theoretical design, and create small private businesses in Baghdad, Mosul and Bosra. A railroad is similarly planned, as a joint effort of three companies, that will in theory connect all the major cities across the kingdom. Private companies reach out to railroad firms of Russia and Egypt, should they want to connect their railroad lines together (RESPONSE). (Please excuse any incongruities, this was written while I'm half dead from a cold.)
    • No industrialising without approval. Next time it's a strike. Person.
    • This is not completely industrializing. It's just using technology I already have. My request is already put up
    • Ethiopian Dip: Muslims in Ethiopia ignore the pact as everyone in the Empire is treated as equally as possible including all ethnic and religious groups.
    • Various influential Muslim leaders across Africa sign said pact with Arabia. Person.
  • Ethiopian Empire: After scrapping older ships in the navy we ask Belka for another round of ships. (Feud Response needed) The model 1880 armed forces plan is laid out, to have an active army of 150,000 troops supported by 35,000 imperial guards and the regional militias, along with a domestic rifle. Cities in Ethiopia begin to grow as modern farming techniques are bringing rural populations down. Port Theodore opens with large port facilities that the government hopes will grow to be the largest in Africa. The first locomotive is tested on a short test track before being put on the line between Adulis and Addis Ababa. Belkan refineries and factories in the country help the ever-growing economy. Theodore allows for different factories to compete against each other while still being under crown control. The Royal Carriage Company expanded into the Royal Locomotive Company as they outfit European-bought locomotives for African use. The people begin to latch on to the new sport of rugby which becomes a fast competitor to football.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. In the Swahili heartland, the profitability of cloth factories and cotton farming has led to a sharp increase in the number of slaves. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. Export and import trade continues to boom, leading to the creation of many financial services, further catalysing industrialisation. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. Public compulsory schooling is instituted in Zanzibar. By Royal Decree, the entire city of Zanzibar and Dar es Salaam is established as the Capital Special District, directly controlled by the Sultan, and all factories are banned on Zanzibar such that the city will become "a model of beauty and grace".  The first Swahili steam factory is constructed in Sofala, where coal (from Aliwa and Rowzi) is cheap, producing guns and artillery. It becomes sponsored by the Swahili Department of Arms and is renamed the Sofala Armoury.
    • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlements.
    • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes.
    • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts.
    • Swazi: The political organisation is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land grant system continues smoothly. The United Swazi Emirates is proclaimed.
    • Swahili Diplomacy: Mining magnates in Aliwa wish to purchase locomotives and train carriages from Belka and Britain.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: We offer to aid New England and Savannah in any way they require against Tejas with anything up to a full on war. (Mod response) The British present the British-Jaffarid agreement to be signed or there will be an intervention. With elections this year the Tories are returned with a majority while the Irish Home Rule Party gains seats. Winning their election on the promise to revitalise the economy, the government drops the value of the currency by 15% on the gold standard, reduces the official bank rate to 1% and increases government spending. This is to increase borrowing and exports. With cheap steel from the Bessemer process and Siemens furnace the price of steel drops rapidly and plans to rebuild Britain's railway infrastructure with steel and expand on it massively are planned by the government and private investors benefiting from cheap loans. Use of machine tools speeds up locomotive and steam engine production. The amount of telegraph lines rises rapidly especially undersea cable lines to link the empire. Civilian shipbuilding using ever more efficient engines such as oscillating engines grows while the first triple expansion steam engine is tested. Super phosphates are used as fertilisers which is a big step up in agriculture. Growth in the chemical industry selling synthetic dyes. Work continues on the defences at Kismayo. Rugby grows as the public schools set up teams and begin to play amongst themselves. The navy begins a large scale plan to build ironclads over the increasingly outdated wooden ships as well as move toward breech-loading rifled artillery pushing up steel demand. It remains a mainly aristocratic sport.  In the Bay of Kost we expand 25 px to the south along the coast to allow better transport. England has a population of 21.7 million, Wales has 1.2 million, Ireland has five million people, and Scotland 2.8 million. In Britain, based in southern England, there are 15,000 professionals and 30,000 men in Ireland, 70,000 European soldiers and 300,000 Indian Sepoys in India spread out across the continent, 25,000 soldiers in Suez, 10,000 British soldiers, 10,000 Sepoys and 40,000 African soldiers at Kismayo, 10,000 in Uluru, and 4000 in West Africa. There are two fleets: one at Hull and one at Bristol, each comprise ten first-rate ships-of-the-line, 25 second-rate ships-of-the-line, 50 frigates, and 62 corvettes.
    • India: The new Indian government plans to upgrade India's infrastructure planning a massive new railway and telegraph system with steel and equipment brought in from Britain financed by India. India has 240 million people.
    • Uluru: The new Uluru government plans to upgrade Uluru infrastructure planning a massive new railway and telegraph system with steel and equipment brought in from Britain financed by Uluru. A steady flow of people from Britain - many of them unemployed and Indian (convicts) - is maintained mainly going off to set up their own farms. A militia is maintained.
    • New England and Savannah accept aid from the motherland. -s
  • Kingdom of East Germany: With War Plan Red initiated our armies meet up with the East German troops. Cannons are brought in and supplies via train. They are put up along the Rhine River while bags of dirt and mounds are placed across the Central occupation zone. With us getting notifications from scouts, the destruction of the German bridges is expected but with help of local Germans and more scouts, spots to cross are located - mainly in lower Germany. 400,000 troops march to a designated crossing point made up of Prussians, Saxons, and other Rhenish cavalry and regiments assisted with artillery. Hot Air Balloon Program is re-initiated as well with air balloons dropping bombs off in the north in Holland. In the meantime, 500,000 troops are led to Mepel and another 450,000 in Steinbourg. Our reserves are activated to use up all manpower possible and another 400,000 troops remain on standby from East Germany. The reaction of the declaration of war by France is seen as something of concern for our African colonies and our men their with an extra 6000 fighters from the native populace remain on standby. Our other troops in Angola remaining, we lay the coast with trenches. Landing sites for the French are destroyed such as docks while cannons are paid out. Merchants from trade are hurt from the blockade at the shore but land based merchants benefit from this as the nation now depends on trade by land from Belka, the Papal States, Hungary and other neutral powers.

1875

In the Burgundian-occupied Rhineland, an insurgency begins by a minority of people though the rest don't report - as raids begin on Burgundian rear areas with attacks on railways and supply lines with actions as simple as leaving trees on railways to outright ambushes. This causes minor issues in getting sufficient supplies to the front lines in areas such as Koblenz and Mainz.

Werner Kruger, seeing he has done little, sneaks over the Alps with only a couple of followers and goes to Berlin to offer his services.

A number of New World countries such as New England and Aztlan continue strong economic growth through industry.

The French continued warring and heavy deployment leads to a shortage of cash to pay the troops deployed overseas leading to a regiment of French troops in the Lower Kongo imprisoning a number of their officers and this mutiny spreads to the rest of their brigade.

Rugby spreads becoming a popular international sport in Europe and the colonies.

Texas is defeated in the war and the victors take large amounts of land from it.

Do not add your own events kids... mods only.

