Pope Pius XI, or Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, is the first Pope elected sovereign of the Vatican City State.
He was born in 1857 in Desio, Milan. He had an early career as a clergy member, but was also an active scholar, politician, and athlete. In 1918 he was appointed apostolic visitor to Poland, and was the Holy See's only representative in the country. Shortly after, in 1921 he was appointed as the first Archbishop of Milan. On January 22nd, 1922 Pope Benedict XV died of pneumonia. The College of Cardinals elected Ratti over Rafael Merry de Val and Pietro Gassipari, whom he appointed Cardinal Secretary of State.
Holy See - Italy Relations
Pope Pius XI was successful able to negotiate the Lateran Accords, which made the Vatican City the temporal justification of the Holy See. This was signed in 1929.
Holy See - Germany Relations
Pope Pius XI was able to negotiate through Eugenio Pacelli the Reichskonkordat with Germany. It consists of liberty for the Catholic Church, confirms that both nations will have a representative in each others country, guarantees independence for Catholic organisations, orders, and youth groups, and guarantees religious teachings in schools. This was signed in June of 1933.
Holy See - Austria Relations
Pope Pius XI was able to negotiate through Eugenio Pacelli the 1933 Concordat between the Holy See and Austria. In the concordat the Catholic Church is allowed to increase its influence, be able to create schools, regulate marriage laws of Catholics, and have the final say in appointing Church officials. This also states that Austria would be a Christian corporative state and accept the 1917 Code of Canon Law.