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On March 23, 1974, the General and former Governor of Guinea-Bissau António de Spínola published his book Portugal e o Futuro, defending an alternative to the Portuguese Colonial War, being, as a result, exonerated from his duties by then-Prime Minister Marcello Caetano.
With the Carnation Revolution on April 24 of the same year, Spínola was chosen as the Provisional President of the Republic and based on his book, he proposes a federative plan for Portugal, similar to the British Commonwealth. Despite the rejection by the left-wing parties and after several negotiations, Spínola managed to reach an agreement with all political parties and with the Armed Forces Movement. As a result, with the election of the I Constitutional Government leaded by Mário Soares, the Portuguese Federative Republic and the Portuguese Commonwealth were created.