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Political parties in Czechoslovakia (WFAC)

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This is a list of political parties in Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovak Federative Republic has a multi-party system. Due to the electoral system operated, a limited number of parties are successful in parliamentary elections.

Political parties in the Federal Assembly

Czechoslovak Social Democracy

Czechoslovak Social Democracy
Československá sociální demokracie
Chairperson Robert Fico
Founded 7 April 1878
Newspaper Právo lidu
Ideology Social democracy
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Socialist International,
Progressive Alliance
European affiliation Party of European Socialists
European Parliament Group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Official colors
  Red
Federal Assembly
83 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Czechoslovak Social Democracy (Czech: Československá sociální demokracie, ČSSD) is a social democratic political party in Czechoslovakia. It is the major centre-left party and one of the major political parties in Czechoslovakia. It is a member of the Party of European Socialists and the Socialist International. Before adopting the current title in 1991, the ČSD was named Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (Československá sociálně demokratická strana, ČSSD) from 1945 to 1990.

History

It was founded on 7 April 1878 as the The Social Democratic Czechoslavonic party in Austria (Czech: Sociálně Demokratická strana Českoslovanská v Rakousku) in Austria-Hungary representing the Kingdom of Bohemia in the Austrian parliament. Its role in the political life of the empire was one of the factors that lead to the creation of independent Czechoslovak Republic. During the First World War there were sharp ideological divisions within the Social Democratic Party between supporters of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (B. Šmeral) and those backing Masaryk and an independent state (F. Modráček, F. Soukup, R. Bechyně, V. Tusar). Over time, the latter group gained predominance and actively joined in the anti-Austrian resistance.

In the first Czechoslovak Republic, the Social Democrats were a powerful force gaining 25.7% of the votes in the Parliamentary elections of April 1920. However, the party soon became split over whether to join the Comintern. This artificially induced confrontation ended in a fight for the party headquarters (Lidový dům) in December of 1920. In 1921 the party fractured, with a large part of its membership forming the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovak Social Democrats emerged from the conflict in a much weakened position.

For the next ten years the new leadership attempted to regain its lost position. A breakthrough came with the leadership of Antonín Hampl, and subsequently the party platform of J. Stivín, which was adopted at the 16th Congress in 1930. This platform was loosely coordinated with similar efforts of the national socialist party (Beneš’s platform was approved a year later). A great success of Hampl’s leadership was the founding of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic International at the Smíchov Merger Congress in January 1928. The Social Democrats were one of the most important parties of the First Republic, represented in an overwhelming majority of coalition governments and counting President T. G. Masaryk among their supporters.


In 1969 the coalition of the Republican Party (RS) and the liberal Free Democrats (SD-LS) fell and a coalition between ČSSD, the christian democratic ČSL and SĽS was formed under the leadership of Prime Minister Alexander Dubček. Enjoying not only vast popular support but also respect by his opponents, Dubček expanded the welfare state was considerably, while improving injury and sickness benefits, pensions, unemployment benefits, housing allowances, basic subsistence aid allowances, and family allowances and living allowances. Social spending was almost doubled between 1969 and 1981.

Name changes

  • 1878–1893: The Czechoslavonic Social Democratic Party in Austria (Sociálně-demokratická strana českoslovanská v Rakousku) – part of Social Democratic Party of Austria
  • 1893–1918 The Czechoslavonic Social Democratic Workers' Party (Českoslovanská sociálně demokratická stranu dělnická) – independent party
  • 1918–1938: Czechoslovak Social Democratic Worker's Party (Československá sociálně demokratická strana dělnická)
  • 1945–1990: Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (Československá sociálně demokratická strana)
  • Since 1990: Czechoslovak Social Democracy (Československá sociální demokracie)

Leadership

Party chairmen

Chairperson Period
1878Josef Boleslav Pecka-Strahovský
1887–1893Josef Hybeš
1893–1905Josef Steiner
1904–1915Antonín Němec
1916–1917Bohumír Šmeral
1917–1925Antonín Němec
1925–1938Antonín Hampl
1946–1962Václav Majer
1962–1966Vilém Bernard
1966–1980Alexander Dubček
1980–1983Jiří Horák
1983–1996Jiří Dienstbier Sr.
1996–2002Jan Kavan
2002–2007Vladimír Špidla
2007–presentRobert Fico