  • Kingdom of Egypt: As the nation begins to rebuild, Queen Farah attempts to resurrect the National spirit of the Egyptian people, and encourages new breakthroughs in art, literature, and drama. Due to this encouragement and funding by the Queen, new plays appear in theatres across the nation, especially in Giza. A musical called “Principia Moderni” is debutes in Alexandria National Theatre of Music and the Arts; the play shows the evolution of a civilization throughout history. The play becomes a smashing hit, with over 800,000 people seeing it within the first week of it being out. Queen Farah orders the introduction of modern sporting events into the society of Egypt, starting with a National Rugby Team. Giza reconstruction continues to go smoothly, with new buildings being created every day. A statue of Cleopatra is erected in Giza, along with a statue of Queen Farah, with the inscription “in honor of two great woman who shaped what Egypt is today”. Propaganda posters are plastered all over Giza, encouraging reconstruction, along with posters encouraging to report suspcious activity, and to discourage any “unnatural” or “inappropriate” thinking. Portraits of the Queen are omnipresent everywhere in the ruins of Giza, along with propaganda making her look messiah-like. All in all, everything seems to be going relatively well in Egypt, and has remained stable. Queen Farah finally makes the hajj this year.
  • French Empire: The protectorate-status over Argentine is offered to be purchased by Brésil (Player Response Needed). With the primary goals having been finished and French control having been asserted over all of Scandinavia's colonies, a treaty with Scandinavia is offered under the pretense that they accept losing the war and thus must comply with the terms set by France (Player Response Needed). The capturing of the Prussian Gold Coast is successful as expected, however, after learning of a Zulu mutiny in the Lower Kongo and the shortage of cash due to the extension of the military, the region becomes unfocused and instead the control over the Scandinavian colonies become a primary focus. The era of expansionary fiscal policy ends, and soon the money supply is set to be reduced over a term of ten years back to pre-Great European War levels, and in addition to passing reforms meant to target and put a decline to inflation, the value of the franc is expected to rise back to standard levels in the next two years. The patents for a percussion revolver are bought and soon the 1875 Maurice Six-Shooter "Peacemaker" (OTL Colt Peacemaker Revolver) is produced and thus manufactured, being placed within the military by June and being battle-used in August. The Maurice Model 1875 (OTL Manchester 1876) lever-action repeating rifle is also manufactured as well. The Maurice Arms Company is in the process of creating a more efficient and tactical rifle that can shoot more than one bullet at a time much like the Gauthier Gun, but under a rifle basis. The product, known as the Maurice Model 1876 Bolt-Action, is expected to be released in the following year and enter manufacturing and military usage in 1877. The population rises to 42.5 million. Consolidation of the external oversea colonies continues.
    • FSAR: Infrastructure continues being built along the coast, with roads spreading across the entire state hoping to connect all major settlements within the following years. Due to the Zulu mutinies in the invasion of Lower Kongo, an immediate withdrawal occurs but not before laying further siege to the coast and burning down all major coastal settlements. Due to the mutiny occuring, harsher laws and penalties begin being implemented into the Zulu society, some of which revoking freedom of speech and religion.
    • FWAR: Gold, iron and limestone continue being exported out of Mali while agriculture and coal are imported from Nigeria. Consolidation of the new territory into Nigeria is made, with infrastructure improving in these newly conquered regions and roads being built.
    • FAR: Consolidation, infrastructure and education are reformed as the primary French educational system begins to be implemented into the Papua society. A large port city begins being built in the French region of Australia as settlers are encouraged to move into the state.
    • Brésilian Diplomacy: We accept.
  • Brésil: Theodore de Medici officially proclaims peace in Laurentia. With the purchase of Argentine, the threat of France is removed, and the people of Brésil can now be at peace. Parades are held in major cities, and the Brésilian and Argentine flags are flown side by side over New Vichy. Argentine is made a monarchy, with Theodore being the ruler, but significant authority is held by the elected representatives as well, in much the same way as Brésil. "Argentine sovereignty will be respected," the foreign minister of Brésil states, "but [Argentine] will be watched closely". In major cities such as New Valois and Saint-Denis, prominent intellectuals gather, and draft something they call, "The Rights of the People". They believe that for Brésil to prosper, the people must be guaranteed basic rights, thus they sent this framework to the Emperor, for approval. Brésilian conservatives are outraged with this, but Theodore de Medici formally puts this bill into place. Outcry amongst plantation owners emerges, as the bill contains a section that abolishes forced labour. The government decides to offer reparations to prevent civil conflict. Minister of the Treasury, Andre de Champagne, makes a case for establishing a national bank, allowing business owners to take loans easily, and also to facilitate the paying back of the massive Belkan loans. That is expected to be implemented next year. Infrastructure investments continue, with canals now connecting most coal mines to the industrial booming cities. Also, a railway connecting Saint-Denis to New Valois is built, which is vital as New Valois has now surpassed Saint-Denis in population, due to the booming Germantowns.
    • Peru-Argentine:
      • Argentine response: The transfer of protection to Brésil, our mortal enemy, is anathema to us and under no circumstance is this acceptable, thus we declare independence against Brésil under the leadership Protector Paquet akin to how our sister state, Peru, declared independence against France. We have one condition, the complete and total freedom of Argentine from Brésil and 200,000 Revolutionary troops are raised against Brésil, with New Vichy and Rosario instantly being fortified and the Argentine-Brésilian border being entrenched.
      • Peruvian Response: In the interest of preserving peace and avoiding further bloodshed in Laurentia, we urge Brésil to grant Argentine independence so all Laurentine states are free and equal, with no state being superior to the other, lest both states perish in another war against each other.
  • Union of Laurentia: As a legal entity, the Union of Laurentia still exists, however, with the Peruvian victory against France and Peruvian independence secured, the state is reformed as Peru-Argentine, just as Paquet suggested to the French upon their offer of peace to Peru. Both Peru and Argentine have devolved Parliaments and pursue separate policies, but are united in common language, spirit, ambitions, and ethos, both striving to help each other in times of peril and to be stronger as a united body. In Peru, Peruvian nationalism is at an all time high, especially in Lima where the victory against the French has taken place, with massive celebrations still occurring. The vast amounts of money from saltpeter deposits is utilized to build the port of Lima and both Peru's navy and trading fleet, with the goal of the creation of a massive Pacific fleet to trade with the vast markets of Asia and develop a strong export based economy. In order to help faciliate this export based economy the vast wealth of Peru is further utilized to develop rail lines connecting the saltpeter mines to refineries and the refineries to the port city and capital of Lima, serving as the impetus for Peruvian industrialization. Meanwhile, in Argentine, the fury of revolution against Brésil is an unending fire that can never be put out, with people singing "Free Argentine, free Argentine!" across the state. Argentine is used to being in a state of war and this state is amplified from the Laurentine Civil War but now on a more massive scale, with Protector Paquet himself, now in New Vichy, leading the Argentine revolutionaries.
  • Nova Belgica: When we receive news that Vinland is being granted independence from Scandinavia we send diplomats to establish formal diplomatic ties. We hope to repair our relationship with the Vinlanders in order to promote peace and cooperation in Arcadia. This year in hockey there is a four way tie for first place in the season between the New Amsterdam Jagers, the Sint Jan Capitals, Wilhemina HC, and Tholen Wanderers, and it is decided that a playoff format will be used to decide the overall winner. Wilhemina and Sint Jan advance to the final round, where the Sint Jan Capitals win the Stenweide Cup for the first time. This year is also notable for being the first year teams from New England and New Netherlands (other than the New Amsterdam Jagers), participate in the competitions, including teams from Bilzen/New Rome, Ramaaker and Lang Eiland. Additionally a team is founded in English Kobecstad that participates this year. The capital also becomes this year's rugby champion, with the Sint Jan Blue Sox once again winning the championship. In nearby Avelskamp a rugby team is founded in the capital city of Slagstad, known as "The Wall". The name is in reference to the Burgundian navy that helped capture the island. Due to the outbreak of war in Europe between Burgundy and the German states, the nation begins full mobilization to aid in the war effort. A large percentage of our armed forces are shipped to Europe to fight on the front lines, while more men begin training. The government issues a statement welcoming all Burgundians who seek to flee the war to migrate to the colony, as well as any refugees and other Europeans affected by the war, in an effort to raise our labor force. There is a large migration from Europe as a result, including some Burgundian families planning only to temporarily relocate. Although the colony had historically been very welcoming to German immigrants, the recent war causes a rise in discimination against people of German heritage. The government does not condone any outbreak of violence, but does try to shape the anti-German sentiment to promote assimilation and nationalism, denouncing "hypenated Belgicanism" and dual loyalties. A small percentage of German citizens, approximately 500 German citizens, are imprisoned on suspicions of treason or espionage. There is also an effort to "Belgicanize" cities, street names, and last names, and the German language is also prohibited in public places and schools. As part of this the town of Ny Visby is renamed to Visystad. The garrisons placed at Winsum, Prinz Rupert and Anticosti are maintained, with the major fortifications in these locations now completed. The government begins selling large plots of land in all three locations for Burgundian families willing to settle the islands, as well as additional discounts and benefits for veterans, and a large number of Burgundians quickly settle in the area. The town of Emmen is founded on Anticosti Island by these settlers, to honor the fallen at the Battle of Emmen in Europe. The government approves an ambitious plan to build a major bridge spanning the 250 meters between Prinz Rupert Island and the mainland, but construction is temporarily delayed due to the war. Construction of the transcontinental railroad by Cornelius Vanderbilt continues across Arcadia. By this time the route is firmly connected from Nova Belgica to New England, New Netherlands and Iroquois, up to about the border of Texas. Although there is initially concern that construction will be delayed due to the war between Texas and Iroquois, the war thankfully ends this year, and there is even investment and assistance from the Iroquois government after they witness first hand the importance of being able to send troops and supplies west. Construction continues through the territory formally owned by Texas, and will then continue into Aztlan and Russian Arcadia. A historian and linguist named Jan Barlandus travels to Uluru with a small team, hoping to learn about the region's cultures and languages. He begins writing a series of books detailing the Australian region.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: The year is marked as the year that the occupation of the Rhine’s left bank would have ended had the war not begun. As such, the Military Districts remain in place. In light of the insurgency, some regiments that had taken part in occupation duties in the region are rotated out to take part in anti-insurgency operations. As many of them had formed friendships and connections with locals - and indeed some of them had plans to remain in the West Bank post-occupation - they use those connections to help combat the insurgents. Taking cues from Bella’s counter-insurgency in Austria, the names of informants and collaborators are kept secret. The SMS Texel is launched this year, the first battleship with an armored citadel. Two similar battleships, SMS Ameland and SMS Terschelling, are laid down, though where they were intended to mount 12" muzzle-loaders, they were redesigned to carry newly developed 12" breech-loaders after the Donnerweider explosion. A new type of artillery debuts on the front lines, to replace the old Haussmann RBLs. This breech is designed by Baron St Vith, featuring an interrupted screw (OTL de Bange System), as such it is called the St Vith System. The news of the victories at Emmen and Steinbourg are distributed, causing a rise in morale among the populace, and thus a rise in recruitment. Some 400,000 additional men are mobilized, bringing the Royal Army to just over a million men. Some 50,000 of these men, designated the XXIII Band (band = corps), conduct an invasion of East Frisia. Transported via ship across the Dollart, they land just west of Emden and engage the Rhenish forces near the city. After forcing the Rhenish to retreat, the Burgundian troops fortify their positions. Meanwhile, the Burgundian Navy launches a series of raids along the German coast. Parties of 200-300 marines go ashore, typically at night, burn whatever shore facilities they can and retreat to their ships before serious opposition can be mounted. The Burgundian positions along the Rhine are heavily fortified, especially in the southern region where the Rhine narrows, and Burgundian generals begin experimenting with using trenches in Defence in depth strategies. The current Burgundian army diposition is 50,000 men occupying East Frisia, 250,000 in the northern Netherlands, 250,000 in Alsace, and the remaining 500,000 are spread along the Rhine between the Netherlands and Alsace, and another 150,000 men are stationed in Lorraine as a reserve army.
