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The Parliament of the Republic of England is a unicameral legislative body comprised of legislators known as Members-of-Parliament (MP's) elected democratically by their constituents. The Parliament was formed as a 601 member chamber as per the 1957 Constitution of England, which provided a provisional government, and the first-ever general election in 1960.
The head of the Parliament is the Prime Minister, who is empowered by the constitution as the chief executive of the state and is the head of the government. The Parliament also includes two Speakers, who serve as the chief legislators, and two Deputy Prime Ministers as well as a Cabinet. All of these positions are comprised of MPs.
Typically, the Prime Minister is chosen by the majority party, of which he almost always is a member and the party leader. The Constitution up until 1977 allowed for any member of Parliament to become Prime Minister, until an amendment stated that the Prime Minister must be the party leader of the majority party, and if a new party leader is elected while the previous leader is the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister must resign after the ensuing general election in favor of the new party leader (especially in situations in which the new leader is victorious). This has never come into effect, as both resignations of incumbent Prime Ministers have occurred during the middle of Parliamentary terms and they were both immediately succeeded (neither of their successors, incidentally, won the next general election).
The Speakers are typically from the different majority parties - one is a Conservative and one is Labour. The Deputy Prime Ministers almost always are from the majority party, except for one case in which Michael Stevens served as Deputy PM from 1993-1996 despite being Labour (the Tories held a majority from 1990-1999).
The current Parliament is comprised as such:
- Majority Party: Labour Party (304 seats)
- Minority Party: Whig Party (297 seats)
- Prime Minister of England: Jack Davenport, MP (L)
- Speakers of Parliament: John Simmonds, MP (C); Patrick O'Brian, MP (L)
- Deputy Prime Ministers: Nick McDonald (L), James Francis Cain (L)
- Minority Leader (alternately titled as Leader of the Opposition): Hugh Grant, (C)
The current Cabinet is comprised as such, discluding the PM and deputies:
- Chancellor of the Exchequer: Roman Dansley, (L)
- Minister of Defence: Brian Tyler (L)
- Minister of Education: Joshua Limpett, (L)
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Adrian Donaldsen (L)
- Minister of the Treasury: Jessica French (L)
- Minister of Infrastructure: Monica Tippett, (L)
- Minister of Communications: Rowan Atkinson, (C)
- Minister of Commerce and Trade: John Janney, (L)
- Minister of Agriculture: Roger Perry, (L)
- Minister of Industry: Greg Howe, (L)
- Minister of Health: Stuart Ragland, (L)