Presidents

Prime Ministers

Term Prime Ministers
1919–1920Vlastimil Tusar
1946–1950
1957–1961
Václav Majer
1969–1976
1977–1982
Alexander Dubček
1982–1983Ota Šik
1991–1997Jiří Dienstbier
2003–2006Vladimír Špidla
2006–2007Stanislav Gross
2013–Robert Fico

Participation in government

Electoral results

Federal level

National Assembly (1920–1945)
Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1920 25.65% New
74 / 300
New Government 1st
1925 8.88% −16.77
29 / 300
45 Government 4th In opposition from 1926–1929
1929 13.05% +4.17
39 / 300
10 Government 2nd
1935 12.55% −0.5
38 / 300
1 Government 3rd
Federal Assembly (since 1946)
Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1946 31.2% +18.53
96 / 300
58 Government 1st
1950
0 / 300
Opposition 2nd
1954
0 / 300
Opposition 2nd
1957
0 / 300
Government 1st
1961 24.33%
75 / 300
Opposition 2nd
1964
0 / 300
Opposition 1st
1968
0 / 300
Government 1st
1969
0 / 300
Government 1st
1972
0 / 300
Government 1st
1976
0 / 300
Opposition 1st In government from 1977.
1979
0 / 300
Government 1st
1983
0 / 300
Opposition 2nd
1987 27.75%
83 / 300
Opposition 1st
1991
0 / 300
Government 1st
1995
0 / 300
Government 1st
1997
0 / 300
Opposition 2nd
2001
0 / 300
Opposition 2nd
2003
0 / 300
Government 1st
2007
0 / 300
Opposition 2nd
2010 22.09%
68 / 300
Opposition 1st
2013 27.07% +4.98
84 / 300
16 Government 1st

National level

Czech National Assembly (since 1946)
Slovak National Assembly (since 1946)

Republican Party

Republican Party
Republikánská strana
Chairperson Miroslav Kalousek
Founded 6 January 1899
Newspaper Venkov
Ideology Social Conservatism
Liberal Conservatism
Agrarianism
Political position Centre-right
International affiliation International Democrat Union
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament Group European People's Party
Official colors
  Green
Federal Assembly
41 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Republican Party (Czech and Slovak: Republikánská strana, abbreviated RS), also known as the Republicans (Republikáni) or the Agrarians (Agrárníci), is a social conservative and agrarian party of Czechoslovakia. It is the major party of the centre-right in Czechoslovak politics, and seen as representing big business, the middle class and agriculture. The party was member of the International Agrarian Bureau, and is today members of the European People's Party and the International Democrat Union.

History

The party was established in 1899 as the Czech Agrarian Party, and in 1922 they merged together with the Slovak National Republican and Peasant Party, forming the Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants (Republikánská strana zemědělského a malorolnického lidu). The party became the prinicpal spokesmen of Czechoslovakia's large agricultural population (with the exception of landless rural laborers). Because of Antonín Švehla's statesmanship, they managed to combine two ostensibly incompatible elements – the owners of large farms and the small holders, many of whom earned a precarious living in dwarf farms. Švehla consciously built up his party on the support of small and medium farmers, never allowing the owners of large estates to determine agrarian policies. It was only in 1928, when grave illness removed Švehla from the political scene, that the owners of large estates gradually acquired greater influence in the party, at times clashing with the interests of the small farmers.

The power of the Agrarian party was based on its control of a variety of economic institutions rather than on an appeal to a special agrarian ideology. Because of the ascendancy of pragmatists typified by Švehla, who combined the principle of progressive social legislation with a pragmatic and compromise-driven approach to conducting public policies and a genuinely democratic outlook and favored cooperation with the Social Democrats, the agrarians assumed a position in the centre of the Czechoslovak political spectrum. From 1992 until 1938 they were the core of all centre-left or centre-right coalitions, occupying the ministries of the interior and agriculture, and holding the office of prime minister. In the 1925 elections it won 45 of the 300 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, becoming the largest party in Parliament. In the same year it introduced an agrarian tariff which was seen as protecting the producers interest, motivated by the country's agrarian crisis. In the period up to 1935 it was the biggest political party in the country.

