Osman V (October 1, 1921 - November 10, 2002) was the Sultan of the Turkish Empire from 1983 until his death in 2002, succeeding his father's 60-year reign. Osman V was a modernizer, much like his father, and did little to change the Cold War status quo friendship with the United States, but made the final and decisive decision to not engage in direct war with Persia during the Persian Gulf War out of fear of nuclear retaliation and American pressure to not become overtly involved, although guns and food crossed the frontier with Arabia and Syria daily to support the Arab Coalition. Osman V was wounded in a 1997 assassination attempt by Greek nationalists and withdrew from public life from then on, debating abdication. He died suddenly on November 10, 2002, some suspect due to his wounds, having reigned for nineteen and a half years. He was succeeded by his son, Abdulmecid III.