The Sublime Ottoman State (Ottoman Turkish, Persian: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Yüce Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) was an empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
Defeat: The Treaty Lucerne
In World War I, the Ottoman Empire was allied with the German Empire and Serbia. As a defeated party signed it the Treaty of Lucerne (1920) which partitioned the territories of the Balkans and Anatolia between France, UK, Italy and Greece. The new territories in Anatolia were the following:
- International Straits Zone
- Ionia, backed by Greece
- Lycia, backed by Italy
- Cilicia, backed by France
- Also, an autonomous province of Kurdistan was to implemented.(see Kurdish Commission)
The rest of the territories that declared themselves independent during the Arab Rebellion united to form the Confederation of Arab States, and the French Mandate of Levant and British Mandate of Palestine.
The Civil War (1920-1922) and Republic
The Civil War (1920-1922) started on a rebellion of the Army and reformist and republican political groups that demanded the nullification of the Treaty and re-establishment of united Turkish state in Anatolia. It ended with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, a new peace treaty with UK, France and Greece and abolition of the Caliphate.