Following World War II it remained the largest centre-right party. Following the election defeat to the Social Democrats in 1957, the party was forced to reform their platform to a more conservative and centrist orientation rather than agrarian. This happened out of the need to attract an additional electorate with the continuing decline of the agrarian share of the population. In 1958 Miloslav Rechcígl was elected leader, and in 1959 the party changed their name to the Republican Party (Republikánská strana).

The strategy proved to be a success, and in 1961 the party won the federal elections, while Rechcígl, who looked up to Švehla's compromise-driven approach, would eventually serve as prime minister from 1961 to 1969, being the longest serving prime minister from the Republicans since Švehla. During the 1980s the Czechoslovak People's Party took over the role as the largest right-wing party, but served nonetheless as a junior coalition partner in Karel Schwarzenberg's government. During the 1990s they regained

Name changes

  • 1899–1905: Czech Agrarian Party (Česká strana agrární)
  • 1905–1919: Czech-Moravian Agrarian Party (Českomoravská strana agrární)
  • 1919–1922: Republican Party of Czechoslovak Peasants (Republikánská strana československého venkova)
  • 1922–1959: Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants (Republikánská strana zemědělského a malorolnického lidu)
  • Since 1959: Republican Party (Republikánská strana)

Leadership

Chairmen of the RSZML

PeriodChairperson
1899–1905Stanislav Kubr (1862-1908)
1905–1909Josef Žďárský (1853-1939)
1909–1933Antonín Švehla (1873-1933)
1935–1946Rudolf Beran (1887-1956)
1946–1950Josef Černý (1885-1971)
1950–1954Ladislav Feierabend (1891–1969)
1954–1957Jozef Lettrich (1905–1974)
1957–1970Miloslav Rechcígl Sr. (1904–1985)
1970–1978Vladimír Čermák (1929–2004)
1978–1989Miloslav Rechcígl Jr. (1930–)
1989–1994Jan Stráský (1940–)
1994–2005Mirek Topolánek (1956–)
2005–presentMiroslav Kalousek (1960–)

Presidents

TermPresidents
1975-1983 Miloslav Rechcígl Sr. (1904–1985)

Prime Ministers

TermPrime Ministers
1922–1926
1926–1929
Antonín Švehla (1873-1933)
1929–1932František Udržal
1932–1935Jan Malypetr
1935–1938Milan Hodža
1950–1951Josef Černý
1951–1954Ladislav Feierabend
1954–1956Jozef Lettrich
1961–1969Miloslav Rechcígl Sr.
1983–1988Miloslav Rechcígl Jr.
1997–2003Mirek Topolánek
2007–2013Miroslav Kalousek

Participation in government

Electoral results

National Assembly (1920–1945)

Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1920 9.74%
28 / 281
Opposition 4th in government 1921–1926
1925 13.66% 3.92
45 / 300
17 Government 1st
1929 15.0% 1.44
46 / 300
1 Government 1st
1935 14.3% 0.7
45 / 300
1 Government 2nd

Federal Assembly (since 1946)

Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
2010 20.22%
63 / 300
3 Government 2nd Kalousek government remained in office; majority government with the ČSL-SĽS and the SD–LS.
2013 16.30% 3.92
50 / 300
13 Opposition 2nd

Czechoslovak People's Party

Czechoslovak People's Party
Československá strana lidová
Chairperson Pavel Bělobrádek
Founded 6 January 1919
Newspaper Lidové listy
Ideology Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Regionalism
Pro-Europeanism
Clericalism (historical)
Political position Centre-right
National affiliation ČSL/SĽS
International affiliation Centrist Democrat International,
International Democrat Union
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament Group European People's Party
Official colors
  Yellow
  Light blue
Federal Assembly
62 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Czechoslovak People's Party (Czech: Československá strana lidová, abbreviated ČSL, often shortened to lidovci) is a Christian democratic and social conservative political party in Czechoslovakia. Along with its Slovak sister party the Slovak People's Party (SĽS), the ČSL forms the ČSL/SĽS grouping in the Federal Assembly.

It is considered an overall centrist party, combining socially conservative views and Catholic social teaching with more left-leaning economic positions. It has a stable support of voters (10–15%); it is strongest in the traditionally Catholic rural areas in Moravia. The influence of the party is rather bigger than that, as it tries to take advantage of the fragmented Czechoslovak political situation and make itself a necessary part of any coalition, whether the winning big party be left- or right-wing.

