Perú was the second of the four viceroyalies that Spain had created in the New World.

Established in 1542 to govern the Spanish possessions in South America, in 1717 the northern provinces were separated to create the Viceroyalty of New Granada, and the Southeastern territories were separated in 1776 to create the viceroyalty of Rio de La Plata

The Viceroyalty lasted until 1927, with the abolition of the Spanish monarchy and the new republic claimed Peru as integral territory. In 1932, the Federation of Peru was established, and joined the Spanish Commonwealth in 1954, with the restoration of the Spanish Monarchy.

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