Charles (c. 688 - October 732) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who served as de facto ruler of Francia, while Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, from 718 to his death during the Battle of Tours. Born as the illegitimate son of the Frankish statesman Pepin of Heristal to a noblewoman named Alpaida, Charles became the successor to his father, strengthening his empire through restored centralization and various military campaigns. Charles is most famous for leading the defense at the Battle of Tours, in which he was killed while combatting Abd Ar-Rahman Al Ghafiqi of the Umayyad Caliphate.
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الغافقي), also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame, and Abd el-Rahman, is a famous Arab general who rose to prominence following his crushing victory over Charles and the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732. Al Ghafiqi relocated to Maghreb from Arabia, where he became acquaintances with Musa Ibn Nusair and his son Abdul Aziz, the governors of Al-Andalus. In 730 the Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik appointed Abdul Rahman as wali (governor/commander) of Al Andalus, where he served as commander during the Islamic Invasion of Gaul. His full name was Abu Said Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Bishr ibn Al Sarem Al 'Aki Al Ghafiqi.
Carolman (between 706 and 716 – 17 August 754) was the eldest son of Charles I, who ruled as Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, alongside Pepin, who became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Carloman would later be pressured into entering a monastery, leaving Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum.
Maurontus was the Duke or Patrician of Provence in the early eighth century). Surrendered the cities of Avignon, Arles, and Marseille without a fight to Abd al-Rahman following the Battle of Tours.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك) was the tenth Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father. Hisham would be caliph during the victory at the Battle of Tours.