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Patriarch of Rome (Fidem Pacis)

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The post of Patriarch or Bishop of Rome is a prominent position within both the Christian and Islamic Churches, which trace its origins back to the 1st century mission established in Rome by Simon Peter, a disciple of Jesus. From roughly the 2nd century onwards successive Bishops of Rome claimed moral and spiritual authority over the entire Christian world; a claim disputed by other schools of thought, particularly in the east. After the 4th century Christianisation of the Roman Empire, the bishop in his persona as Pope and Supreme Pontiff became a figure of immense influence, and during the early Middle Ages acquired temporal power over parts of Italy as well.

The Popes were early opponents of the Islamic Reformation in the eastern Church, and successfully maneuvered for centuries to keep it from spreading into western Europe. However, in the early 11th century their interference with the Great Crusade provoked Emperor Alexios Komnenos into invading Italy and subjecting it once more to direct imperial rule. Alexios appointed a new bishop who was aligned with the state Islamic Church, but this did not stop members of the College of Cardinal from electing Benedict X as a rival claimant, based in Mainz.

Since then there have been two rival Bishops of Rome, one Christian and one Muslim. The Christian bishops maintained the title of Pope until the 1962 Council of Bergen, when they renounced it in return for being allowed to return to Rome de facto as well as de jure. Relations between the two since then have been tense at times, but in recent years they have begun working together and striving for unity.

List of Bishops of Rome

Prior to the Edict of Milan

Name Pontificate
Petrus 33 - 67
Linus 67 - 79
Anacletus 79 - 92
Clemens I 92 - 99
Evaristus 99 - 107
Alexander I 107 - 116
Sixtus I 116 - 125
Telesphorus 125 - 138
Hyginus 138 - 142
Pius I 142 - 155
Anicetus 155 - 166
Soterius 166 - 175
Eleutherius 175 - 189
Victor I 189 - 199
Zephyrinus 199 - 217
Callistus I 217 - 223
Urbanus I 223 - 230
Pontianus 230 - 235
Anterus 235 - 236
Fabianus 236 - 250
Cornelius 251 - 253
Lucius 253 - 254
Stephanus 254 - 257
Sixtus II 257 - 258
Dionysius 259 - 268
Felix I 269 - 274
Eutychianus 275 - 283
Gaius 283 - 296
Marcellinus 296 - 304
Marcellus I 308 - 309
Eusebius 309
Miltiades 311 - 314

In 313 the Edict of Milan was issued by emperors Constantine and Licinius, legalizing Christianity. Within a few decades it had become the state religion of the Roman Empire.

Prior to the Exile of Mainz

Name

Pontificate
Silvester I 314 - 335
Marcus 336
Iulius I 337 - 352
Liberius 352 - 366
Damasus I 366 - 384
Siricius 384 - 399
Anastasius I 399 - 401
Innocentius I 401 - 417
Zosimus 417 - 418
Bonifatius I 418 - 422
Coelestinus 422 - 432
Sixtus III 432 - 440
Leo I 440 - 461
Hilarius 461 - 488
Simplicius 468 - 483
Felix III 483 - 492
Gelasius 492 - 496
Anastasius II 496 - 498
Symmachus 498 - 514
Hormisdas 514 - 523
Ioannes I 523 - 526
Felix IV 526 - 530
Bonifatius II 530 - 532
Ioannes II 533 - 535
Agapitus 535 - 536
Silverius 536 - 537
Vigilius 537 - 555
Pelagius I 556 - 561
Ioannes III 561 - 574
Benedictus I 575 - 579
Pelagius II 579 - 590
Gregorius Magnus 590 - 604
Sabinianus 604 - 606
Bonifatius III 607
Bonifatius IV 608 - 615
Adeodatus 615 - 618
Bonifatius V 619 - 625
Honorius I 625 - 638
Sophronius 638
Severinus 638 - 640
Theodorus I 640 - 649
Martinus I 649 - 662
Adeodatus II 662 - 676
Constantinus I 676 - 678
Agathius 678 - 681
Benedictus II 681 - 685
Sergius I 685
Paschalis I 685 - 699
Ioannes IV 699 - 707
Gregorius II 707 - 731
Gregorius III 731 - 733
Stephanus II 733 - 758
Paulus I 758 - 767
Stephanus III 767 - 772
Iacobus 772 - 795
Leo III 795 - 816
Ioannes V 816 - 820
Benedictus III 820 - 843
Benedictus IV 843 - 844
Sergius II 844 - 847
Ioannes VI 847 - 855
Benedictus IV 855 - 858
Hadrianus I 858 - 872
Ioannes VII 872 - 882
Marinus 882 - 884
Benedictus V 884 - 900
Leo IV 900 - 903
Sergius III 903 - 911
Ioannes VIII 911 - 928
Ioannes IX 928 - 931
Ioannes X 931 - 935
Stephanus IV 935 - 942
Bonifatius VI 942 - 955
Benedictus VI 955 - 979
Ioannes XI 979 - 986
Gregorius IV 986 - 999
Silvester II 999 - 1003
Sergius IV 1003 - 1012
Benedictus VII 1012 - 1024
Hadrianus II 1024 - 1028
Clemens II 1028 - 1038
Gregorius V 1038 - 1045
Damasus II 1045 - 1054
Ioannes XII 1054
Benedictus VIII 1054 - 1055
Stephanus IX 1055 - 1058
Alexander II 1058 - 1073
Urbanus II 1073 - 1075
Ioannes XIII 1075 - 1086
Benedictus IX 1086 - 1094
Urbanus III 1094 - 1099
Stephanus X 1099 - 1101
Paschalis II 1101 - 1104