In social policy the ČSL generally have social conservative opinions, positioning themselves as a family-friendly party. They support increased benefits for families with children, as well as single parents. On life issues, the party opposes euthanasia, and abortion, though it can support abortion in cases of rape or when the mother's life is at risk. The party supports accessibility to contraception as a way of lowering abortion rates. They also want to ban research on human fetuses, and have expressed skepticism for proposals to liberalize the biotechnology laws in Czechoslovakia. On gay rights issues, the party opposes gay marriage and gay adoption rights.

History

Towards the end of the 19th century Roman Catholics in Bohemia and Moravia joined political movements inside Cisleithanian Austria-Hungary. The Christian-Social Party was set up in September 1894 in Litomyšl, and the Catholic National Party in Moravia was set up in September 1896 in Přerov. The Czechoslovak People's Party was created in January 1919 in Prague, reuniting other Catholic parties, and monsignor Jan Šrámek was selected as its chairman. In 1921, the ČSL entered the government of Czechoslovakia, and was subsequently part of governing coalitions regardless of political changes.

After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Šrámek served as head of Czechoslovak government in exile (in the United Kingdom). After 1945, ČSL was part of the national unity government, and following this was a regular part of all centre-right as well as several centre-left coalitions.

Leadership

Chairmen of the ČSL

Chairperson Period
1919–1948 Jan Šrámek
1948–1955 František Hála
1955–1964 Stanislav Broj
1964–1972 Ivo Ducháček
1972–1977 Zbynek Žalman
1977–1981 Josef Bartončík
1981–1991 Karel Schwarzenberg
1991–1998 Josef Lux
1998–2003 Jan Kasal
2003–2010 Cyril Svoboda
2010–present Pavel Bělobrádek

Presidents

Term Presidents
2007–presentKarel Schwarzenberg

Prime Ministers

Term Prime Ministers
1938–1946Jan Šrámek
1988–1991Karel Schwarzenberg

Participation in government

Electoral results

Federal level

National Assembly (1920–1945)
Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1920 11.3%
33 / 300
Opposition 2nd in government 1921–1926
1925 9.7% −1.6
31 / 300
2 Government 3rd
1929 8,4% −1.3
25 / 300
6 Government 5th
1935 7,5% −0.9
22 / 300
2 Government 6th
Federal Assembly (since 1946)
Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1946 11.05% +3.55
34 / 300
12 Government 4th
1950
0 / 300
Government
1954
0 / 300
Government
1957
0 / 300
Opposition
1961 10.63%
32 / 300
Government 3rd
1964
0 / 300
Government
1968
0 / 300
Government
1969
0 / 300
Opposition
1972
0 / 300
Opposition
1976
0 / 300
Government In opposition from 1977.
1979
0 / 300
Opposition
1983
0 / 300
Government
1987 9.81%
30 / 300
Government
1991
0 / 300
Opposition
1995
0 / 300
Opposition
1997
0 / 300
Government
2001
0 / 300
Government
2003
0 / 300
Government
2007
0 / 300
Government
2010 12.34%
38 / 300
Government
2013 11.05% –1.29
34 / 300
4 Opposition 3rd

National level

Czech National Assembly (since 1946)

Slovak People's Party

Slovak People's Party
Slovenská ľudová strana
Chairperson Iveta Radičová
Founded 14 December 1905
Newspaper Slovák
Ideology Christian democracy
Social Conservatism
Slovak regionalism
Clericalism (historical)
Political position Centre-right
National affiliation ČSL/SĽS
International affiliation International Democrat Union
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament Group European People's Party
Official colors
  Blue
  Red
Federal Assembly
29 / 300
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Slovak People's Party (Slovak: Slovenská ľudová strana, abbreviated SĽS, often shortened to ľudáci) is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Czechoslovakia. The SĽS operates only in Slovak Federal Republic, while its larger sister party, the Czechoslovak People's Party (ČSL), operates in the Czech Federal Republic.

At the federal level, the CSU forms a common 'ČSL/SĽS' faction in the Federal Assembly with the ČSL, which is frequently referred to as the People's Coalition (Czech: lidovci koalice, Slovak: ľudáci koalície). Until the 2013 election, the SĽS governed at the federal level along with the ČSL in a coalition government led by the Republican Party (RS).

