The President of the Confederate States of America is the head of the executive branch of the government of the Confederate States of America.
List of presidents
Independent (4) National League (3) Reform League (1) Citizens' Party (4) Democratic Party (5) Conservative Party (5) Reform Party (6)
|№||President||Took office||Left office||Party||Vice-President|
|1||Jefferson F. Davis|
|22 February 1862||22 February 1868||None||Alexander H. Stephens|
|2||Robert E. Lee†|
|22 February 1868||12 October 1870||None||James Longstreet|
|12 October 1870||22 February 1874||None||vacant|
|4||John C. Breckinridge†|
|22 February 1874||17 May 1875||National League||Zebulon B. Vance|
|5||Zebulon B. Vance|
|17 May 1875||22 February 1880||National League||vacant|
|6||P. G. T. Beauregard|
|22 February 1880||22 February 1886||National League||Custis Lee|
|7||John H. Reagan|
|22 February 1886||22 February 1892||Reform League||Simon B. Buckner|
|8||John B. Gordon|
|22 February 1892||22 February 1898||Citizens' Party||Benjamin Tillman|
|22 February 1898||22 February 1904||Citizens' Party||James S. Hogg|
|10||Clifton R. Breckinridge|
|22 February 1904||22 February 1910||Democratic Party||Murphy J. Foster|
|11|| Thomas E. Watson|
|22 February 1910||22 February 1916||Citizens' Party||Napoleon B. Broward†|
|vacant from 1 October 1910|
|12||M. Hoke Smith|
|22 February 1916||22 February 1922||Citizens' Party||James K. Vardaman|
|22 February 1922||22 February 1928||Democratic Party||James C. McReynolds|
|22 February 1928||22 February 1934||Democratic Party||B. Patton Harrison|
|22 February 1934||22 February 1940||Democratic Party||John N. Garner|
|16||Josiah W. Bailey|
|22 February 1940||22 February 1946||Conservative Party||Hatton W. Sumners|
|17||Hugo L. Black|
|22 February 1946||22 February 1952||Democratic Party||James F. Byrnes|
|18||Harry F. Byrd|
|22 February 1952||22 February 1958||Conservative Party||J. Strom Thurmond|
|19||J. Strom Thurmond|
|22 February 1958||22 February 1964||Conservative Party||Richard B. Russell|
|20||John B. Connally|
|22 February 1964||22 February 1970||Reform Party||Terry Sanford|
|21||George C. Wallace|
|22 February 1970||22 February 1976||Reform Party||Dale L. Bumpers|
|22||Ernest F. Hollings|
|22 February 1976||22 February 1982||Conservative Party||Lewis F. Powell|
|23||William C. Westmoreland|
|22 February 1982||22 February 1988||Independent||Robert Q. Marston|
|24||Lloyd M. Bentsen|
|22 February 1988||22 February 1994||Reform Party||Richard C. Shelby|
|25||Reubin O. Askew|
|22 February 1994||22 February 2000||Reform Party||Ann Richards|
|22 February 2000||22 February 2006||Reform Party||Charles S. Robb|
|22 February 2006||22 February 2012||Conservative Party||Robert R. Riley|
|22 February 2012||Reform Party||James H. Webb|
List of elections
Jefferson F. Davis and Alexander H. Stephens elected more or less unanimously.
Robert E. Lee and James Longstreet elected more or less unanimously. Some reluctance to nominate Longstreet, but Lee's influence prevails.
John C. Breckinridge and Zebulon B. Vance (National League) elected by a large margin over Joseph E. Johnston and Raphael Semmes (Longstreet-backed independents). First real contested election – Johnston's defeat assisted by his perceived reconciliatory notions and his refusal to actively campaign for office.
P. G. T. Beauregard and G. W. C. Lee (National League) elected more or less unanimously. Beauregard defeated Joseph E. Johnston for the National League's nomination, aided by Vance's endorsement. Only other candidates were John C. Brown and Francis T. Nicholls (Reform League), who won their states and no others.
John H. Reagan and Simon B. Buckner (Reform League) narrowly elected over Edmund K. Smith and Fitzhugh Lee (National League). Nationalists perceived as aloof and elitist. Reformists win populist vote.
John B. Gordon and Benjamin Tillman (Citizens' Party) elected over John T. Morgan and Lucius Lamar (National League) and Simon B. Buckner and Augustus H. Garland (Reform League).
