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Peru (Republic of Peru) is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Aristocratic Republic (1899 - 1919)
In this period, which initiates in 1899 with the government of Nicolás de Pierola, Peru was governed by the Civil Party.
During the second government of Jose Pardo, develops the First World War, that means for Peru an important economic growth due to the increase of the exports.
Augusto Leguía's Government (1919 - 1930)
In 1919, Pardo was overthrown by Augusto Leguía, who assumed the presidency of Peru. During the first years of his government, the Peruvian economy continued its development until about 1925, when it began to decline, leading it in the emergence of various social movements.
In 1928, the failure of arbitration to resolve the dispute over the territory of Tacna, led to Leguia government to declare war on Chile. For more than three years, the country was mobilized seeking to recover the lost territories in the War of the Pacific, however, Peru was again at the end up.
Crisis and Civil War (1930 - 1937)
With the defeat in the War of Tacna, the country fell into a period of crisis, aggravated by the Great Depression of 1929. Peace with Chile was signed by a civilian-military junta formed in 1930 to replace President Leguia, killed during an uprising during the war. With important part of the industry destroyed, protests erupted throughout Peru, which led the government to commit brutal repression. After a call for elections, took a civilian government in 1934. However, the difficult situation was exploited by Colombia and Ecuador to achieve resolution of their territorial disputes. This potential threat of another war, led the Peruvian government to yield to the claims of their neighbors, signing treaties in 1934 and 1935. However, this provoked strong opposition from various domestic sectors, including the armed forces. In late 1936, an insurrection in Piura unleashed a civil war in Peru. The conflict lasted until 1937, when the revolutionary forces entered Lima, installing a pro-fascist government at the head of General Luis Sánchez Cerro.
Revolutionary Union Government (1937 - 1948)
The outbreak of Second World War, allowed to Peru out of the economic crisis in 1943. After the victory of the Axis, many called for recovering the territories ceded to Chile, Ecuador and Colombia requesting the support of Germany. However, the severe aftermath of conflicts in the 30s, prevented the government initiate combat operations. In 1948, the UR fascist government was overthrown by US-sponsored coup that installed a pro-American regime in Peru. Was one of several in the region
Dictatorial and Democratic governments
With the military coup on October 29, Gen. Manuel A. Odría became in the new President of Peru. Odría's presidency was known as the Ochenio. He came down hard on APRA and UR, momentarily pleasing the oligarchy, and all others pro-american on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his régime.
It was feared that his dictatorship would run indefinitely, so it came as a surprise when Odría allowed new elections. During this time, Fernando Belaúnde Terry started his political career, and led the slate submitted by the National Front of Democratic Youth. After the National Election Board refused to accept his candidacy, he led a massive protest, and the striking image of Belaúnde walking with the flag was featured by newsmagazine Caretas the following day, in an article entitled "Así Nacen Los Lideres" ("Thus Are Leaders Born"). Belaúnde's 1956 candidacy was ultimately unsuccessful, as the dictatorship-favored right-wing candidacy of Manuel Prado Ugarteche took first place. During the 50’s and 60’s, there were several violent fascist groups that caused great terror in the population.
Belaúnde ran for president once again in the National Elections of 1962, this time with his own party, Acción Popular (Popular Action). The results were very tight; he ended in second place, following Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (APRA), by less than 14,000 votes. Since none of the candidates managed to get the Constitutionally-established minimum of one third of the vote required to win outright, selection of the President should have fallen to Congress; the long-held antagonistic relationship between the military and APRA prompted Haya de la Torre to make a deal with former dictator Odría, who had come in third, which resulted in a coalition government.
The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most recent period of military rule (1968–1982) began when General Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew the President Haya de la Torre of the American Revolutionary Popular Alliance (APRA). The coup was supported by US with the objective to prevent the arrival of a new pro-german government, because in 1968 elections, appears the fascist candidature of the military Ricardo Perez Godoy, which gain many popularity.
As part of what has been called the "first phase" of the military government's nationalist program, Velasco undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the fish meal industry, some petroleum companies, and several banks and mining firms. General Francisco Morales Bermúdez replaced Velasco in 1975, citing Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health. Morales Bermúdez moved the revolution into a more conservative "second phase," tempering the radical measures of the first phase and beginning the task of restoring the country's economy.
This dictatorship lasted until 1982 when the Chilean government pressure forced them to call elections. The new short transitional government held new elections in 1983, which were won by Fernando Belaúnde of the Popular Action Party (AP), by a comfortable but narrow five percent margin.
Democratic restoration and elections
Since the fall of fascism, Peru has experienced a slow process to get rid of everything connected with this ideology. However, in those years, began to emerge with force another trend: the nationalist indigenous movement. At first, violent, eventually changed its attitude and joined the democratic system.
In 2009, Ollanta Humala, a nationalist leader, was elected President of Peru.
Government & Politics
Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and can only seek re-election after standing down for at least one full term. The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers. There is a unicameral Congress with 120 members elected for a five-year term
Peru is divided into 23 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and a council, which serves for a four-year term. These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. The province of Lima is administered by a city council.
- Lima (Lima)
Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions. During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative. Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.
eruvian literature has its roots in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. In the early 20th century, the Indigenismo movement produced such writers as Ciro Alegría, José María Arguedas, and César Vallejo. During the second half of the century, Peruvian literature became more widely known because of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.
Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish and African roots. In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely from region to region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments. Spanish conquest brought the introduction of new instruments such as the guitar and the harp, as well as the development of crossbred instruments like the charango. African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument. Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, danza de tijeras, huayno and diablada.