Relationship with the ČSL

The SĽS is the sister party of the Czechoslovak People's Party (ČSL). Together, they are called the People's Coalition (Czech: lidovci koalice, Slovak: ľudáci koalície). The SĽS operates only within the Slovak Federal Republic, and the ČSL operates in the Czech Federal Republic. While virtually independent, at the federal level, the parties form a common ČSL/SĽS faction. Below the federal level, the parties are entirely independent. Since its formation, the SĽS has been more conservative than the ČSL. It is also regarded as a right-populistic party.

History

The Slovak People's Party arose at a time when Slovakia was still part of Austria-Hungary and fought for democratic freedoms, Slovak national rights and against liberalism. It was formed on 29 July 1913 in Žilina as a splinter party from the Slovak National Party, due to disagreements over the Slovak National Party's strong Czecho-Slovak orientation. The Party's chairman was Andrej Hlinka, other leaders were Ferdiš Juriga and František Skyčák.

During World War I, the SĽS (just like the SNS) stopped being politically active in order to prevent any possible pretext for accusations of activities against the Austrian-Hungarian state. In 1918, Hlinka and Juriga solidly supported idea of common Czechoslovak state and signed Martin Declaration which refused jurisdiction of the Hungarian government over Slovakia. The party participated in the creation of the (2nd) Slovak National Council that existed from October 1918 to January 1919. Its leaders helped to consolidate a situation in Czechoslovakia in the first weeks of her existence. After the establishment of Czechoslovakia, the Slovak People's Party renewed its activities on December 19, 1918 in Žilina. On 17 October 1925 it was renamed the Hlinka Slovak People's Party (HSLS). Almost for the whole inter-war period, the HSLS was the most popular party in Slovakia. Until 1938, the HSLS acted as a standard part of democratic political spectrum. The party operated mostly in opposition but not as a destructive power and preserved loyalty to Czechoslovakia. All of its programs had religious, national, social and constitutional character. Ideology of HSLS was based on papal encyclicals Rerum novarum and Quadragesimo anno and was oriented mostly on Catholic electorate. HSLS refused political and economic liberalism but also class-struggle theory popular among socialists and communists who were (together with liberal atheists) considered to be main enemies. Constitutional part of its program was derived from the Pittsburg Agreement which promised an autonomous status of Slovakia within Czechoslovakia. HSLS opposed Prague centralism and ethnic Czechoslovakism (i. e. not considering Slovaks a separate ethnicity from the Czechs). In addition to its program, popularity of the party was supported by charismatic and temperament Hlinka's character.

In 1920, the party participated in the election together with the Czech People's Party under the name Czechoslovak People's Party. The party received 17.5% of the vote in Slovakia making it the 3rd largest party. As Hlinka put it when the Czechoslovak Social Democrats won the election: "I will work 24 hours a day until Slovakia turns from a red Slovakia into a white and Christian Slovakia ". Its main voters were Slovak farmers, mainly because the party criticized the Czechoslovak land reform of 1920–1929.

Since the county elections in 1923, the party became the biggest party in Slovakia, receiving 34.4% in the 1925. In 1923, the HSLS founded paramilitary organization Rodobrana to protect their meetings (similarly to other parties). Rodobrana was influenced and manipulated by Vojtech Tuka for his own anti-Czechoslovak intentions and later it was banned by Czechoslovak government. Rodobrana inspired by Italian fascism became a center of young dissatisfied radicals, the core of future fascist wing of HSLS. Leaders of HSLS tried to get Rodobrana under party control and succeeded when its activities were restored in 1926. Rodobrana raised several radicals like Alexander Mach or Ján Farkaš. On January 15, 1927, the HSLS became a member of the Czechoslovak government coalition thanks to Jozef Tiso who started negotiations during Hlinka's foreign travel, get his support and later strongly advocated this decision. The party held the Ministry of Health (Jozef Tiso) and Ministry of Unification of Laws and State Administration (Marek Gažík). After a controversial trial against the HSLS member Dr. Vojtech Tuka, who was accused of high treason, the HSLS left the government on October 8, 1929.

