Ever since the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Empire was the most powerful nation in the Balkans and North Africa. The predominantly Muslim empire flourished over the decades until its fall from grace after its failed invasion of the Austrian Empire in 1529. The Ottomans eventually expanded into North Africa and the Arabian peninsula, eventually invading Egypt in the late 1700s and was converted into a viceroyalty that was more-or-less independent, except for the fact that they had to swear fealty to the Caliph.
Since the 18th century, the Empire was on the road to economic and social collapse, famously being labelled: 'The Sick Man of Europe'. Having fully integrated Egypt into its realm and dealing with the rather rocky cultural and religious tensions that erupted from it, the Ottomans were seemingly hit with a killing blow after Greece, one of its most heavily populated regions, declared independence in the 1830s. The Austrian, British and French armies marched across their borders, aiding the Greek people to independence, not before seizing Constantinople and forcing the now-weakened Ottomans to give up their historic capital and move their capital city to Ankara.
The Empire eventually sunk into a massive economic depression that it would not recover from for at least another 25 years. The Ottomans eventually stabilized in the 1860s as the Suez Canal was constructed, bringing employment to citizens in Egypt and the surrounding imperial provinces. With the discovery of oil in the 1880's, the Ottomans became one of the first nations to use oil as a major source of power.
The citizens Ottoman Empire, despite having discovered the lucrative resources that were locked away beneath their nation's soil and having successfully recovered from their economic slump, were begging for blood after various diplomatic incidents between Greek and Turkish forces. Ethnic tensions between the Kurda, Iraqi's and Syrians weren't helping the civil unrest that was caused by the loss of their former Capital and almost half of Anatolia.
The start of the 1920s led to a new sense of hope for the far-right parties in the Empire, with the abolition of leftist parties (under the supposed pretense of being pro-Communalist), the Young Turks Party staged a coup and Ankara, successfully overthrowing the western friendly government and establishing a fully Turkish government (ethnically speaking). The newly Ultranationalist government began to deport any non-Turkish citizens to concentration camps and declared war on Greece, staging a surprise attack on border defenses at the start of the war in 1919.
The Austro-Hungarians, British, Italians and French came to the defence of Greece and met the Turks at the gates of Constantinople in mid-1923, a stalemate eventually erupted until the Allied naval blockade forced the Ottomans to surrender in 1924, the surrender outlined the independence of Egypt from the Ottoman Empire and the issuing of the Balfour Declaration, which outlined the creation of a Jewish state within 30 years.