Giovanni de Medici was born in Florence on 11 December 1475 to Lorenzo de Medici and Clarice Orsini. His family was expeled from Florence during a religious revolution against the Medici, with help of his tutor Pope Julius II and his army he went back toward Florence. Then Julius died and he as cardinal had to go back to Rome. In 1513 he was elected as pope and straight away his relatives were welcomed back in Florence, this lead to the creation of the Duchy of Florence. He was not very pious, often spending huge sums for feasts, meanwhile his cousin Giulio was meanwhile selling jewels. Later he turned to make money possible by selling indulgences for those who had money, this angered many and when Martin Luther to publish his 95 Theses, Leo excommunicated him and thus lit the start to a century of religious turmoil. In 1521 he executed Luther him and soon Lutherans took to arms and the Protestant Wars began. He however died in the same year of Bronchopneumonia and was succeeded by Adriaan Boeyens in an almost 100% vote, even Giulio elected him.