The People's Front of the Liberation of East Africa (PFLEA) was an alliance of resistance groups and local militia within Italian East Africa from 1959 until 1965. It waged a guerrilla war against the Italian Social Republic during the Italian Colonial War with the primary goal of driving out the Italians and establish various independent states. Since its inception, the PFLEA was a predominantly communist organization, with its most prominent members including its leader: Mengistu Haile Mariam, being vocal Marxist-Leninists.

The organization's death knell came with the assassination of Mengistu Mariam by Italian commandos on August 4, 1965. The infighting and bloody power struggle within the alliance tore it apart and it was officially dissolved on August 22, 1965. The lack of coordination between the various resistance fighters and the lack of a capable leader made the remaining militia units easy prey for the Italian forces. All major areas of Italian East Africa were retaken from the rebels, the armed insurrection was declared defeated by Italo Balbo on September 17, 1965.

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