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The Principality of Catalonia (in Catalan: Principat de Catalunya and in Aranese Occitan Principat de Catalonha) it is one of the three Home Nations of Spain, being the other Castile and the Basqueland), and, with a population of 7.5 millions, it is the second most heavily populous Home Nation of the country. The name of the nation may be either in the Arab composition of Kat-al-Talunya ( land of castles) or either from the name which was given to the territory by the Goths (Gothland/Gothaland) literally meaning Gothic land or the Goth's land), and nowadays there is an agreement between the scholars that the name is based on both the meanings who were given by earlier inhabitants of the land.
Its greater autonomy within Spain makes that the country has the following institutions of self-government.
- Parlament de Catalunya, the parliament of the nation, which consists of 136 seats chosen every four years except if the elections are anticipated, it has authority over all the internal matters affecting Catalonia except of the ones directly depending of the Conselleríes (Ministries), which are the Police and the Sometent ( a territorial defense force alike to the Yugoslavian TO's/Territorialna Obranka)
- Mossos d'Esquadra: Police Service of Catalonia, in charge of all the security matters of Catalonia, it has a militarized structure and its help was key for not-blockade of the country in the massive snowfalls from 2010.
- Sometent: Territorial defense force of Catalonia, it is in charge of the military defence of the territory and its armed force, except in international missions, it is in charge of declaring the state of war in Catalonia, previous consultation with the King of Spain, the emergency help in natural catastrophes or terrorist attacks, it is in charge of defending the country may the central government make any decision which goes against the Catalan State constitution and/or the Spanish one. Its help in the 1982 floods in the Comarques by which the river Segre passed and the Barcelona Olympic Games in 1992 (security) are specially remembered. All Catalans, men and women, are required to serve in it from since 16 to 18 years old (with permits of one week each month) and since 20 to 22, and they are in the reserve until reaching 35 years old.
- Education System= from 3 to 16 years old, same than in the rest of Spain but controlled by the Generalitat, another difference with the rest of the state, though, is that school is compulsory since 3 years old, and not since six, like in the rest of Spain
- Generalitat de Catalunya (General Deputation of Catalonia): Government of Catalonia, responsible for all internal matters of the territory and its foreign promotion.
Its current president its Artur Mas I Gavarró from Democratic Convergence of Catalonia, a centrist party.