Philippe I of France (1836 - 1890) (born Philippe Joseph Napoleon Charles Bonaparte), commonly referred to as Philippe I Bonaparte, was the fourth Emperor of France, reigning from the death of his uncle Louis I until his own death in 1890. Philippe reigned over a period of unprecedented might for France - his reign saw the exceleration of the Industrial Revolution that had begun under his predecessors, the amassment of wealth of the burgeoning Imperial middle class, peace in the various provinces, expansion of French influence and territory overseas, and an absense of armed conflict either on the exoimperial European continent and in many places around the world. His reign is often referred to as "the Golden Age of France" or the "Philippean Age."
Despite the might of France, especially in the 1870's, Philippe's reign was marked by bickering at the political level between himself and descendants of his disposed uncle, Napoleon II, as well as disputes over the legitimacy of his heir, Louis II, who was born to Philippe when he was only sixteen years old. The end of his reign also saw vast worker strikes, a bloody purge in southern Russia referred to as "Death Week," and near-war with the United States over the sale of arms to Alaska. Philippe suddenly of pneumonia in 1890 at the age of only 54.