  • Belkan Empire: Interestingly enough, Austria this year with the departure of its major insurgent leader does not see its insurgency die out, but under the command of a more audacious leader, embarks on a series of high profile assaults on Belkan commanders and sympathisers in Austria which are moderately successful. This prompts higher support for the Austrian insurgency which begins to grow into a real revolt as the more reserved tactics of Kruger had prevented its spiraling into this. The Insurgency begins to arm itself and its rebellion but no overt actions to cause mainline revolt occur yet. The Belkan command in Austria is concerned and forces martial law on the state as its troops begin preparing for the worst. Czechia, however, continues to see booming economic growth as its industries specifically its steel begin to rival its trade partner Belka. This is not spurned, however, as Belkan firms begin buying the steel diverting it directly to the 71 naval program. The 1871 program continues to develop as six new armored cruisers of the newer design scheme are launched as well as five new frigates and three destroyers. The battleships BES Federov, and BES Senosevic are laid down under new specifications with an armored citadel and three 12" turrets with two barrels per turret as well as some tacked on tertiary smaller guns. The ships are slated to be finished next year. The Belkan home economy continues growth but the investment into the colonies without immediate return investment sees an outflow of capital that is not immediately made up. As a result of this in order to make up shortfalls in profit, the effective tax rate on Belkan East Asia is increased capitalizing heavily on the monopoly of Chinese exotic goods and its ability to sell to china without the tariffs effectively making up for shortfalls. The Army sees the development of the MkII Zastava gun upgrading existing concepts to the rifled cannonry and begins producing them for the army. The industrial chemicals sector begins to take off as many chemicals become much more prominent for use in industrial, mass transit, and military purposes. The First rugby leagues are established in Belka observed across Europe and certain colonies. It picks up in popularity quickly as it appeals heavily to Belkan spirit and society. 
    • Crown Colony of Maghreb: The Maghrebi colony - with authorization from the homeland - begins offering Maghebis who serve in civil service and military service citizenship of the empire, refusing to deny them citizenship over trivial matters of their ethnic background. They would be learning culture and language from the Belkan civic and armed services. The textile factories within the colony continue to expand as Belkan immigrants and Maghrebi civlians continue to move into working there. Further settlement occurs this year with a wave of 5000 settlers reaching the city of Tunis expanding the settler population. Expansion mirroring Spanish Algiers begins to occur. The Tunis-Kanem Railway is put under construction as various retaining and reclamation structures through the desert are erected and the railway between both colonies begins construction. Other Railways are also contructed radiating out from Algiers and Tunis with wants to connect the two cities and push into the Libyan desert to the east as well. 
    • Crown Colony of Zaire: Exports to Belka increase once again. However, the funds derived from them are not diverted solely into the hands of the administration. The Colony champions its first railway this year as infrastructure jobs in particular are in high demand and thousands of Zairean peoples are employed. The Administration, hoping to engender goodwill, pays them relatively well and hopes they will purchase consumer goods and improve their lives significantly. This is further explored as Belkan architect-style housing is constructed in an affordable way for those subjects who can afford it in New Thessograd - as well as in various Zairean cities. They don't fill up dramatically but their purpose is clear, the Zairean people are not to be treated as exploitable subjects, but as valuable members of the empire. This is not entirely seen as positive as many agree that the Belkans are ruthless colonial oppressors but nothing can be done against it. The exploration up the Congo river continues as does expansion. Zairs first railway is constructed from a major rubber producing site to its Largest interior city and then to Novo Thessograd on the Coast expanding the rubber boom further.
    • Crown Colony of Gabon: As of this year the Belkan military administration is dismantled in favor of a colonial administration and Gabon sees a proper census this year noting to contain roughly 1.2 million people within the colony. Various infrastructural projects are implemented as it seeks to connect many of the towns and cities. In order to bring some goodwill between the natives and the small Belkan administrative presence, gifts of modern consumer goods are brought to make the peoples' lives easier. Many are even employed with decent pay as they are given heavy incentives to abandon their tribal lifestyles. Exploration along the Interior continues and claims and treaties are made with natives.
    • Dependency of Kanem: The Kanem dependency this year sees further development as a well traveled and developed route through the Sahara is built up. The Belkan investment and shipping in of some industrial machines increases the relative output which sees its resources exported somewhat and in many other cases used to purchase consumer goods in mass numbers, further fueling the Belkan consumer goods industry at home. The Belkan administration begins explore and stake claims to the surrounding region from Kanem. The regions population begins to boom as a result of the influx of surplus food from the Saharan trade route which sees the beginning of the railway being constructed. The discovery of gold in Kanem sparks a rush of investment. This does, however, see the tertiary opening of multiple cement factories in Kanem's capital which attract workers due to the high pay. The Railway from Kanem's capital to the Maghrebi city of Tunis continues. Expansion south and west begin with a major claim being staked on the deserts to the west.
    • Iztochna Aziya: The development of Manila continues with the colony further developing as more effective road systems begin to connect major cities across the archipelago and for the first time some industrial factories opening near Manila. Manila's vast copper reserves become a mainstay of the economy as does its foodstuffs as it exports to the motherland in increasing amounts. Investment into civic infrastructure also continues. Burma sees similar developments as its status as a coal powerhouse brings the Belkan administration, under support from local elites, to expand the coal mining heavily as well as development of some domestic industries. Funds brought in by the export are used to invest further into the colony as some cash cropping is expanded. 
  • Russia: Andrei Kolchack is sworn into office in Novgorod as the third Prime Minister of Russia. The ironclads HIRMS Tsar Vladimir and Great Crusade are commissioned in the Azov naval yards. Symbolically the Great Crusade is made part of the skeleton Russian Mediterranean fleet. Meanwhile, Tsar Vladimir treacherously makes its way to the Baltic Sea fleet through the North Sea warzone. These ironclads are outfitted with Russian version of the Hausmann artillery. The Azov naval yards, meanwhile, lay down three new ironclads. They are named Tsar Pyotr, Novgorod, and Novorossiya. Meanwhile, along with rugby, baseball continues to grow as Feograd takes on Novgorod on the field. The Feograd Sailors win 5-3 against the Novgorod Tsars. The Trans-Siberian railroad continues construction as it enters Irkutsk. The Tokarev 1873 is produced and sold as a hunters rifle which its large slug round kills many animals very well. Andrei Denkin decides to revert the flag of Russia back to the standard White, Red and Blue of the days of the Tsardom. Diplomats are sent to Britain and Japan offering to sell Russian Papua to which either one that provides the better deal (Responses) with an official transfer by 1885.
    • Novorossiya: New Constantinople becomes the official headquarters of the Russian Pacific Fleet as Prime Minister Denkin wants to enforce Russian dominance in its Arcadian Krais, especially lands once belonging to Salish.
  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia): Both Neo-Baroque and Classical art are substantial facets of modern Arab society, continuing to evolve the most southeastern corner of western civilization. Sultan Abd Al-Rahman II continues to expand religious influence across the Arab world. Sunni missionaries of the younger generation continue to minister to Shia in Syria and other religions in Southeast Asia. Adherence to the Pact of Al-Damashq is disseminated through the influential bedouin leaders of the Sahara and Kongo to other leaders, expanding its effectiveness. As popularity for rugby increases across Palestine and Mesopotamia, official organized matches are held in various major cities, mainly between three main teams. Arabia reaches out to Egypt, asking to share our respective art and music at a series of cultural festivals in Gaza. Architecture of buildings begins to radically change into the modern world, as older buildings are demolished and replaced with stacks of townhomes on top of one another. As the inner cities, with the highest modern economy, become crowded with the working class, a complex sewage system is designed, first by the Emir of Galilee, and later implemented to other regions. Industrialization, via private companies, is limited to a very low level, due to the server lack of natural resources that suddenly appeared in recent years. Telegraph lines are placed between several major cities, with only one station per metropolis. Rail lines imported from France are laid down on only the most necessary routes, including the Dead Sea, the Jabal Shammar and the Euphrates. A diplomatic mission is sent to Paris, France, to maintain a close and continuing relation between the two nations. The coal mining in Lebanon supports a single factory complex at Beyrut, managed by the Beyrut Salt Corporation. The miraculous efficiency and production level of this complex, however, becomes legendary across the Middle East, making every company eager to utilize this same technology. Up until this point, the nearly-unlimited human resources of Arabia were able to match any amount of production. However, at this point of the economy, and especially in light of the success of SaltCo, it is starting to become apparent to many companies that increasing human capital is no longer having an effect on production rates. The Sultan and the Shay Al-Nass have acknowledged the existence of the offer from Britain, and has scheduled to address the offer on March next year.
    • We accept. -Egypt
  • Scandinavian Empire: We propose a peace agreement to France and give control of Greenland over to the autonomous polity in Iceland. We draw up a charter for Vinland's dominionship, with military and foreign policy control being kept until Vinland is self-reliant, but Vinland otherwise making their own polities based on the Scandinavian system. The transition of responsibility over domestic affairs is transferred to the Riksdag, and many parties are formed. We offer to buy Ny Gotland back from Nova Belgica for a sum of money. (VAND Response). We expand our railway access to Tromsø, in order to make for simpler transportation of iron and steel.
