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The Padri War (also called the Minangkabau War) was fought from 1803 until 1837 in West Sumatra between the so-called Padris, Muslim clerics from Sumatra who, inspired by Wahabism and after returning from Hajj, wanted to impose sharia in Minangkabau country in West Sumatra,Indonesia , and the Minangkabau nobility and traditional chiefs. The latter asked for the help of the Dutch, who intervened from 1821 and helped the nobility defeat the Padri faction.
It can be considered that the Padri War actually began in 1803, prior to Dutch intervention, and was a conflict that had broken out in Minangkabau country when the Padris started to suppress what they saw as unislamic customs, i.e. the adat. But after occupation of the Pagaruyung Kingdom by Tuanku Pasaman, one of Padri leaders in 1815, on February 21, 1821, the Minangkabau nobility made a deal with Dutch in Padang to help them to fight the Padris.
Adat, as customary law is called in Indonesia, includes indigenous, pre-Islamic religious practices and social traditions in local custom. The Padris, like contemporaneous jihadists in the Sokoto Caliphate of West Africa, were Islamist reformers who had made the Hajj to Mecca and returned. inspired to bring the Qur'an and shariah to a position of greater influence in Sumatra. The Padri movement had formed during the early 19th century and sought to purify the culture of traditions and beliefs its partisans viewed as un-Islamic, including syncretic folk beliefs, cockfighting and Minangkabau matrilineal traditions.
In the 1820s, the Dutch had yet to consolidate their possessions in some parts of the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia) after re-acquiring it from the British. This was especially true on the island of Sumatra, where some areas would not come under Dutch rule until the 20th century.
Skirmishes and the Masang Treaty
Dutch involvement in the war came about because it was "invited" by the Adat faction, and on April 1821, Dutch troops attacked Simawang and Sulit Air under captains Goffinet and Dienema on the orders of James du Puy, the Dutch Resident in Padang. Between 1821–1824, skirmishes broke out throughout the region, ended only by the Masang Treaty. The war cooled down during the next six years, as the Dutch faced larger-scale uprisings in Java.
Later Almost a year Bonjol besieged, on December 3, 1836, Dutch troops returned to a massive attack against Fort Bonjol, as a last attempt to conquest Bonjol. This powerful attack is able to break down most of the Fort Bonjol, so it can enter the Dutch troops invaded and killed several family Tuanku Imam Bonjol. But with persistence and high morale Tribe Padri back successfully devastated the enemy so that the Dutch were expelled and forced back out of the castle by leaving a lot of casualties in each party.
Attack the bumpy and a barrage of bullets and artillery rain armed with big guns, for about 6 months, as well as infantry and cavalry continued to arrive. On August 3, 1837, led by Lieutenant Colonel Michiels as a field commander began gradually master the situation, and finally on the date of August 15, 1837, Hill Tajadi fall, and on August 16, 1837 The Netherland Surrender to Padri.
After the victory in the War fort Bonjol, Padri Tribe began to Extend its remit to cover the whole of Sumatra on 16 April 1840. In this Time the Padri Leader announced the kingdom of Sumatera as Freedom Nation.