Born Gioacchino Pecci, 1810-1903, Pope from 1878.

An almost exact contemporary of W E Gladstone (1809-1898), with whom he corresponded regularly.on matters theological, with Cardinal John Newman (whom Leo had created Cardinal) serving as intermediary.

As soon as the phonograph had been developed sufficiently to be a practical means of communication, Leo encouraged its use as a means of propaganda and communication.

Succeeded by Benedict XV.

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