    • Sankt Thomas and Prince: Sugar is cultivated there and the colony is given a naval base in the region.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: Kim Haeung is officially tried for treason and is sentenced to death via stoning. The Chinese Civil War has ended in the solidification and growth of pre-existing industrial zones, the development of an experienced veteran corps, and socio-political stability with no opposition to reforms. Industrialization continues. Telegraph lines are built, while the construction of railway spurs increased production of iron, machinery and locomotives. There is increased usage of steam engines to provide factory power (as opposed to water-wheels). As part of the Belgrad–Beijing Co-operation Treaty, basic worker's rights are entrenched including but not limited to: a standard 40-hour week (spanning five days), a minimum of two weeks of vacation aside from prescribed national holidays, a minimum age of work–which is prescribed at 15, and a minimum wage. These basic principles are enforced via the Censorate, in order to avoid exploitation as well as to increase living standards for workers (incentivizing movement to factories). China's prime exports remain textiles and luxury goods (jewelries and porcelain), though cash crops such as silk, cotton, oilseed and tea are also important. The Office of the Navy (part of the Ministry of Defense) created to manage maritime affairs, specifically guarding China's coast. The outdated navy is downsized to a tentative littoral fleet of 20 wooden-hulled steam-powered corvettes (in addition to the purchased Belkan ironclad battleships). These, however, are not newly-built vessels but, are converted versions of older vessels, with their sails being removed and their oar propulsion mechanism being replaced with steam engines. Due to this vessels only having a single gun deck, they are only armed with 20 cannons. In preparation for more comprehensive and large-scale naval reform in the far future, naval officers are sent to Belkan naval academies en masse to learn naval doctrine. These ships become part of Bohai Sea Fleet, and are based in Dongying. A lighthouse in Yantai and Dalyeon are used to monitor boat traffic to the Bohai Strait, with Yantai being connected to Dongying via a telegraph line. A defence-oriented military policy is promoted. Four strategic forts are created in cities situated in major choke-points adjacent to major population centers: Busan (Korean peninsula), Dongying (Yellow River Delta), Shanghai (Yangtze River Delta), and Guangzhou (Pearl River Delta). The fortification of the Amur River begins. A fourth army is created, the Nakdeong Army, tasked with defending the Northeast. As a result, the number of active troops serving is finally raised to ~800,000. This increase is ruled final, with military policy emphasizing quality over quantity, as well as increasing China's industrial capacity to wage war instead. There is a rise in arms production, with the Tianjin and Seoul Military–Industrial Zones producing rifled muskets, carbines, ammunition, and now, breechloading rifled artillery (utilizing imported Belkan steel). Due to steel being a bulk-reducing product (as opposed to a bulk-gaining product), it can be imported en masse. Education is promoted to increase the quality of human capital. General education (grades 1–9) is mandatory, with vocational and literacy schools aimed to adults, while state-owned universities and senior high schools are aimed primarily to those wishing to become white-collar workers. The Hua Chinese identity is promoted, based on the cultural principle of Hua. As a result, Classical Chinese is affirmed as the official lingua franca, due to its neutrality. Famous milk-tea chain, Lady Lin Tea, is purchased by the Lotte Group. As a result, there is a boom in milk-tea sales, especially due to the influx of exotic fruits from the Belkan colony of Tondo. Lotte Group also begins the construction of indoor markets and high-end shopping arcades, with its department stores offering basic consumer goods. Rugby and baseball gains some exposure, while orchestra instruments spread in popularity from Korea. The Compact of Free Association is signed between China, and Dzungaria, Altishahria and Tibet: in which the former is responsible for the defense and management of foreign politics, while the latter can freely access the former's social services and markets.
    • Tibet: Lhasa, comprised of 20,000 residents is modernized. The Tibetan clergy continue to administer the country, rendering Tibet a theocratic state. A limited form of democracy is granted, with all landed individuals granted suffrage. Sedentary living is encouraged, with food imported from Sichuan. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there.
    • Dzungaria: To ease administration, the Dzungar government encouraged ranching instead of a semi-nomadic pastorialist lifestyle. Chinese advisors advise the Dzungars on the cultivation of wheat and maize as both a food source and food for lifestock. A garrison of two divisions is stationed there.
    • Altishahria: Urumqi, consisting of ~50,000 residents, continues to see infrastructural development, with various civic buildings built in the capital. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there. Irrigation systems are established around oases. Cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears and walnuts. Particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan raisins. Due to the expulsion of many Turks from Russian-annexed of Turkey, the culture of the Central Asian emigres (specifically Uzbeks and Kazakhs) begins to syncreticize with the Uyghurs.
  • Republica Ibéria: Work continues on the strategic forts in the Pyrenees, and in general the Pyrenean Line is fortified. The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants, however, have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures and greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The census of 1875 determines that the actual population hovers just below 38 million. It also shows that roughly 30% of the population is now able to speak Iberian at some level. These speakers are concentrated in the urban areas as it is used mostly for trade and governance. Educational practices continue to include Iberian as a portion of the core curriculum alongside regional languages, mathematics and history. Although the rate of economic growth has slowed since the boom of the earlier 1870’s, there is still rapid industrial and agricultural development. Steel production continues to increase, funded by naval contracts and general demand for the tough material. Agricultural output continues on a positive trend with a rapidly growing export sector driven by French and English demand for luxury foods such as pomegranates and oranges. The rail sector grows at a moderate pace with construction on many small narrow-gauge lines for intra-regional travel. The shipyards of Catalonia are constantly busy and produce a modern and well-respected ships. Iberian naval technology, once well behind the likes of Burgundy and Britain, has steadily been improving relative to the frontrunners. The financial sector, although weaker than others, also grows with Lisbon and Madrid the two main centers of commerce and growth. Naval expansion programs are continued with a class of four light battleships each with two armored turrets and 200mm guns are planned for commission in 1876. In less serious news, a national fútbol league is established in Madrid. The league brings together four teams: FC Barcelona “Las Barcas,” FC Madrid “Los Abrigos Amarillos,” FC Lisbon “As Realezas,” FC Sevilla “Os Cavaleiros.”
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production. The Republic begins aiding the Iberian African Republic in expansion southward.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite the growth. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore, has become majority European. There are roughly 3.45 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 200,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand Germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stopover for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial Garrison is maintained at 1000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber production commences with small returns at first due to the young age of the trees.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic stabilizes and begins expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa. Construction begins on a railroad to connect Dakar with the gold fields of East Senegay.
  • New Granada: In the Kingdom, election season dominates national attention. With the conservative PdP torn in two over the contracts with Belka and Burgundy for the construction of the Trans-Istmo Canal (with the hardcore nationalists running as non-inscrits of the right). Due to some provinces having different methods of electing their delegates - some relying on proportional representation while others favor first-past-the-post - the liberal PUL—M wins an even stronger mandate under Palestrante Eduardo Graça. Construction on the Canal continues, albeit slowed by Burgundy's divided attention with an ongoing war in Europe. Meanwhile, the sport of rugby enters into the popular imagination of many New Granadians. A small rugby club opens in Bogotá, and another in Balboa Rocha (with a heavy European influence in the latter).
  • The Mapuche Confederacy is decidedly not thrilled by the sudden mobilization of a massive revanchist Argentine army on its northern border. The government immediately declares a national emergency, moving the regular army to the border and augmenting it with locally raised militias. Across Patagonia, Mapuche who remember the brutal Argentine conquest of the colonial era, or whose parents and grandparents have told them of the enslavement of the Mapuche perpetrated by the Argentines, flock into recruiting stations. The dominant Conservatives use this upsurge of nationalist sentiment to suppress growing calls for expansion of the franchise, particularly by miners and urban artisans associated with the Revisionist movement, whose leaders - inside and outside the Assembly of Chieftains - rally against the Argentine threat and back the Conservative majority's emergency decrees. Nevertheless, they seize the opportunity of the national mobilization to disseminate pro-reform propaganda to the largely traditionalist mass of the rural peasantry. The Assembly of Chiefs selects a toqui, or emergency chief executive, for the duration of the crisis, selecting the young Conservative chief Ancanamon, a noted orator. In cooperation with a war council of both radical and conservative chiefs, he announces the intent of the Mapuche to support Brésil's authority in Argentine, and demands that the Argentines demobilize immediately.
    • Argentine: We refuse to surrender to the demands of our mortal enemies, the Mapuche, who have no right to demand anything from us. This demand only further the fires of our anger and strengthens the Revolution against Bresil and we are ready to defend against any Mapuchean intervention on behalf of Bresil if it ever comes to that. The entirety of Argentine is now fortifying against her enemies.
  • Ethiopian Empire: Theodore offers that a meeting of friendship be held in Alexandria between the leaders of Ethiopia, Egypt and Belka. He also asks Belka if they would be willing to sell more ships. Theodore continues his reign as the "Dandy Emperor" and continues his lavish ways, bringing a new fashion to court every year. His two sons Zara and Yacob begin to learn the ways of court and both are (almost) as handsome as their father. The military continues to grow and modernize, as does medicine in the nation. Large hospitals are opened in major cities while small clinics aid rural regions to their best ability. Port Theodore grows in population as the port facilities reach completion. Belkan factories continue to replace the old workshops, and aid the economy that is gradually rising to meet population growth. A middle-class is solidly established in cities as the urban population reaches 51% of the national total. More European tools and techniques are shown to farmers to help them be more efficient. The national rugby team is set up and plays out of the same stadium as the Royals soccer team. Axum finally finishes its 400+ year old water system project, soon Addis Ababa and Adulis follow. Ezana City lags behind due to the distance from the other population centers.
  • Swahili: We continue colonial expansion in Northern Somalia, in the south and in the Malindi and Mombasa area. Colonization increases as medicine and weaponry become more widespread. In the Swahili heartland, the profitability of cloth factories and cotton farming has led to a sharp increase in the number of slaves. Foreign veterans are recruited to train the army, especially those from the British and Belkan expeditionary forces. More textile factories are constructed, modernized versions of previous textile manufactories. Export and import trade continues to boom, leading to the creation of many financial services, further catalysing industrialisation. Agricultural modernization continues in the Swahili heartland and spreads to Somalia and Rowzi. The Royal Zoo is constructed in Zanzibar, while a complex system of canals is designed for the Capital District for energy needs in future industrialisation.  Dozens of steam factories are established, with the majority producing textiles. Mineral refining advances in Sofala, Aliwa and Rowzi. The Malawi Military Academy begin experiments with new military tactics, as foreign veterans begin to teach. Sports, especially football, begin to be played in port cities where it is spread by sailors and merchants. With the reformation of the Madrassahs and close intellectual connection with the West through the nation's focus on trade, the madrassahs restarts its historic scientific research. In the Madrassah of Ibo, scholars constructed the first Swahili modern microscope and later independently developed pasteurization as a scientific procedure, after a cash prize is offered by major colonial companies and families. In the Madrassah of Mogadishu, the scholar Qantar develops mathematical theory relating to infinity. Mathematics has long been a topic of great interest in the Madrassah, as historic work has closely integrated mathematics with theology and philosophy.
  • Huriya: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes.
  • Rowzi: Political integration continues with Swahili bureaucrats being sent to oversee more political processes. As more soldiers enter Swazi, Rowzi is even more closely integrated to improve logistical efforts.
  • United Swazi Emirates: The political organisation is being set up and forts are being built. Roads and ports are being constructed to connect it to the mainland. The land grant system continues smoothly.
  • Sefuwa: All Swahili colonies in Southwest Africa are organized into Sefuwa. Colonisation begins to connect the settlement.
  • Swahili Diplomacy: We wish to purchase locomotives and train track design and expertise from Belka and Britain.  
  • Maori Kingdom: War chief Rapata Wahawaha unites the tribes of North Island and creates a kingdom that takes up whatever land the Burgundians have not taken for themselves. Realizing that our neighbor has a large industrial base, we decide on attempts to catch up to modern times, including learning from the Burgundians and attempting to get to the bottom of problems plaguing the Maori.
    • OOC: according to the ATL version of the Treaty of Waitangi, the Maori chiefs of both islands have accepted Burgundian suzereignty, protection, and citizenship. -Guy
    • Oh dear, I should have studied the archives. I had just looked at the maps, and it was a bit unclear at the north. Which nations are still available to play? -Emperorkangxi

