|Portrait of Pedro II|
|Reign||18 November 1865 - 5 December 1907|
|Coronation||18 November 1865|
| Afonso I of Brazil
|Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga|
|House||House of Braganza|
|Father||Pedro I of Brazil|
|Mother||Maria Leopoldina of Austria|
|Born|| 2 December 1825|
Paco de Sao Cristovao, Rio de Janeiro
|Died|| 5 December 1907|
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Pedro II (2 December 1825 - 5 December 1907) nicknamed "the Magnanimous" was the second ruler of the Empire of Brazil, ruling from 1865 until his death in 1891. He focused on education, culture and science, and attempted to keep the peace in his country. While strengthening relations with Chile, he worsened relations with Argentina, which would result in the Atacama War a decade after his death and the South American War, two decades after his death.
With the death of his beloved father in November of 1865, Pedro II, Prince Imperial, was next in line for the throne. He was coronated on November 18, 1865, in front of a crowd of thousands in Rio de Janeiro. He coronation was in the newly constructed Grande Palacio Imperial, in English the Grand Imperial Palace. The economy at the time was booming, and the new emperor went on a tour of the country. Hundreds gathered to see him come by. The new emperor was extremely popular.
Once he returned home, the emperor set to work on the economy. The harbors and docks of port cities were to be improved or replaced, to allow ships to come and dock easier. The first railroad in Brazil was completed in 1868, linking the capital, Rio de Janeiro, with the booming city of Sao Paulo. The two port cities, which were separated by 230 miles of land, grew on each other as products from one could reach the other.