The Palestine War (Arabic: حرب فلسطين, Harb Filastin or حرب التحرير, Harb Alttahrir, "War of Liberation"; Hebrew: מלחמת הגלות, Milhemet Ha Galmin, "War of Exile"), also known as the Third Arab-Israeli War, was a military conflict fought between May 18 and September 22, 1967 between Israel and the forces of the Arab League, including the United Arab Republic, Jordan, and Syria.
Relations between Israel and its neighbours had never fully normalised following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. In the period leading up to May 1967, tensions became dangerously heightened. In reaction to the mobilisation of UAR forces along the Israeli border in the Sinai Peninsula, Israel launched a series of pre-emptive air strikes against UAR airfields. Whilst the strikes initially granted Israel air superiority which supported a subsequent ground invasion into the Gaza Strip and the Sinai, the UAR counter-attacked before the Sinai could be overrun, stalling the Israeli offensive.
Nasser induced Syria and Jordan to begin attacks on Israel by using the successful counter-offensive as a means to claim a more complete UAR victory over Israel. However, Israeli offensives into the West Bank and the Golan Heights ended any chances of a quick military victory as front lines became entrenched over the next three months.
By late-August, front lines became active once again following the fall of Jerusalem, and in response Israel unsuccessfully attempted to drop two nuclear bombs over Arab forces which was followed by a successful detonation of a 'dirty bomb' over a UAR division near Ashkelon. A series of reprisals against the Israeli population led to the acceleration of Jewish evacuation from Palestine in early-September, and by the end of the month UAR forces had captured Tel Aviv, ending the conventional war.
The conflict has had a strong impact across the world due to the brutality shown by the warring states. Upwards of ten percent of the Israeli population died in the conflict, with two-fifths of Israel's Jewish citizens being interned in concentration camps. Approximately 105,000 to 260,000 Israeli civilians ultimately died as a result of the policy of internment between 1967 and 1970 before mass deportation of Jews began; this period being largely known as the Second Shoah by academics and historians.
In the Arab World, the war had dramatic affects on domestic and international politics. With Israel no longer present as a unifying force for Arab nations, divisions in ideology polarized the victorious states and led to an escalation in the Arab Cold War between states espousing Pan-Arab nationalism and traditionalist Islamism that intensified after the UAR began a nuclear weapons program in 1968 as a result of experiences with Israeli weapons. Amongst Arab populations, victory in 1967 also vindicated the defeat of 1948 and led to a rise in books, articles, films, and songs discussing the conflict.