Europe post copenhagen

Europe after the implementation of the peace agreements.

The Peace of Copenhagen was a set of treaties agreed and signed at the Copenhagen Conference of 1816, ending the Polish Revolutionary Wars. Its objective was to provide for a long-term peace in Europe by settling several critical issues relating to the wars and to restore the balance of power in the region.

Ambassadors, envoys and heads of state from just about every country in Europe were present in Copenhagen for the conference. The final peace settlement however was negotiated by the six most powerful belligerents - Great Britain, France, Prussia, Austria, Poland and Russia.

Treaty of the Polish Settlement

Poland, Austria, Prussia and Russia agreed to restore the boundaries of the Polish Republic to those of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth prior to the Partition of 1772, with several exceptions:

  • The city of Riga and its environs were granted to Poland, in return for which Russia was given the Bracław Voivodeship.
  • Silesia was returned to Austrian sovereignty, except for the regions around the towns of Milicz and Siewirz which were given to Poland.
  • That part of Royal Prussia lying east of the Vistula was granted to Prussia. In return, Poland was given Ducal Prussia north of the Niemen, including the city of Memel.
  • Russia agreed to compensate Poland for its interference in domestic affairs during the period from 1715 to 1793.

Treaty of Malmö

  • Sweden reaffirmed the cession of Finland to Russia which had previously been agreed to by the 1804 Treaty of Viborg.
  • The Grand Duchy of Finland was made an autonomous part of the Russian Empire, guaranteed by a written constitution and the right to choose its own representatives to St Petersburg.
  • The islands of Åland were however returned to Sweden.

Treaty of Consolidation and Mediatisation

  • Augsburg, Passau, Eichstätt, Ansbach, Bayreuth, Nuremberg, Bamberg, Würzburg, the Rhine-Palatinate and many smaller territories in the region were incorporated into Bavaria.
  • Bremen, Oldenburg, Osnabrück, Münster north of the Ems, Brunswick, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Minden, Paderborn and Hildesheim were incorporated into the Kingdom of Hanover.
  • Swedish Pomerania, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Magdeburg, the Anhalts and Halle were incorporated into Prussia.
  • Hesse-Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Nassau, Fulda, Isenburg, Mainz and Eichsfeld were incorporated into Hesse-Kassel.
  • Münster south of the Ems, Paderborn, Westphalia, Berg and Mark were incorporated into the Kingdom of Westphalia.
  • Hohenzollern, Fürstenberg, Breisgau, Baden, Ulm and Biberach were incorporated into Württemberg.
  • Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Gotha, Erfurt, Menningen, Coburg, Reuss, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Thuringia.
  • Salzburg and Partenkirchen were incorporated into Austria.
  • Lübeck and Lauenberg were incorporated into Holstein.

Treaty concerning the completion and consolidation of the organization of the German Confederation

  • Austria, Prussia, Hanover, Bavaria, Saxony, Württemberg, Baden and Hesse-Kassel, being the secular Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire at the time of its dissolution, confirmed the fact of its dissolution and the independence of all its states which had previously possessed imperial immediacy. This did not include the hundreds of small states which, according to the terms of the Treaty of Consolidation and Mediatisation, had been absorbed into larger neighbours.
  • To replace it, the German Confederation was proclaimed, to consist of all those states except those which in the intervening years had been incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire's neighbours. The single largest territory in this category was the Austrian Netherlands.
  • The Confederation was initially to be under the presidency of the Emperor of Austria.
  • The Confederation was to eventually include a customs union and a monetary union, the details of which were to be negotiated at a later date.
  • Free trade was guaranteed along the Rhine, Elbe, Danube, Weser and Oder rivers and their tributaries.

Treaty of Rosenborg

Great Britain, France and Austria agreed to the following:

  • Willem van Oranje-Nassau, formerly Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, was proclaimed King of the Netherlands.
  • Austria agreed to cede its territories in the Southern Netherlands to the Kingdom.
  • The former territories of the Prince-Bishopric of Liege and East Friesland were also to be incorporated into the Kingdom.
  • The lands lying mainly within the triangle bounded by the Rhine, the Moselle and the eastern border of the Austrian Netherlands, including Jülich, Cleves, Cologne and Trier, were to be organized into the Province of the Rhine, under the supervision of the Kingdom of the Netherlands but not part of it.
  • Free trade was guaranteed along the Rhine, Meuse and Moselle rivers, and their tributaries.

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