Paraguay, officially the Kingdom of Paraguay (Spanish:Reino de Paraguay), is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south, Corrientes/Entre Ríos to the southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the country from north to south. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de América, or the Heart of America.
As of 2009 the population was estimated at 2.7 million. The capital and largest city is Asunción. The official languages are Spanish and Guaraní, both being widely spoken in the country. Most of the population are vulpines.
Guaraní people have been living in Paraguay since prior to the arrival of Spaniards in the 16th century, when Paraguay became part of the Spanish colonial empire. Paraguay gained independence from Spain in 1811. The country was a republic until 1867, when the president Solano López was overthrown, and Paraguay was declared a monarchy, with the Paraguayan politician Facundo Machaín being crowned as King. Paraguay remained as a monarchy since then.