For the purpose of the general election of 1935 the HSLS joined with mainly the SNS, thus creating the "Autonomy Block", which ceased after the election. The Block received 30.12% in the 1935 general elections in the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia. Official ideology of Czechoslovakism, long term opposition, continuous attacks of government parties and ambiguous position of SNS in question of Slovak autonomy led in the HSLS to creation of myth about its exclusivity. The HSLS considered itself to be the only one political party which vigorously defended Slovak national interests. Inability to achieve autonomy decreased prestige of the moderate wing and strengthen radicals. After the death of the 74 years old Andrej Hlinka in August 1938, the presidium of the party decided that the chairman post will remain unoccupied. The party was led by vice-chairman Jozef Tiso until October 1938 when he became the new chairman. During Czechoslovak crisis between spring and fall of 1938, the HSLS remained on common Czechoslovak platform. The party officially supported both mobilizations and refused appeals of Sudeten German Party to radicalize its position.

Name changes

  • 1906–1925: Slovak People's Party (Slovenská ľudová strana, SĽS)
  • 1925–1945: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party (Hlinkova slovenská ľudová strana, HSĽS)
  • Since 1945: Slovak People's Party (Slovenská ľudová strana, SĽS)

Leadership

Chairmen of the SĽS

PeriodChairperson
1913–1938Andrej Hlinka (1864–1938)
1938–1963Jozef Tiso (1887–1963)
1963–1971Martin Kvetko (1912–1995)
1971–1985Michal Kováč (1930–)
1985–2003Vladimír Mečiar (1942–)
2003–2014Mikuláš Dzurinda (1955–)
2014–presentIveta Radičová (1956–)

Electoral results

Federal level

National Assembly (1920–1945)
Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1920 11.29% New
33 / 300
New Opposition 2nd In coalition with the Czechoslovak People's Party.
1925 6.88% New
23 / 300
New Government 8th In government from 1926 to 1929.
1929 5.8% −1.08
19 / 300
3 Opposition 7th
1935 6.86% −0.9
22 / 300
New Opposition 7th As part of the Autonomous Block.
Federal Assembly (since 1946)
Date Votes Seats Position Size Notes
 % ± # ±
1946 9.7% New
30 / 300
New Government 5th In Grand coalition.
1950
0 / 300
Government 4th
1954
0 / 300
Government 4th
1957
0 / 300
Opposition 4th
1961 10.21%
31 / 300
Government 4th
1964
0 / 300
Government 4th
1968
0 / 300
Government 4th
1969
0 / 300
Opposition 4th
1972
0 / 300
Opposition 4th
1976
0 / 300
Government 4th In opposition from 1977.
1979
0 / 300
Opposition 4th
1983
0 / 300
Government 4th
1987 8.43%
26 / 300
Government 4th
1991
0 / 300
Opposition 4th
1995
0 / 300
Opposition 4th
1997
0 / 300
Government 4th
2001
0 / 300
Government 4th
2003
0 / 300
Government 4th
2007
0 / 300
Government 4th
2010 10.88%
33 / 300
Government 4th
2013 9.56% −1.32
29 / 300
4 Opposition 4th

National level

Slovak National Assembly (since 1946)

Free Democrats - Liberal Party

Free Democrats - Liberal Party
Svobodní demokraté - Liberální strana
Chairperson Petr Fiala
Ideology Liberalism
Economic liberalism
Political position Right-wing
International affiliation Liberal International
European affiliation Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
European Parliament Group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Official colors
  Blue
Federal Assembly
0 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Free Democrats - Liberal Party (Czech: Svobodní demokraté - Liberální strana, SD-LS) is a liberal and somewhat populist political party in Czechoslovakia. The FDP is led by Christian Lindner and, until the 2013 federal election, served as the junior coalition partner to the Union (Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union) in the German federal government.

The party was founded in 1908 as the Czechoslovak Traders' Party, a laissez-faire liberal political party established to represent independent retailers and craftsmen. It ran on a right-wing platform, and co-operated with the Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants in Parliament. In the first Czechoslovak elections in 1920 the ČŽOS won six seats in the Chamber of Deputies and three in the Senate. The 1925 elections saw the party increase its parliamentary representation, winning 13 seats in the Chamber and six in the Senate. In the 1929 elections the ČŽOS was reduced to 12 seats in the Chamber, but retained its six Senate seats. The party was more successful in the 1935 elections, winning 17 seats in the Chamber and eight in the Senate.

