The President of the Republic of Japan (Japanese: ミンコクソウサイ; Kanji: 民國總裁 Minkoku Sōsai) is the head of state of Japan. This office was created in 1919 following the establishment of the Republic of Japan. The official office and residence of the President of the Republic of Japan is formally called as the Presidential Office of the Republic of Japan (Japanese: ミンコクソウサイコウテイ; Kanji: 民國總裁公邸 Minkoku Sōsai Kōtei), located on Shirokanedai, Minato, Tokyo, the national capital of Japan. But, the office is usually (and popularly) referred as the Teien (Japanese: テイエン; Kanji: 庭園), means 'garden' in Japanese, simply because the office building is surrounded by a traditional Japanese garden.
Duties and functionsThe President of the Republic was elected by the National Congress for four years terms. According to the Constitution of Japan, the office of President is the head of state of the Republic and the nominal commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The President of the Republic also responsible for conducting foreign relations, such as concluding treaties, declaring war, and making peace. The President has no right to veto any Congress decisions. Other powers of the President include granting amnesty, pardon or clemency, declaring martial law, and conferring honors and decorations.
Prior to World War II, the Constitution does not clearly define the office of President as the powerful position in the country. However, the multiple political posts that held by Nagayama Yoshida both in the government and in the Party, made the office quite powerful as the Council of Ministers must solely responsible to President. Only after the 1946 constitutional amendments, the Presidential authority was slightly reduced to less powerful than before and the President had primarily only ceremonial powers. The President's constitutional powers can only being effective with the concern of the Congress (and the Legislative Council) and the support from the Party which dominated the Congress.
List of Presidents of the Republic of Japan
|Picture||Term start||Term end||Political Party|
|1|| Nagayama Yoshida|
|February 19, 1919||March 17, 1951||Nationalist Party of Japan|
|2|| Matsuoka Komakichi|
|March 17, 1951||August 14, 1958||Nationalist Party of Japan|
|acting|| Konoe Fumimaro|
|August 14, 1958||July 6, 1959||Nationalist Party of Japan|
|3|| Matsudaira Yoshichika|
|July 6, 1959||July 27, 1967||Nationalist Party of Japan|
|4|| Minobe Ryōkichi|
|July 27, 1967||July 4, 1975||Nationalist Party of Japan|