Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia and most of Peru were parts of the Inca Empire - the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825.
Meanwhile, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite hesitated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.the independence of Peru was declared in 1821, athough full emancipation only would be achieved in 1824.
In the 1830's, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz, president of Bolivia at the time, got involved in internal Peruvian political problems and succeeded in unifying Peru and Bolivia into a confederation, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, in 1836.
The Peru-Bolivian Confederation is a developing country, with a High Human Development Index score and the second largest economy of South America.The population of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, estimated at 30 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Aymara and Quechua languages are also common and all three, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The large number of different cultures within the Peru-Bolivian Confederation has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.