1876

Rugby becomes widespread in Belkan Tondo and French Papua, and soon the sport spreads to China and Japan as a result.

The Argentine citizens begin massive rioting and violent attacks against their new Bresilian overlords, but become heavily anti-France in the process.

Ralph Bell wishes to recieve the UK patent for telephones.

In New England, an internation exposition meant to include cultural items from various worldwide nations is scheduled to take place this year, and many invites are sent out worldwide because of this. The exposition has been called the "World's Fair".

Strahil Kostov wishes to recieve the Belkan patent for a four-stroke engine.

~250,000 citizens are killed in British Bengal by a disasterous cyclone.

Tradionalist Arabians and Omanis begin arguing over the introduction of industrial goods in Arabia, speaking on how the Jaffarids are turning Arabia into the something resemblying the "menaces" that are Belka and the United Kingdom.

The Salish and native peoples in Novorossiya become irritated by the enforcement of the Russian government over their lands, and the situation ignites further after a massacre takes place involving the deaths of 30 Salish by the hands of Russian officers after protesting for more rights.

  • Nova Belgica: With the war in the Rhineland continuing between the Kingdom of Burgundy and the German states, it is requested that the colony picks up the slack on the construction of the Panama Canal, and beginning this year the majority of Burgundian construction materials for the project arrive from Nova Belgica. This leads to an increase in production of quality steel, as well as the opening of other related industries. Additionally the war effort is also a large boon to the local economy, with more and more local factories being opened or growing in size to produce armaments, ammunition, uniforms, and other war related goods. The military continues to be expanded also as a result of the war, with many Nova Belgicans serving oversees in the conflict with the Germans. Also the islands of Anticosti and Prinz Rupert, now heavily fortified, continue to be stationed. This year in hockey the Arcadian Hockey League (AHL) begins its first official season, and the league's officials also begin helping to set up teams in neighboring countries. The New Rome Bruins, hot off last year's win of the "Lakes Cup", a tournament for primarily southern-based teams, perform well this season. In Avalon the Koebecstad Avaloniens are joined by two more teams, the Kingston (Ottawa) Barons and the Ronoa (Toronto) Maple Leafs. In Vinland the first two teams are created with Nova Belgican sponsorship, the Sveaborg (Saguenay) Sovereigns and the St. Olaf Saints, with the Sovereigns in particular have a very successful season. This year's tournament in the Lakes Region sees the Icaria Lakers, Havenland Patriots, Ameland Admirals, New Rome Bruins, and Lelystad and Chalon all participate. In an large upset between the Patriots and Lakers the Patriots win their first title. The Patriots go on to contest the Steinweide Cup, but ultimately Wilhemina ends the season on top, winning their third Stenweide Cup. Elsewhere interest in the sport grows Novorossiya, and plans to possibly create more in the coming years. Two rival leagues begin to take shape, one for teams in the far north (OTL Alaska) and one for teams in the Resnov/New Kiev/Tacoma/Duwamish region (OTL Washington). In Europe the Burgundian Royal Hockey League is formed, and a friendly is arranged between the Ameland Patriots and the Brussels Belegeraars late in the year, which results in a narrow Patriots victory. In Rugby news the Belgican Amateur Rugby Association and the Amateur Rugby Club Association decide to merge into the Arcadian Rugby League, surpassing the Peninsula Rugby Club League as the largest governing body in the nation. The Borselen Steelers have the best season overall in the PRCL, and challenge the ARL's Tholen RC in the championship, which ends in a victory for Tholen, the first ever national champion outside the PRCL. Meanwhile further south the Atlantic Rugby League unites teams from New Netherlands and New England, with the Kampen Crusaders winning a championship against York RC. Finally in football Lelystad defeats the Sint Jan Argonauts for the championship title in football. This marks the first season that teams from New Netherlands and Nova Belgica compete against each other in the Arcadian Football League, and there are hopes to expand the league to the three major teams in New England. Toward the end of the season the World's Fair takes place in New Rome, and several sporting events are hosted. The ice hockey tournament is attended by several teams from around the world, including the New Rome Bruins representing New England, Ameland, Icaria, and Lelystad representing Nova Belgica, the Dijon Royals representing Burgundy, and two teams from France, and results in a victory for the home team of New Rome. More importantly the event showcases the sport in front of people from around the world, and many return to their home countries and create their own ice hockey teams, greatly growing the sport. In a close election Bernard Hendriksen, a conservative politician, is elected governor in begins his term in 1875. Under his leadership the government continues to uproot corruption, support business, and look to expand internationally, and as such the offer from Scandinavia is declined. In March 1876 a disgruntled politician named Charles Julius Guiteau, hurt by the war on the spoils system, shoots and kills Hendriksen while he is on his way to a train station. The deputy governor Jan Ruys serves for the remainder of Hendriksen's turn, but loses reelection to his liberal opponent, Jacob Thedens.
  • Kingdom of Egypt: After Queen Farah made the hajj, the devout Egyptian Muslims and the clergy settle down with ease, The Egyptian nation finally coming together, and has become more peaceful. Alia City sees a massive overhaul, as new modern european style cities are built, along with 3 new factories made with belkan help. This is apart of the massive reconstruction program of Queen Farah, in which all settlements and major cities that were destroyed by the war will be rebuilt with enhanced speed. Giza continues to be rebuilt with a new look, with local gizans pitching in to help rebuild their ruined city. The Egyptian Owned island of Bahrain sees an influx of Egyptian settlers, which in turn causes the establishment of a perminant settlement that isn’t a military base, which is named “Manama”, and sees rapid progress. Egyptian Diplomats are sent to Aleppo, in which once they arrive, immedietly demand that before any further fraternization with Arabia, before any more “friendship treaties” or “economic pacts” are signed, Arabia must acknowledge the elephant in the room: The Sinai Peninsula. Arabia must recognize the undesputed Egyptian sovereignty over the Peninsula, and that arabia will drop any desputing claims over the Sinai Peninsula (NATE RESPONSE NEEDED!!). Modifications to Tobruk’s port are made, as to accommodate the need for modernization in Egypt, and to expand Tobruk as a major trading port. Settlements are established along the White Nile, as to show that Egypt also cares about the people in Kush. The highly militarized blockade that is the Egyptian-Arabian border is slightly demilitarized due the easing of relations with arabia, though the border is put on high alert over the sudden demand for Arabia to recognize Egyptian right to the Sinai. Nubar Pasha continues his premiership as Prime Minister of Egypt, and helps Queen Farah with deciding new economic policies and foreign diplomacy.
    • The Ministry of State represented in both Aleppo and Cairo iterate the full acknowledgement of the Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal as rightful property of the Kingdom and state of Egypt. The Shay Al-Nass follows up to reiterate the request for further growing relations both culturally and technologically, based primarily on their religious conneciton, but also their mutual political heritage from old Caliphate.
    • Tensions ease as Arabia fully and quite surprisingly kindly and without any resistance agrees to recognize the Sinai as rightful Egyptian land. We agree to continue bettering relations between Arabia and Egypt, along the lines of technological and cultural ties.
    • French Diplomacy: The Zulu Tobacco Company wishes to open up a new branch of cigarette production and distribution in Egypt.
      • we accept, as Queen Farah is looking for foreign investment in Egypt.
  • Ethiopian Empire: Theodore offers that a meeting of friendship be held in Alexandria between the leaders of Ethiopia, Egypt and Belka. He also asks Belka if they would be willing to sell more ships. (PLAYER RESPONSES). The port facilities in Port Theodore are finished and the Red Sea fleet relocates to the new port. The Bank of Ethiopia sets up a branch in the city immediately. More schools are built around the nation as the mandatory age of schooling is increased to 16. Theo pushes for the furtherment of the arts in science knowing it will keep the nation modern. Mines are expanded in the interior to increase output in the metal market. The stock market of Axum continues to grow in value. Road metalling starts in cities to aid the modern look of "New Ethiopia." Theo founds the Ethiopian Rugby League which for the time being use the same stadiums as the 8 football teams. The regular army continues to grow along the lines of the armed forces 1880 plan. Weapon makers in Axum continues to research a rifle that would be the best for the Ethiopian Army.
    • Arabia wishes to increasing diplomatic relations with Ethiopia, at least inasmuch to share off-shore resources such as fishing within the Red Sea.
    • Egypt Happily agrees to the meeting.
    • Belka agrees to the meeting and also offers to sell the Ethiopians a singular Battleship of the first generation design. We also agree to sell the Ethiopian army the Zastava MKII rifle for their standard rifle.