The Free Democrats have served as the junior coalition partner in most right-wing governments, both under the Republican Party and the People's Party. However, when Václav Klaus became party leader in 1983, the party started a political and ideological journey which was described by observers as representing a turn towards right-wing populism. This new political course soon resulted in a strong surge in electoral support for the party, although it also led to some political isolation. Notably Klaus' hostile relationship with Vladimír Mečiar led to the collapse of Schwarzenberg's government in 1990. Under the leadership of Mirek Topolánek and Petr Fiala, the party has had mixed results.

Name changes

  • 1908–1959: Czechoslovak Traders' Party (Československá živnostensko-obchodnická strana středostavovská, ČŽOS)
  • Since 1959: Free Democrats - Liberal Party (Svobodní demokraté - Liberální strana, SD-LS)

Leadership

Party chairmen

PeriodChairperson
1908–1930Rudolf Mlčoch
1930–1937Josef Václav Najman
1983–2002Václav Klaus
2002–2014Mirek Topolánek
2014–presentPetr Fiala

Czechoslovak National Social Party

Czechoslovak National Social Party
Československá strana národně sociální
Chairperson Jiří Dienstbier, jr.
Founded 4 April 1897
Newspaper České slovo
Ideology Liberal nationalism
Social democracy
Progressivism
Czechoslovakism (historical)
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Socialist International,
Progressive Alliance
European affiliation Party of European Socialists
European Parliament Group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Official colors
  Red
  White
  Blue
Federal Assembly
83 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Komunistická strana Československa
Chairperson Vojtěch Filip
Founded 14–16 May 1921
Newspaper Rudé právo
Ideology Eurocommunism
Communism (historical)
Marxism–Leninism (historical)
Political position Left-wing
International affiliation International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
European affiliation Party of the European Left
European Parliament Group European United Left–Nordic Green Left
Official colors
  Red
Federal Assembly
0 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) is a political party in Czechoslovakia. It is a member party of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left bloc in the European Parliament.

National Democracy

National Democracy
Chairperson Miroslav Sládek
Preceded by National Democracy (1919–1934)
Newspaper National Democracy
Ideology National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Right-wing populism
Czechoslovak nationalism
Political position Right-wing to Far-right
Official colors
  Dark blue
Federal Assembly
0 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

National Democracy (Czech: Národní demokracie, short ND) is a national-conservative and eurosceptic political party in Czechoslovakia.

Sudeten German People's Party

Sudeten German People's Party
Sudetendeutsche Volkspartei
Sudetoněmecká strana lidová
Chairperson Bernd Posselt
Founded 8 May 1948
Ideology Regionalism
Autonomism
Christian democracy
Social democracy (minority)
Political position Centre-right
National affiliation Czechoslovak People's Party
International affiliation International Democrat Union
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament Group European People's Party
Official colors
  Black
  Red
Federal Assembly
0 / 300
Czech Assembly
0 / 150
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

The Sudeten German People's Party (German: Sudetendeutsche Volkspartei, SDVP; Czech: Sudetoněmecká strana lidová) is a regionalist ethnic catch-all political party in the Sudetenland. It was founded on 8 May 1948 as a merger of the German Christian Social People's Party (DCV), the Farmer's League (BdL) and the German Social Democratic Workers Party in the Czechoslovak Republic (DSAP). The SDVP, a mainly Christian-democratic but nevertheless quite diverse outfit, aims to represent Czechoslovakia's German-speaking population in the Sudetenland, and to include conservatives, liberals and social democrats. The party gives special attention also to the interests of farmers, which make up a good deal of its electorate.

Leadership

Party chairmen

PeriodChairperson
1948–1966Erwin Zajiček
1966–1974Hans Schütz
1974–1983Franz Neubauer
1983–2002Johann Böhm
2002–2008Franz Pany
2008–present Bernd Posselt

Party of the Hungarian Community

Party of the Hungarian Community
Magyar Közösség Pártja
Strana maďarskej komunity
Ideology Hungarian minority interests
Regionalism
Autonomism
Christian democracy
Political position Centre-right
Official colors
  Red
  White
  Green
Federal Assembly
0 / 300
Slovak Assembly
0 / 150
European Parliament
0 / 96

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