Ottoman-Mesopotamian War
Ottoman-Mamluk War





Eastern and Central Anatolia,
Northern Mesopotamia


Ottoman-Georgian Victory,
Treaty of Adana

Major battles:

Battle of Tabriz, Battle of Erzurum, Siege of Mosul


Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453) Ottoman Empire
Flag of Georgia Kingdom of Georgia
700px-Bagratuni flag svg Kingdom of Armenia

Supported by:
Golden Horde flag 1339 Golden Horde

Mamluk Flag Mamluk Sultanate


Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453) Mehmed I Skull and crossbones
Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453) Murad II
Flag of Georgia Giorgi VII
700px-Bagratuni flag svg Smbat IV

Mamluk Flag al-Mansur Mostafa Hazem




Casualties and Losses



The Ottoman-Mesopotamian War, variously also refered to as the Ottoman Invasion of Mesopotamia or the War for the Black Sheep Turkomen, was a lagre war, based in the Middle East, that took place during the 1420s. The war, which lasted 7 years, cost and estimated 25,000 military casualties, as well as a huge amount of damage to eastern Anatolian states.


With the balance of power upset in the Middle East by both Timur's conquests and the following period of Mamluk expansion, the Ottomans desired to catch up and secure their own expansion in the Middle East prior to outside intervention, notably an invasion from Europe.

Timur's Conquest

Timur united the lands now considered to be Timurid, and then expanded further into Syria, Georgia and eastern Anatolia from 1400 to 1406. These events drastically turned the balance of power in the favor of the Timurids.

Yet as the ruler grew old, his empire began to dissent. From 1408-1411, a series of revolts, commonly called the Timurid Civil War broke apart much of the upstart empire, leaving a lack of a strong power in eastern Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus.

Expansion into the Power Void

With a lack of real power in the area, three main nations began to take an interest to the "power void" located between the Mamluks, Ottomans, and Timurids.

The first were the Georgians. Through a series of intricate relations with Armenia, the two nations ended up in a Personal Union. The Georgians, being a predominantly Christian nation, took especial interest in the treatment of Christians in the Middle East.

The second were the Ottomans. The Ottomans attempted to fill the void by taking a series of vassals, notably Erzincan, and then (disputedly) Dulkadir and the Black Sheep Turkomen.

Finally were the Mamluks, who entered into a Personal Union with the Mesopotamian Sultanate of the Jalayirids. Both nations were relatively expansionistic into the formerly Timurid lands. Mosul, Cicilia, and (disputedly) Dulkadir and the Black Sheep Turkomen were all claimed by the rulers of the Mamluk Sultanate.

Initial Fighting

Georgia Enters

PM3 - Treaty of Adana Final

Treaty of Adana

See main article: Treaty of Adana

The Treaty of Adana, largely drafted by Mamluk Vizier Hatim Ruh Zuman and Georgian King Giorgi VII, was the treaty that ended the war was considered to be extremely fair to all parties, including the Mamluks. The leniency was probably because of the potential of the Timurid entrance into the war.

In it, the Ottoman-Mesopotamian War came to a halt, and the warring nations agree to a period of peace. Other provisions of the peace include the guarante of control over eastern Anatolia for the Ottomans, the division and joint occupation of Chaldea between the Georgians and Mesopotamians, and reparations paid by the Mamluks.

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