  • Russia: Kalshnikov unveils the new 1876 lever action (OTL Winchester 1876 lever action). In response to the violence in Novorossiya, Prime Minister Kolchak with the Duma's consent sends 50,000 soldiers to garrison Novorossiya, mainly establishing a few military bases between "Guutiland" (OTL Yukon) and Kaliforniya. Dimitri Krafchenko announces in the Science Daily of his intention to ungrade the existing phonautogrpahs, he begins immediate work. The Trans-Siberian railroad is nearly complete with by December 31st, a year and a half left presumably. An associate of Mr. Krafchenko named Anton Vitanen brings a Russian phonautogrpah to the Worlds Fair with the newest single from a man named Abram Savinkov with his new hit song "Ramblin Gamblin Man" and introduces Russian Bugi-Vugi/String Baroque to the western world.
    • Novorossiya: The Krai governors of Novorossiya enact the Segregation Bill of 1876, which is to enforce "Equal yet separate treatment of the races" during the annual Cinigrad conference of Arcadian Krai's. The "Orden Zimnego Kruga" (Order of the White Circle) arrizes with many racist whites in St. Gregory, fearing a native takeover. The OZK dressed in White Roabs to distinguish themselves. A few lynchings occurred with local police often turning a blind eye. With the large native population in southern Novorossiya, and the recent influx of whites, the hostility to the even white immigrants drives some to the OZK. Meanwhile Pacific Railways invests into a Trans-Pacific Railway, construction starts at Oakland and a route is set to pass through Yale (OTL Concord, CA) and then to Suttersville (OTL Sacromento, CA). Meanwhile from New Kiev, the northern stretch is to go to Napoleonsberg (OTL Salem, OR) to Mzerksk (OTL Medford, OR).
  • Jaffarid Sultanate (Kingdom of Arabia): Rugby has kicked off with a massive upswing of support across northern Arabia. There are a total of five major teams, organized within the oversight committee known as the Arab Rugby League (ARL). Art, architecture, and philosophy continue to evolve in parallel with the west. Hayyan Al-Jabir finalizes his book on the strength of the united Arab people, called The Three Circles. However, it is largely unknown at this time. The Shay Al-Nass places an ultimatum to Persia, demanding they grant the Arab military free and unrestricted access to the nation in order to impose economic reparations from previous conflicts, as well as granting unrestricted port access to our ally the French. Because we do not intend to violate the sovereign territory of Persia, Arabia hopes the Persian government will accept these terms peacefully. However, our military is prepared to enforce such demands if necessary. (MOD RESPONSE) the military of Arabia is mobilized with the forwarding of this telegram.  Architecture in Damascus, Beyrut, and Nazerath are largely reconstructed on the new multi-layered design, accomadating the ever-increasing population density filled from the working classes. SaltCo has almost risen to be the largest native Arab corporation in West Asia, and the second largest corporation in general after the Elephant cigar company. Although SaltCo doesn't have monopoly on the coal mines in Lebanon, the Shay Al-Nass ruled that its resources only can support the bandwith of one company so far. Three main rail lines are connected in disparant parts of the nation: Darum-Amman, Anbar-Bosra, and Aleppo-Mosul. Telegraph lines, however, are growing more rapidly, and by the end of the year there are at least one station in every metropolitan. Some of the more prominent scientists in Arabia, graduate the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, travel to New England to participate in the World's Fair. In order to improve his national reputation, Sultan Abd Al-Rahman II proclaims his support for the cause of traditional Arabs, and says that he will maintain a firm hand when negotiating with the Belkans and British, especially when he works out the terms of the upcoming British-Jaffarid agreements in March (more to come).
    • Persia: nope. -s
  • French Empire: The population rises to 43 million. After capturing the Gold Coast colony from Prussia, a peace document is proposed where they simply cede the territory and thus French involvement in the war will cease (Player Response Needed). After ending the war with Scandinavia last year and expecting for the war to be ended with Prussia in two victories, nationalism and ethnic pride rise and soon many rejoice the return back to form of France. The sports of rugby and ice hockey grow more in popularity, and after defeating the Nantes Nighthawks 10-6, the Toulon Wave are proclaimed the 1876 French National Champions. Reforms meant to tackle inflation and increasing the value of money are passed. A naval battle legion, supporting 4 ironclads, 20 cruisers, 15 destroyers, and 10 gunboats soon arrives off the coast of Persia. The navy begins semi-blockading the state, showing it's dominance in the region and towards Persia's lackluster and outdated navy. The French legion closely watch the waters as the French ambassador Enzo Millet begins negotiative talks over growing French hegemony in the Middle East, presenting the power-status of the deployed navy and turning half of the Persian imported goods away from its state, thus sending some level of economic rash throughout the state. The French demands: unrestricted port access for the French government in the Persian Sultanate, something reasonable and fair (Mod Response Needed). Steel imports of Scandinavia rises after the treaty of riksdale becomes legitimate, and soon 10 new cruisers and 15 new gunboats are laid down with fresh, brand new steel plating and top-line turrets, which currently reside in port. Due to the current political atmosphere in France currently, Benoit Dylan immigrated to Peru. The primary Armed Forces is reduced heavily in favor of increasing the royal navy, reducing the active troop number to 75,000, thus making plenty of room for the navy to expand and become comfortable.
    • French West African Republic: Exportations of raw and valuable resources continues as supplies grow vastly and forced labor with beneficial breaks, sleeping periods, and some amount of payment being made continues within the confines of the Mali. In Nigeria, infrastructure and roads are built as the regional economy continues to operate in a frenzy.
    • French South African Republic: Infrastructure, bettering the image of the French, and roads are built across the state connecting the major and most populous states.
    • French Asian-Oceanic Republic: Infrastructure and roads are built.
    • Persia: nah. -s
  • The Mapuche fear of a revived Argentine threat diminishes, with Argentines (according to the mod event) merely rioting against Brazilian control rather than mobilized and outside of such control. The Mapuche reaffirm their support for Brazil's legal control of Argentine. Consequently, the War Committee shifts its focus, determined to stop Peru from carrying out its goal of uniting with Argentine and reviving Argentine power. Ancanamon leads a massive march to the Cathedral of Andalien, where the Archbishop delivers a sermon in front of the piled skulls of the victims of the Argentine conquest of Patagonia, exhorting the Mapuche nation to prevent Peru-Argentine's establishment, lest the enslavement and massacre that the Argentines perpetrated two decades earlier repeat. To this end, the War Committee pursues a number of courses. First, the Mapuche government utilizes its long-held monopoly on copper, saltpetre and guano, cutting the prices of these products on the international market to undercut Peru-Argentine's economy by slashing demand for its exports. Second, the War Committee places significant resources at the disposal of ethnic Atacama and Aymara officers, who contact their ethnic brethren in Peru-Argentine and contrast their oppressed marginalization in a French-dominated state with the local autonomy and cultural support they might receive as members of the Mapuche Confederacy. These officers help organize and supply guerrilla units that further disrupt Peruvian mines and attack troops and supplies moving eastward towards Argentine, while also spreading propaganda among the native Laurentians of the high Andean plains and the Atacama desert. Third, the borders - especially key strongpoints - are fortified, with supply dumps constructed and filled. Light cavalry recruited from the pampas are deployed as scouts; mobilization continues, with the bulk of the army positioned on the border for defence against attack from Peru-Argentine.
    • Laurentian Diplomacy: We discover that the Mapuche state has assisted in and most likely facilitated Native guerrilla attacks upon our mines and our soldiers and are deeply angered by Mapuche being involved in the brutal murder of soldiers who were serving their nation in a time of peace and these Native attackers are brutally suppressed and punished to the full extent of the law. Not only have the Mapuche sponsored the death of peacetime soldiers and the plundering of our wealth generating mines, but have also undercut our economy, harming the lives and well being of the Laurentian people. Further perpetuating our anger is the fortification and mobilization of Mapuche troops along the Laurentian border. For these various crimes against the sovereign and legal Laurentia Union in addition to recognizing the illegal claim of Bresil over Argentine, we conclude that Mapuche has violated the mutual defense pact formed between the Mapuche and Peru in 1846, just 30 years prior. With the mutual defense pact between the Mapuche and Peru's successor state, the Laurentia Union, broken, we conclude that Mapuche must pay for its crimes against Laurentia, for the wages of sin is death, and we establish political hegemony upon the Mapuche as punishment for the transgressions committed against us by the Mapuche. In this, the border with Mapuche is fortified and entrenched and 100,000 troops are sent to the border, many of them being Argentine, with fire in their eyes, the yearning desire to reconquer and restore the Kingdom of Patagonia. With the bulk of Mapuche forces mobolized along the border, Admiral Gage sets sail the battleship Liberté from Lima, accompinied by a medium sized fleet of 12 with transports, carrying 100,000 troops who land on and subsequently besiege the Mapuche capital Andalien, simaltenously initiating a blockade around Mapuche