In 1082 Pope Paschal II was arrested by the Roman authorities and replaced by Constantine II. This marks the beginning of the separation between western and eastern lineages.

Islamic Patriarchs to Present

Name

Pontificate
Constantinus II 1104 - 1123
Stephanus XI 1123 - 1128
Alexander III 1128 - 1135
Stephanus XII 1135 - 1136
Heraclius I 1136 - 1149
Ioannes XIV 1149 - 1157
Gregorius VI 1157 - 1166
Constantinus III 1166 - 1181
Ioannes XV 1181 - 1191
Cyrus I 1191 - 1195
Heraclius II 1195 - 1228
Urbanus IV 1228 - 1230
Urbanus V 1230 - 1237
Stephanus XIII 1237 - 1241
Alexander IV 1241 - 1249
Benedictus X 1249
Mechometus I 1249 - 1262
Ioannes XVI 1262 - 1273
Malchus I 1273 - 1276
Heraclius II 1276 - 1280
Heraclius III 1280 - 1282
Ioannes XVII 1282 - 1289
Hadrianus III 1289 - 1291
Stephanus XIV 1291 - 1305
Mechometus II 1305 - 1307
Philippus I 1307 - 1325
Gregorius VII 1325 - 1336
Cyrus II 1336 - 1341
Cyrus III 1341 - 1360
Achametus 1360 - 1368
Cassianus I 1368 - 1377
Malchus II 1377 - 1392
Constantinus IV 1392 - 1400
Ioannes XVIII 1400 - 1413
Ioannes XIX 1413 - 1421
Arius 1421 - 1426
Ioannes XX 1426 - 1430
Leo V 1430 - 1448
Philippus II 1448
Stephanus XV 1448 - 1453
Gregorius VIII 1453 - 1461
Ioannes XXI 1461 - 1470
Heraclius IV 1470 - 1486
Gregorius IX 1486 - 1494
Cyrus IV 1494 - 1527
Coutsaraticus 1527 - 1533
Clemens III 1533 - 1538
Clemens IV 1538 - 1541
Gregorius X 1541 - 1547
Cyrus V 1547 - 1559
Stephanus XVI 1559 - 1570
Cyrus VI 1570 - 1582
Clemens V 1582 - 1588
Gregorius XI 1588 - 1603
Mechometus III 1603 - 1610
Mechometus IV 1610 - 1617
Sergius V 1617 - 1625
Gregorius XII 1625 - 1635
Heraclius IV 1635 - 1637
Ioannes XXII 1637 - 1658
Ioannes XXIII 1658 - 1671
Gregorius XIII 1671 - 1680
Malchus III 1680 - 1683
Cassianus II 1683 - 1689
Ioannes XXIV 1689 - 1702
Cassianus III 1702 - 1711
Mechometus V 1711 - 1717
Ioannes XXV 1717 - 1726
Ioannes XXVI 1726 - 1732
Alexander V 1732 - 1738
Cyrus VII 1738 - 1745
Cyrus VIII 1745 - 1746
Clemens VI 1746 - 1760
Alexander VI 1760 - 1799
Stephanus XVII 1799 - 1824
Gregorius XIV 1824 - 1828
Ioannes XXVII 1828 - 1834
Ioannes XXVIII 1834 - 1849
Ioannes XXIX 1849 - 1855
Alexander VII 1855 - 1861
Heraclius V 1861 - 1877
Cassianus IV 1877 - 1892
Ioannes XXX 1892 - 1904
Mechometus 1904 - 1911
Alexander VII 1911 - 1914
Cyrus IX 1914 - 1922
Gregorius XV 1922 - 1936
Ioannes XXXI 1936 - 1941
Cyrus X 1941 - 1950
Alexander VIII 1950 - 1973
Heraclius VI 1973 - 1984
Ioannes XXXII 1984
Ioannes XXXIII 1984 - 1997
Gregorius XVI 1997 - 2008
Cyrus XI 2008 - present

Titular Christian Popes from the Exile of Mainz to Present

Name

Pontificate
Benedictus X 1105 - 1111

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