People's Republic of Manchuria (满洲人民共和国) is a socialist state established in Manchuria and part of eastern Inner Mongolia in 1944
During the Second Sino-Japanese and Great Pacific Wars a National Committee for the Liberation of Manchuria was formed, with the help of the Red Army and the Mongolian People's Army. Most of its membership came from the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), called in this case Manchurian Workers' and Peasants' Party (MWPP). It started a guerrilla warfare against the Japanese Army and Manchukuo armed forces. Formally the Manchurian Revolutionary Army (MRA) was an independent from the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China, it was no mystery to many that the cadres, personal and weapons usually rotated between the MRA and PLA.
At the end of the conflict it proclaimed the liberation of Manchuria from Japan, abolished Manchukuo and assumed full control of Manchuria. The first measures where a land reform and nationalization of industries. The Manchurian Government on its first communique established that proclamation of the new state was a provisional measure until the complete unification of China.
The new government, along the allies was instrumental in establishing the War Crimes Tribunal for Manchuria.
The Constitution approved in 1944 by the People's Convention, establishes a socialist state in which all political, economical and social power belongs to an alliance of urban workers, peasants and intelligentsia. In its preamble it is stated that unification of China is a People's and State goal, once achieved the PR of Manchurian will be dissolved.
- the supreme organ of power is the People's Political Assembly. It is composed of directly elected deputies by the people, renewed every 4 years. It elects every 4 years the People's Political Committee and State Council, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate.
- The executive power resides in the People's Political Committee (PPC), that is the collective head of state. It is integrated by a President and three vice presidents and 3 other members. The State Council carries out all the executive and administrative functions. The PPC and the State Council are responsible before the People's Political Assembly.
- the judicial power resides in the Supreme People's Court (SPC). The judges of the SPC and lower courts are elected or appointed by people's congresses at the corresponding levels to serve a maximum of two five-year term. The SPC is the court of last resort for the whole Manchuria. The SPC supervises the administration of justice by all subordinate local people's courts and "special" people's courts. Local people's courts are organized in intermediate, and municipal districts people's courts. The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest agency at the national level responsible for both prosecution and investigation. The Procurator-General is elected by the PPC, local people's procuratorates at different levels, military procuratorates and other special people's procuratorates are elected by or appointed by people's congresses at the corresponding levels. All procurators serve a maximum of two five-year term.
The right to vote in elections and national referenda is extended to those who are above the age of eighteen. During elections and referenda, a citizen can vote or not vote without any consequences from the government.
Sub-national government is composed of people's congresses and people's committees of various levels (village, city, district, county, province and special administrative territory).
The Manchurian Workers' and Peasants' Party (MWPP), along minor parties in the United People's Democratic Front, has the monopoly of power.
The main agricultural production are crops of kaoliang, corn, maize, wheat, sorghum, and soybean. From kaoliang and corn liquors were made, including vodka, sake, beer, soy juices and vinegar. Soybean is Manchukuo's principal crop. Land was collectivized in the early years of the People's Republic. Opium production is prohibited and all crops have being destroyed,
The industrial infrastructure built under the Japanese occupation established a solid based for the development of Manchuria. This tied to the abundance of iron and coal has made this region one of the most industrialized and urbanized of China.
The Manchurian Revolutionary Army (MRA) is in charge of the national defense. It is organized in the following services:
- MRA Ground Force
- MRA Naval Force
- MRA Air Force
At all levels of the MRA a political commissar is the supervisory political officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization, and committed to the civilian control of the military.
The People's Police of Manchuria (PPM) is in charge of public order.