    • The Mapuche are really, really surprised that Peru can build battleships in a single year, but acknowledge it is far beyond their industrial capabilities. Instead, the Mapuche navy, thoroughly warned by the massive preparation for the expedition, moves to prevent any blockade. The government mobilizes several dozen ships by seizing whalers and merchant ships, while also using its pre-existing, small fleet of steam-powered but unarmored warships. These ships concentrate off Andalien; the smaller ones are packed with gunpowder and launched into the Peruvian fleet while the large concentrate on destroying the transports. Meanwhile, Mapuche troops concentrate near Andalien's fortifications, mining and fortifying nearby harbours to prevent any landing and moving to attack Peruvian troops if they manage to leave the ships as they land. Terrified of massacre and enslavement, the whole city's population mobilizes to defend the capital. The bulk of the Mapuche forces - some 200,000 men - are concentrated on the border and move forward into the Peruvian altiplano, joined by 40,000 Peruvian Aymaraguerillas eager for freedom. The bulk of the Mapuche light cavalry - 50,000 - are sent here. This forces is ordered to hook around and trap the bulk of the Peruvian forces in the waterless Atacama desert along the border, outflanking them.
  • Peru-Argentine: New Vichy descends into chaos as the fury of the Argentines burn against Bresil, and their burning rage is expressed by tearing down the Bresilian flag that is flown alongside the Argentine flag, it is torn down, spat on, trampled on, and finally burned, symbolizing the fall of Theodore de Medici’s, Bresil’s leader, proclaimed monarchy over Argentine. Seeking order in the chaos, the Argentine parliament asserts union with the free and independent state of Peru in order to formally break free of Bresil. Simultaneously, the Peruvian parliament proclaims that since Peru achieved independence from France, and Peru was and still is in union with Argentine as the Union of Laurentia, then the entirety of the Union of Laurentia has broken free of French Protection, making the French sale of Argentine’s protectorate status to Brésil null and void, in addition to illegal, making Brésil’s declared control over Argentine to be an illegal seizure of power, and also null and void. The simultaneous affirmation and reaffirmation of unity between the Argentines and the Peruvians deepens the bond between our people and we begin to see ourselves as one unified, free people, as Laurentians, thus we unite as one state, the Laurentia Union, renamed from the Union of Laurentia to break free of our past from French dominion.  In celebration of this freedom, unity, and the rising Mapuche threat, the Laurentia Battleship Liberté, is constructed, (based off the design of the French battleship Belenus) and is launched from Lima, commanded by Admiral Vincent Judicaël Gage, who, with a medium sized fleet of 12 ships .and transports carrying 100,000 troops set sail for the Mapuche capital Andalien, beseiging the city.
  • Kingdom of Burgundy: A final 450,000 men are raised, bringing the royal army to 1.5 million men. Adding onto last years deployments, an army of 150,000 is positioned at Mulhouse, and another 150,000 at Krefeld. The positions along the Rhine and the border are strengthened with heavier forts and trenches. In May, Captain Jakob de Andreas leads twenty men in a raid, commandeering a Prussian locomotive in Leipzig, travel along the line, pulling up rails, burning bridges, and cutting telegraph lines for miles before getting caught and captured. Andreas and several others are reported hanged as spies. As such, the most recent Burgundian armored cruiser class, the 5-ship St. Vith-class, is renamed the Kapitän Andreas-class. The SMS Medway and SMS Elba are commissioned and added to the fleet, bringing the navy up to five ironclad battleships.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: With cheap steel from the Bessemer process and Siemens furnace the price of steel drops rapidly and plans to rebuild Britain's railway infrastructure with steel and expand on it massively are planned by the government and private investors benefiting from cheap loans. Use of machine tools speeds up locomotive and steam engine production. The amount of telegraph lines rises rapidly especially undersea cable lines to link the empire. Super phosphates are used as fertilisers which is a big step up in agriculture. Growth in the chemical industry selling synthetic dyes. Work continues on the defences at Kismayo. The patent for the telephone is granted and the first limited production begins. The first modern bicycle is completed. The navy begins a large scale plan to build ironclads over the increasingly outdated wooden ships as well as move toward breech-loading rifled artillery pushing up steel demand. It remains a mainly aristocratic sport.  In the Bay of Kost we expand 25 px to the south along the coast to allow better transport. England has a population of 21.7 million, Wales has 1.2 million, Ireland has five million people, and Scotland 2.8 million. In Britain, based in southern England, there are 10,000 professionals and 25,000 men in Ireland, 70,000 European soldiers and 300,000 Indian Sepoys in India spread out across the continent, 25,000 soldiers in Suez, 5,000 British soldiers, 10,000 Sepoys and 35,000 African soldiers at Kismayo, 10,000 at Aden, 10,000 in Uluru, and 4000 in West Africa. There are two fleets: one at Hull and one at Bristol, each comprise ten first-rate ships-of-the-line, 25 second-rate ships-of-the-line, 50 frigates, and 62 corvettes.
    • India: Construction of railways in India begins. India has 240 million people.
    • Uluru: Construction of railways in Uluru begins. A steady flow of people from Britain - many of them unemployed and Indian (convicts) - is maintained mainly going off to set up their own farms. A militia is maintained.
    • Swahili rail company: Surveyors land at various points in Swahili and start surveying potential routes for railway lines.
  • Republica Iberia:Work continues on the strategic forts in the Pyrenees, and in general the Pyrenean Line is fortified.The birth rate remains very high as the government continues its stipend for young parents. Death rates for infants however have dropped rapidly as sanitation measures and greater access to health professionals leads to a much lower mortality rate. The population is estimated to be 38.90 million. Educational practices continue to include Iberian as a portion of the core curriculum alongside regional languages, mathematics, and history. Although the rate of economic growth has slowed since the boom of the earlier 1870’s, there is still rapid industrial and agricultural development. Steel production continues to increase, funded by naval contracts and general demand for the tough material. Agricultural output continues on a positive trend with a rapidly growing export sector driven by French and English demand for luxury foods such as pomegranates and oranges. The rail sector grows at a moderate pace with construction on many small narrow-gauge lines for intra-regional travel. The shipyards of Catalonia are constantly busy and produce a modern and well-respected ships.The financial sector, although weaker than others, also grows with Lisbon and Madrid the two main centers of commerce and growth. A class of protected cruisers is commissioned for 1879 and is to contain four new ships. Furthermore, the light battleships, now nicknamed “Battle-cruisers,” of the Resoluto Class are launched and commissioned.
    • Republica de Morocco: Support for the Reformist Islamic Church has yielded great results and many hundreds of thousands have adopted the more liberalized version of Islam. Meanwhile, the increasing implementation of the new farming practices leads to a large growth in the value of orchard exports. Industrialization of Morocco continues and the coal and iron deposits in the east lead to increased iron and steel production. Several rail lines are opened this year connecting the capital and a few of the more major cities are connected. The Republic begins aiding the Iberian African Republic in expansion southward.
    • Dependencia de Algeria: Expansion into the desert continues along old trade routes with nomads employed as guides. The Iberian Government places high priority on this expansion and efforts are made to expedite the growth. Immigration from European countries is encouraged with stipends available for those that come. These stipends are only paid to those who do not come from Iberia. In order to keep the peace, European colonists are settled in and around the capital at Mostaganem. They can be found throughout the farming region centered on Mostaganem where they have settled in small groups. Fortunately for the administration, Mostaganem began as a small town, and therefore has become majority european. There are roughly 3.51 million inhabitants of Iberian Algeria, and of these, 260,000 are European. The low population density due to the French treatment of the cities means that the coast is greatly underpopulated. The Majority of migrants are Italians or Iberians, but there are some French, Belkans, and even Austrians. There is a major increase in the European population as several thousand germans arrive in the colony.
    • Antillas Ibericas: The colony continues to enjoy the profits of sugar production and as a stopover for ships headed out into the Atlantic. The Colonial Garrison is maintained at 1,000.
    • Indias Orientales Ibéricas:The colony continues to enjoy the profits of spice production. Rubber production commences with small returns at first due to the young age of the trees.
    • República Africana Ibérica: The republic stabilizes and begins expansion efforts along the Sahel north of the French holdings in West Africa.