Benjamin Tillman and James S. Hogg (Citizens' Party) elected over Clifton R. Breckinridge and Stephen Mallory (Democratic Party).
Clifton R. Breckinridge and Murphy J. Foster (Democratic Party) elected over James S. Hogg and Thomas E. Watson (Citizens' Party).
Thomas E. Watson and Napoleon B. Broward (Citizens' Party) elected over Murphy J. Foster and Luke E. Wright (Democratic Party).
M. Hoke Smith and James K. Vardaman (Citizens' Party) elected over Edward D. White and Josephus Daniels (Democratic Party)
Josephus Daniels and John N. Garner (Democratic Party) easily elected over James K. Vardaman and Ellison D. Smith (Citizens' Party).
Carter Glass and Cordell Hull (Democratic Party) easily elected over Ellison D. Smith and Thaddeus H. Caraway (Citizens' Party).
Cordell Hull and James C. McReynolds (Democratic Party) narrowly elected over Huey P. Long and Theodore G. Bilbo (Citizens' Party). Dead cat bounce for the Citizens' Party – Conservative League founded 1935.
Josiah W. Bailey and Hatton W. Sumners (Conservative Party) narrowly elected over Clyde R. Hoey and Hugo L. Black (Democratic Party) and Olin D. Johnston and George L. Berry (Citizens' Party). Religious and ideological issues at play.
Hugo L. Black and James F. Byrnes (Democratic Party) narrowly elected over Harry F. Byrd and W. Lee O'Daniel (Conservative Party) and Olin D. Johnston and James C. Breckinridge (Citizens' Party).
Harry F. Byrd and Strom Thurmond (Conservative Party) elected over James F. Byrnes and Colgate W. Darden (Democratic Party) and Fielding L. Wright and Eugene Siler (Citizens' Party).
Strom Thurmond and Richard B. Russell (Conservative Party) elected over J. William Fulbright and Estes Kefauver (Reform Party). Anti-conservative forces merged into Reform Party in 1954.
John B. Connally and J. Terry Sanford (Reform Party) elected over Ross R. Barnett and Luther H. Hodges (Conservative Party). Estes Kefauver, presumptive Reform Party nominee, died a few months before the election. Connally, his running mate, replaced him at the head of the ticket.
George C. Wallace and Dale L. Bumpers (Reform Party) elected over John C. Stennis and Orval E. Faubus (Conservative Party).
Ernest F. Hollings and Lewis F. Powell (Conservative Party) elected over William E. Brock and Reubin O. Askew (Reform Party)
William C. Westmoreland and Robert Q. Marston (independent) elected over Lloyd Bentsen and D. Robert Graham (Reform Party) and Lawrence P. McDonald and William L. Scott (Conservative Party).
Lloyd M. Bentsen and Richard C. Shelby (Reform Party) elected over Jesse Helms and Howard H. Baker (Conservative Party).
Reubin O. Askew and Ann Richards (Reform Party) elected over J. Bennett Johnston and Zell B. Miller (Conservative Party).
Ann Richards and Charles S. Robb (Reform Party) elected over William H. Frist and W. Thad Cochran (Conservative Party).
Fred Thompson and Robert R. Riley (Conservative Party) elected over John R. Edwards and Sam Nunn (Reform Party).
Blanche Lincoln and James H. Webb (Reform Party) easily elected over Michael D. Huckabee and Jim DeMint (Conservative Party).
Biographical listing of presidents
Jefferson Davis (1861–1868)
Jefferson Finis Davis (3 June 1808 – 6 December 1889) was the first President of the Confederate States, serving from 18 February 1861 to 22 February 1868.
- Major issues
- Status of Kentucky
Robert Lee (1868–1870)
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was the second President of the Confederate States, serving from February 22, 1874, until his death. He was the second president to die in office, after President Lee.
Once Lee had made it clear that he would accept the office of president, his election was a fait accompli.
- Major issues
- Trouble in Arizona
James Longstreet (1870–1874)
James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was the third President of the Confederate States, serving from President Lee's death on October 12, 1870, until February 22, 1874. He had earlier served as the second Vice President from February 22, 1870, and was the first Vice President to accede directly to the presidency.
– conciliatory –
John Breckinridge (1874–1875)
John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was the fourth President of the Confederate States, serving from February 22, 1874, until his death. He was the second president to die in office, after President Lee.
William C. Gorgas