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Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, was a country in western South America.
In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa. Ten years later, the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of its South American colonies.
Peru's movement toward independence was launched by an uprising of Spanish-American landowners and their forces, led by Antonio José de Sucre and supported by José de San Martín of Argentina and Simón Bolívar of Venezuela in 1822.
Sucre proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on July 28, 1828, after the victory in the Battle of Ayacucho, the last combat with the Spanish royalists.
The First Peruvian Republic
During the early years of the Republic, after the Sucre's government (1828 - 1838), endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.
Between the 1850s and 1870s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla through increased state revenues from guano exports. Castilla led to country to the Second Latin American War from the Argentine side. The conflict lasted until 1864, with a Peruvian victory and the annexation of Colombian and Brazilian territory.
After the war, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The Castilla's government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Castilla suddenly dies in 1867 and was succeeded by Juan Antonio Pezet.
The Second Peruvian Republic
In 1888, Nicolás de Piérola overthrow to the president Mariano Ignacio Prado, and rules Peru until 1900, when was forced to resign. Andrés Avelino Cáceres win the elections in 1901, and becomes the president.
During the government of Augusto Leguía, (elect in 1909), Peru enter in the Second Global War in 1911, from the side of the United Coalition, with your historic allies, Argentina and Venezuela against the Brazilian Empire. However, unlike 50 years before in the GWI, the result of the conflict was different. By 1914, the Peruvian troops were drastically defeated and the new government of Guillermo Billinghurst had to face a social-economic crisis as consequence of the war. Finally, with the enter to the war of Chile invading the southern territories and bombarding the capital, Lima, the Peruvian government was forced to accept the peace.
After the defeat, Peru had to yield a important lots of territory to Colombia and Brazil, but also to pay indemnifications of war, which led to the national economy to collapse in 1819. Billinghurst's successor was overthrown by military coup. However, soon a faction of the Peruvian army didn't agree with new leadership. With the support of some of the political parties, this faction organize another coup, but this movement at the end only unleashed a long civil war that lasted until 1927. This year a new government emerge to rebuilding the country, but four years after occurs the New York - Paris Stock Market Crash, which effects leading to a new abrupt fall in the economy and a new coup in 1933.
Third Peruvian Republic: National Socialism
The new government, installed in Peru a pro-National Socialist government, which soon made a alliance with the others NS-nations in South America: Argentina, Venezuela and Bolivia. Repression against the opposition was brutal in the mid-1930s.
In 1940, the Third Global War begun, dividing the continent between the Brazil's allied and the National Socialist nations, including Peru. The Peruvian forces invade the south of Colombia and the Brazilian Amazonas, meanwhile in the border with Chile, establish a defensive line along with Bolivian troops.
After almost six years of war, Peru finally result defeated and occupied by Brazilian, Colombian and Chilean forces. The victorious powers in South America deciding to join the country with Bolivia for establish so a puppet-state: Peru-Bolivian Confederation.
Main Article Peru-Bolivian Confederation
During the Tri-Powers Conflict period, which begun with the end of Third Global War in 1946, the new state remains under the sphere of influence of the Brazilian Empire. However, with the collapse of Brazil in 1979, and the begin of the Dual Powers Conflict, a coup took place in the confederation, and the new government decides to join to the Juneau Pact, under the leadership of the United States of America.