  • Belkan Empire: The Belkan patent council agrees to allow Strahil to recieve his patent taking great interest in the project. The Austrian situation officially spirals out of control as new Austrian insurgent leader, Maximillian von Staufenberg organizes a General uprising. Austrians across the country rise up against the perceived Belkan occupation joined by the 4 Austrian divisions rearmed as a defense force to prevent Belkan forces from doing all the heavy lifting. Staufenberg makes his Headquarters in Tyrol and brings to bear a force of nearly 75,000 against the Beleagured Belkan standing force in Austria. Outmanned and with much their heavy equipment seized the Belkan forces are forced into a general retreat towards Vienna where they set up a veritible fortress in Austria. The initial success of the Austrian revolt sees veterans and militia units formed. Disenfranchised with the monarchist, and democratic movements, Staufenberg is a vaunted Syndicalist having gained radical leanings from the exiled Belkan syndicalist radicals. He Proclaims the Austrian Syncidate Union and with a standing force of nearly 400,000 having illegally armed almost half of his forces and seized significant heavy artillery from the surprised Belkan garrison unsuspecting of how large the whole affair really was. Belkan High command out of one of its strategic posts in Trieste declares an Emergency and a Field army of 200,000 is deployed and the Czechian forward force of nearly 50,000 is deployed post hast to Austria only to meet a massive Militia army nearly double its size. While they are successful in battle, the forces are delayed significantly as they are forced to fight well north of Vienna as the Austrian forward forces of the Belkan garrison engage in the heated siege of Vienna. The siege is pitched and house by house fighting occurs and significant gains are made by the Austrian syndicalists as they fight with greater numbers and absolute instense fanaticism. The 3rd army under Field Marshall Zhuikov meets an equal force of Austrian forces near Graz and thanks to captured Belkan artillery the force meets significantly higher resistance with the forces unable to achieve a major breakthrough. This effectively isolates Vienna for upwards of 2 months until the Garrison under Colonel Volkov deploys its last resort in Vienna. After being trapped in the city center for nearly a week he unleashes in history the first gas attack with the Belkan troops using safety hoods with moderate success in protecting themselves. While collateral damage is high, the Belkan garrison manages to maintain control in Vienna by suffers nearly 20,000 casualties. The Failure of the quick and decisive seizure of Vienna brings Staufenberg to a pause as he begins to fortify the regions of eastern Austria he controls and begins to dig trenches and create defensive lines hoping the sheer momentum of his revolt will carry the day against superior Belkan numbers. By the end of the year Bavaria and Vienna remain secure, and a Belkan field army has made some gains towards Graz leaving Staufenbergs forces stuck in a two front war. He however lacks any meaningful production base and instead buys guns and ammo wherever he can. The Motherland is shocked by the revolt and while some saw it comming the Belkan army is mobilized in more than just a semi active capacity activating a 200,000 strong force known as the 4th Reserve army. Another Field force the 4th army marches and flanks Graz putting preassure on Staufenberg. Belka refuses to recognize the Syndicalist Austrian state and denounces it demanding no outside interference in the Belkan sphere. The Stock market takes a moderate hit from the revolt however various economic dividends from the colonies push through generating lots of profit. The 71 Naval program continues The battleships BES Federov, and BES Senosevic are launched matching pace with Burgundian development. The Invasion of Arabia is allowed as per the Anglo-Belkan condominium allowing British military shipping. While somewhat bitter and annoyed at an invasion literally in their backyard no action is taken as the Austrian rebellion takes precedence. The Supreme soviet knowing the dangers of Radical syndicalism expells its radical elements and makes the radical parties illegal. This is considered popular by many including the moderate syndicalists who do not see the point in the martial developments of syndicalist ideology. In order to more closely observe the situation in Arabia the BES Asen accompanied by 4 armored cruisers 5 armored frigates and 10 Destroyers deploys in Belkan territorial waters outside of Arabia to monitor the situation but does not intervene more trying to recon the situation. Development of the Isthmus canal in New Grana continues with major breakthroughs achieving a halfway point for the canal. 
    • Ethiopian DIp: The topic of the meeting with the other leaders is Theodore's "Fear" of the French encroachment so close to commonwealth. French aggression has spiked on the continent and in general. Theodore does not advise war but maybe precautions into any major power wanting a stake in undeveloped countries. As a scare tactic he offers that Belka guarantee free ports in Persia while showing muscle with all ships from all three nations. Theodore also offers instead for a production license of Zastava rifle. However he does wish to buy Artillery, and ask for a rail line between Addis Abba and Port Theodore.
      • We tell Ethiopia not to worry about the French.- Egypt
    • Egypt, following in the footsteps of Belka, bans 5 different Marxist parties, which include 2 syndicalist ones. We also send 300 mercenaries to help out in Austria.
  • Greater Chinese Empire: Prime Minister Li Hongzhang continues his reconstruction and rehabilitation campaign. Political stability and public support manifests itself with extremely high approval ratings, with virtually everyone either neutral or supportive of the new reforms. The Grand Secretariat continues to be controlled by the Populist Party, basing its platform on improving the welfare and health of the yeoman farmer. Due to the stabilization of the economy, the tax rate is cut, with unnecessary or completed programs phased out. The rapid socio-economic changes during his reign, resulting in massive improvements in the lifestyle of the masses, results in the popularity of the Huifu Emperor–who becomes the official embodiment of the Hua Chinese people, as well as affirming the principles of a popular monarchy. A rising political official, Kim Okgyun, publishes his "On Global Politics and the return of China at its nucleus" essay, which stresses the importance of maintaining buffer states surrounding China, and asserts that industrialization must be used to reassert its historical role as the epicenter of East Asian regional politics while maintaining prestige with European states. It also raises the "Japan question", with its modernization program, albeit lagging behind by a decade, perceived as posing a direct threat to China's interests. The ratification of the Compact of Free Association is viewed as an exercise of this principle, and is hailed by many intellectuals. Economic modernization continues with vigor. Infrastructural development continues: telegraph and railway lines are constructed (with the latter spurring demand for iron, machinery, and locomotives). There is rapid growth in light industries (such as textiles manufacturing), stemming from the increased usage of steam engines to provide factory power. The entrenchment of basic worker's rights and regulations results in maximum productivity per each worker (due to decreased overexploitation), and further incentivizes entry into factories (especially as rises in agricultural productivity result in the oversaturation of the agricultural sector). A defence-oriented military policy is promoted, with the development of four strategic forts corresponding to major choke-points: Busan, Dongying, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. The Amur River is fortified to provide a border with Russia. The standing army remains at ~800,000 active troops. Arms production (and therefore, the industrial capacity of China to wage war) continues to increase, with the Military–Industrial Zones producing rifled muskets, carbines, breechloading rifled artillery (utilizing imported Belkan steel); as well as providing storage for imported bolt-action needle rifles. The Office of the Navy continues to send its officials to Belkan naval doctrine to prepare for more comprehensive naval reform, which is postulated to occur within the next decade. The naval reform is complete, with a tentative littoral fleet of 20 wooden-hulled steam-powered corvettes as well as two first-generation ironclads. This navy, deemed the Bohai Sea Fleet, mainly serves as a coast guard–owing to the recognition of China's naval weakness leading it to suffer defeats under the Anglo–Burgundian intervention in Guangdong. Educational attainment, and basic literacy and numeracy continues to see massive improvement due to the promotion of general education. The construction of educational facilities continues, including vocational establishments and "literacy schools" aimed at educating adults outside the compulsory schooling range. A Chinese national rugby team is established, due to its surging popularity, with many highschools also participating in competitions between each other. Orchestra instruments rises in popularity, with the Seoul Music School becoming popular among potential musicians. Milk-tea continues to experience a revival in popularity.
    • Tibet (associated state): Lhasa, comprised of 20,000 residents is modernized. The Tibetan clergy continue to administer the country, rendering Tibet a theocratic state. A limited form of democracy is granted, with all landed individuals granted suffrage. Sedentary living is encouraged, with food imported from Sichuan. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there.
    • Dzungaria (associated state): To ease administration, the Dzungar government encouraged ranching instead of a semi-nomadic pastorialist lifestyle. Chinese advisors advise the Dzungars on the cultivation of wheat and maize as both a food source and food for lifestock. A garrison of two divisions is stationed there. An elective monarchy is established, with each Khan serving ten-year terms. Suffrage is granted to all landed individuals.
    • Altishahria (associated state): Urumqi, consisting of ~50,000 residents, continues to see infrastructural development, with various civic buildings built in the capital. A garrison consisting of two divisions is stationed there. Irrigation systems is established around oasises. Cash crops are grown, specifically grapes, melons, pears and walnuts. Particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan raisins. Due to the expulsion of many Turks from Russian-annexed of Turkey, the culture of the Central Asian emigres (specifically Uzbeks and Kazakhs) begins to syncreticize with the Uyghurs. An elective monarchy is established, with each Khan serving ten-year terms. Suffrage is granted to all landed individuals.

Footnotes

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