Pope Innocent XVII, born Francisco Calderano (5 June 1880 - 30 September 1967) was the pope from June 13, 1940 until his death in 1967, reigning over 27 years. He is regarded as one of the most influential popes in contemporary history and was given sainthood in 1991. He was the second-longest reigning pope after Pius IX, and ruled the Papal States first alongside the Bravanatti family and later as the absolute, albeit comparatively benign, authority in most of Italy.

During his time as both the head of the Church and the secular executive of the Papal States, Innocent XVII made it his goal to eradicate much of what he perceived to be the degradation of the Church and of the Italian state, going so far as to excommunicate both his political enemies, perceived "enemies of the Italian people" whom had contributed to the defeat of the Italian Alliance in the French Civil War, and expelled cardinals and bishops who partook in nepotism. Innocent also helped modernize the previously poor Papal States by integrating the economy with that of the defunct Neapolitan state, helped form secular local institutions to better serve the needs of the people of his country through reforms in the early 1960's and participated in the Black Sea War by supplying French ships with safe harbor and sending troops to the Balkans as part of what was often derogatorily referred to as the "New Crusade."

Innocent's greatest credit, however, was his participation in the Roman Revolution, which helped keep the Turkish army out of Rome during the final months of the French Civil War, and toppled the corrupt and near-despotic Bravanatti dynasty. Despite his accolades, however, many Italians regard Innocent XVII dubiously due to his close ties with Sebastien and his allowance of a French military occupation in all of Italy, including Rome, deep into the 1950's.

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