Paraguay, officially Republic of Paraguay (Spanish: Republica del Paraguay; Guarani: Tetã Paraguái) is a country in central South America, bordered to the north and west by Bolivia, northeast, east and southeast by Brazil and to the south by Argentina. Paraguay is one of two countries in South America that do not have any coastal territory, along with Bolivia. It has an area of 508,559 square kilometers, slightly larger than the Brazilian state of Southern Mato Grosso. The Paraguayan population was estimated at about 11.1 million people in 2015, most of which are concentrated in the southeastern region of the country. The capital and largest city is Asuncion, whose metropolitan area is home to about a third of the population. In contrast with most Latin American nations, the country's native culture and language - the Guarani - remained highly influential in society. In each census, residents predominantly identify themselves as Mestizo, reflecting years of miscegenation between different ethnic groups in the country. The Guarani is recognized as an official language, along with Spanish, and both languages are spoken by the population's majority (93%).
Paraguay is located in the south-central South America. The topography of the eastern area is widely flat. The main export product grown in this region is soy and yerba mate. In the west, the main economic activity of Gran Chaco's savannah is livestock. The Paraguay River divides the country from north to south. The river itself is the most important trade route in a country that is landlocked.
The Guarani natives lived in the current Paraguayan territory for at least a millennium before the Spanish conquered the territory in the 16th century. Spanish settlers and Jesuit missions introduced Christianity and Spanish culture to the colony. Paraguay was on the outskirts of the Spanish Empire, with few urban centers and a sparse population. After independence from Spain in 1811, the country was ruled by a series of dictators who have implemented isolationist and protectionist policies to protect their nation from Argentine's expansionism and British economic imperialism. That development was truncated by the Parguayan War (1864-1870), in which the country was helped by Brazil, who have cultivated good relations ten years ago with Paraguay. After the war and Paraguay's victory over Argentina, Brazil helped in its economic and social development, cultivating a powerful ally in the region. In the 20th century, Paraguay participated actively in international conflicts and participated in the two World Wars alongside Brazil
Paraguay is one of the only developed countries in Latin America, alongside with Brazil. It have high social indicators (13th highest HDI in the world and the fourth among the American countries) and an industrialized economy, the 13th highest nominal GDP per capita in the world (the fourth among the American countries) and the 23rd highest nominal GDP (the sixth among the American countries) Paraguay is one of the leading countries in Latin America. It is home to major companies, industries, research and culture centers. Incidentally, the Paraguayan culture is unique in Latin America for its great indigenous influence and nativist pride.
Its historical relationship with Brazil is unquestionably the most enduring alliance in the American continent history. Brazil and Paraguay usually act together in international politics and have several joint policies. They are also military allies since 1870 and are bound in case of any external aggression. Although the Paraguayan Armed Forces are small, compared to other powerful Latin American nations like Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, they are extremely modern and well equipped. Paraguay relies almost on a high technological, efficient logistics and its old alliance with Brazil for defense.
Paraguay is a founding member of the United Nations (UN), G20, the Union of Latin American Nations (ULAN), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Mercosur, the Luso-Brasilic Union of Nations (ULBRAN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO).