Persian Civil War
Date January 1978 - October 1980
Location Persia
Result Loyalist victory
Maintaining of the status quo
Execution of Rebel Faction leadership
Khosrau XIII remains on the throne
Zoroastrianism remains Persia's state religion
Loyalist Faction
Persian state The Fires of God Persian flag
Imperial Persian Army
Immortal Guard
Persian police
Loyalist supporters

Supported by
Zoroastrian League The Fires of God Flag of the Zoroastrian League

Rebel Faction
Revolutionary Council
Islamic Republican Army
Communist Party of Persia

Supported by
Russian Empire
Saudi Caliphate
Emirate of Ethiopia
Sultanate of the Congo

Commanders and leaders
Shahanshah Khosrau XIII
Crown Prince Bahram
Prime Minister Shapur Karen
Guard Commander Reza Pahlavi
Field Commander Peroz Mihran
Field Commander Kavadh Esfahan †
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini †
Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti †
Imperial Persian Army: 200,000
Immortal Guard: 10,000
NATO forces: 10,000
Zoroastrian League forces: 30,000
Islamic Republican Army: 21,284
Communist Party of Persia: 6,782
Russian Empire: 500
Saudi Caliphate: 4,000
Emirate of Ethiopia: 3,750
Sultanate of the Congo: 1,000
Casualties and losses
Imperial Persian Army: 5,609 killed, wounded or missing in action
Immortal Guard: 2,311 killed, wounded or missing in action
NATO: 4,185 killed, wounded or missing in action
Zoroastrian League: 9,728 killed, wounded or missing in action
Islamic Republican Army: 17,982 killed, wounded or missing in action
Communist Party of Persia: 3,966 killed, wounded or missing in action
Russian Empire: 232 killed, wounded or missing in action
Saudi Caliphate: 1,972 killed, wounded or missing in action
Emirate of Ethiopia: 533
Sultanate of the Congo: 799 killed, wounded or missing in action
8,621 civilians killed, wounded or missing

The Persian Civil War was an armed conflict that began in January 1978 when Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, an outspoken opponent of the Sassanid regime and proponent of Islamism, declared war against the state of Persia and against the House of Sassan itself. With the support of the Islamic Republican Army and the Communist Party of Persia, Khomeini declared himself the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Persia. The Imperial Persian Army, under the command of Shahanshah Khosrau XIII, immediately set about suppressing the uprising. The war escalated when NATO declared its support for the Sassanid regime, which caused the Russian Empire to declare its support for the Rebel Faction, shortly followed by the Muslim nations of the Saudi Caliphate, the Emirate of Ethiopia and the Sultanate of the Congo. As a result, the Zoroastrian League, an alliance of fifteen nations (sixteen including Persia itself), declared its support for Persia. As a consequence of the wide breadth of nations involved, the Persian Civil War has been called "World War Two-and-a-Half" by some media since the war ended.