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With the balance of power upset in the Middle East by both Timur's conquests and the following period of Mamluk expansion, the Ottomans desired to catch up and secure their own expansion in the Middle East prior to outside intervention, notably an invasion from Europe.
Timur united the lands now considered to be Timurid, and then expanded further into Syria, Georgia and eastern Anatolia from 1400 to 1406. These events drastically turned the balance of power in the favor of the Timurids.
Yet as the ruler grew old, his empire began to dissent. From 1408-1411, a series of revolts, commonly called the Timurid Civil War broke apart much of the upstart empire, leaving a lack of a strong power in eastern Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus.
Expansion into the Power Void
With a lack of real power in the area, three main nations began to take an interest to the "power void" located between the Mamluks, Ottomans, and Timurids.
The first were the Georgians. Through a series of intricate relations with Armenia, the two nations ended up in a Personal Union. The Georgians, being a predominantly Christian nation, took especial interest in the treatment of Christians in the Middle East.
The second were the Ottomans. The Ottomans attempted to fill the void by taking a series of vassals, notably Erzincan, and then (disputedly) Dulkadir and the Black Sheep Turkomen.
Finally were the Mamluks, who entered into a Personal Union with the Mesopotamian Sultanate of the Jalayirids. Both nations were relatively expansionistic into the formerly Timurid lands. Mosul, Cicilia, and (disputedly) Dulkadir and the Black Sheep Turkomen were all claimed by the rulers of the Mamluk Sultanate.
Treaty of Adana
- See main article: Treaty of Adana
The Treaty of Adana, largely drafted by Mamluk Vizier Hatim Ruh Zuman and Georgian King Giorgi VII, was the treaty that ended the war was considered to be extremely fair to all parties, including the Mamluks. The leniency was probably because of the potential of the Timurid entrance into the war.
In it, the Ottoman-Mesopotamian War came to a halt, and the warring nations agree to a period of peace. Other provisions of the peace include the guarante of control over eastern Anatolia for the Ottomans, the division and joint occupation of Chaldea between the Georgians and Mesopotamians, and reparations paid by the Mamluks.