The People's Federal Republic of Mexico (Spanish: República Federal de los Pueblos de México), commonly known as Mexico (pronounced i/ˈmɛksɨkoʊ/; Spanish: México, IPA: [ˈmexiko]), is a federal constitutionally socialist state in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million sq km (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the thirteenth largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 113 million, it is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country. Mexico is a socialist federation comprising thirty-five subnational states and a Central District, the capital city.
In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico as the colony's independence was recognized in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, the Mexican-American War and territorial cession to the United States, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated in the large consecutive social turmoils and famines in the wake of the Diabetic Plague. The following years lead to much political unrest, with many leaders being subject to random assassinations and coups. With the support of many socialist figures and a steady growing party, the country transitioned into a socialist state with the victory of the Mexican Communist Party in the 1961 parliamentary elections of 1961, and lead to the emergence of the country's current political system.
Mexico, despite lacking most of the free market, has one of the world's largest economies, and is considered both a regional power and middle power on the political world stage. In addition, Mexico has been the first Latin American country to be admitted in the E10 convention, and is a firmly established upper-middle income country. Mexico is considered a newly industrialized country and an emerging power, with tourism becoming available in 1994. It has the eighth largest nominal GDP and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity. In 1997, the embargo against Mexico, set in place in 1967 by the United States, was lifted amidst support from the United League of Nations. Still an unwanted oppenent of the United States in the Silent War, borders are highly maintained and regulated closely by security.
Formation and Development of Communist Mexico
Upon an obvious electoral fraud, Porfirio Díaz faced rebellion in his sixth presidential term which came in the form of the 1910 Mexican Revolution, led by Francisco I. Madero. Díaz was removed from his office in 1911, and Madero was soon elected president. However, the emerging "Diabetic Plague" put strain on the country's underprivileged healthcare system, and soon lead to the economy being regulated. In 1912, 300,000 mexican people suffered inadequate medication and died, with more than 500,000 disabled. Madero resigned the following year in 1913 amid strong public opposition for his failure to prevent such casualties in the epidemic. Venustiano Carranza replaced his revolutionary associate, yet was overthrown and murdered in a coup d'état three years later, directed by conservative general Victoriano Huerta, before being able to institute governmental coverage for Mexican peasants. That event ignited the civil war, involving figures such as Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata, who formed their own forces.
The civil war proved unsuccessful, following the untimely death of Villa by Huerta's forces and the capture and execution of Zapata. In the ensusing years, thousands continued to perish due to Huerta's unconformity and apathy, leading major political dissidents in support of the Mexican Communist Party, upon hearing of the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Álvaro Obregón sought the appeal of the party, and proceeded to overthrow Huerta in 1921. However, Obregón afterwards pledged loyalty to Laborist Party, and his policies lead to more social despondence.
In 1928, Plutarco Elías Calles succeeded Obregón after being assassinated by a disgrunted doctor. Calles decidively planed to assist the public by constructing a health care system similar to that of Carranza's initial plan. However, it became an eventual failure, as many people throughout the Great Depression continued to lack proper medical support. In 1938, upon the then-controversial visitation of Soviet Ambassador Leon Trotsky, the MCP had found little enforcement of their ambitions, considering the heavy comments and severe criticism they had received from the ruling party. During his stay, Trotsky organized a public protest against the current government and sponsored any public interest in Leninism, and the teachings of Karl Marx, in front of Catedral Metropolitana on the afternoon of July 6. The protest stirred action from the government in the form of armed guards and police riot squad, which then took to breaking up the mass demonstration in what become known as the Weeping Saints Massacre, as it was described later by a major newsletter publication, leaving over 150 dead and hundreds wounded. Trotsky was subsequently arrested by the police force and held in federal prison for a period of two years, before the Soviet Union struck a deal for his release by the exoneration of influential mexican prisoner within the country. Trotsky later became Premier, and continued to support the emergence of an integrated communist government within Mexico.
The aging Calles came down hard on the struggling party, to the extent of where most members would only meet in secret locations in cities across the land. After taking to a bout of pneumonia, Calles died in his governmental palace on October 14, 1948, with his successor being the strong anti-communist, former general Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco. Carrasco's reign of power proved draconian in it's methods, where suspects of political dissidence would be publicly executed on a weekly basis out in the Capitol Square. With Carrasco's harsh rule, many workers took to the streets in many bloody protests against his tenure in office. On August 14, 1951, Carrasco was assassinated by his personal plumber, arising from an argument over the quality of his work on the bathroom sink. The Mexican Communist Party slowly gathering public interest, and contested against the National Revolutionary Party in elections frequently until 1954, when the party reached majority in a landslide election. In 1961, party leader Ramón Verdugo established a provisional government after the National Revolutionary Party was outlawed. Reformations to the political system continued into the following decade until a singular communist political entity emerged as the sole director in the governmental landscape.
In modern times, the culture of Mexico revolves centric to the nationalistic ideals of the socialist government. While public speech by non-party members is not considered an opposition to the government, direct criticism is a punishable offense.
In 1981, Premier Santiana Verdugo introduced an economic plan that would involve the invigoration of the automotive industry, to offer better transportation means for the citizens of Mexico. His plan involved innovative and radically different car designs, with cheaper petroleum servicing.
Prior to this event, many foreign political commentators thought very little of the cars that Mexico produced, and would later term this political move as being nothing short of a farce on the part of Premier Verdugo. The most notable vehicle, and still popular in use, was based largely on designs set from Western Germany. The '81 Fuerte Tortuga rolled off assembly lines, numbering 250,000 by the end of the year, employing over 25,000 workers through the process. Whereas the program was cancelled in 1987, the Tortuga remained numerous and durable, finding it's trademark appeal within the Mexican culture.
Though ultimately owned by the state, Mexican companies were collectively managed by the employees themselves, much like the anarchist industrial cooperatives of Spanish Catalonia, and the Eastern Orthodox monks of the microstate Mount Athos. Varying in locale, from rural areas to metropolitan communities, industrial manufacturing is critically essentially to the workforce and to the general economic standard, considering that only three neighboring countries provide imports.