Peter Buell Porter (August 14, 1777 - March 20, 1844) was the 6th President of the United States. He was also the first president who has not served as a vice president. During his presidency, he continued on with Clay's removal of all Native Americans east of the Mississippi River, but continued with Clay's policy of keeping the Five Civilized Tribes, which began to anger the state governments of Georgia, North and South Carolina, and Mississippi. Porter also improved the infrastructure, economy, and military of the United States under the Porter Plan, which was the plan developed by Porter to help accomplish the stated goals. He also signed the Treaty of Philadelphia, which established an alliance between the United States and French Empire.