Persia, (Persian: ایران), sometimes known as Iran, officially the Pahlavi Dynasty is a country in the Near East. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Russia, with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Khiva; to the east by Afghanistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey, Kurdistan and Iraq.
Persia is an economically successful country, mainly because of its location slightly between two politically-successful continents, India and Europe. Also, many of the international trade corridors connecting Europe with India travel through Persia. Persia is a member of the Indo-European Cooperation League, OIC, OPEC, and is a founding member of the UN. Persia's main exports are rugs, nuclear weapons, and artifacts and Persia is one of the world's largest possessors of nuclear weapons.
Persia's history dates back to ancient times when founded by Cyrus the Great in circa. 550 BC. Modern Persia was established in 1918 with the Pahlavi Dynasty.
Persia founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC as the Achaemenid Empire (First Persian Empire),making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great. The area eventually regained influence under the Parthian Empire and rose to prominence once more after the establishment of the Sasanian dynasty (Neo-Persian empire) in 224 AD, under which Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world along with the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire for the next four centuries.
Muslim conquest and later dynasties
Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism were largely replaced after Rashidun Muslims invaded Persia in 633 AD, and conquered it by 651 AD. Iran thereafter played a vital role in the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, producing numerous influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. The emergence in 1501 of the Safavid dynasty, which promoted the Twelver school of thought as the official religion, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history. It also culminated into tensions, which in 1514 led to the Battle of Chaldiran. Starting in 1736 under Nader Shah, Iran would once again reach high prominence, reaching its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, and briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world.
The Russian Empire gave up invading Central Asia in the 1870s and Persia (Qajar Dynasty became influencial in not only the Near East, but also in Central Asia.
After World War I, in 1918, the Qajar Dynasty resigned and the Pahlavi Dynasty took its place due to reasonable advantages. During the Pahlavi Dynasty, Persia exprienced massive economic growth and the revival of Persian culture. By the end of thee 20th century, after seeing the developments of countries in India and Europe, Persia fell in the center and was able to successfully interact with the world via trade corriders.