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António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, Order of Christ, Order of Aviz, Order of St. James of the Sword, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona,; Lisbon, 24 November 1869-Lisbon, 18 April 1951) was the eleventh President of Portugal (1926-1951), having been Minister of War in 1923 and then General Dictator (officially Prime Minister]]) of Portugal.
In January 1914 he married Maria do Carmo Ferreira da Silva (Chaves, 28 September 1878 - 13 March 1956), daughter of Germano da Silva and wife Engrácia de Jesus. With this marriage he legitimized their three children.
Carmona saw his chance of rising in power after the 28th May revolution of 1926. A series of temporary rulers were elected by the military, with the first, José Mendes Cabeçadas being succeeded by Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa, and then Carmona, who had been the Minister for Foreign Affairs between 3 June and 6 July of that year.
In 1927 Carmona appointed António de Oliveira Salazar as Minister of Finances. Impressed by Salazar's abilities, Carmona, who had been the 134th Prime Minister, made Salazar President of the Council in 1932. As a result of this Salazar was now superior to Carmona. In 1933, with a new constitution of the "Estado Novo" in force, Carmona was finally made President of Portugal.
Unlike his predecessor Gomes da Costa, Carmona had not fought in a battle as a military leader: when the Portuguese went to Flanders in World War I, Carmona gave orders to his men and stayed in his office. After 1933 he became a mere object used by Salazar in official parties and inaugurations. Carmona no longer had any power.
However, apart from his political subservience to Salazar, Carmona played an important role during the popular revolts of 1935-1936 against Salazar. Carmona calmed the revolt by making speeches mentioning peace and security. He followed the same approach in World War II, to encourage the entire country with his attractive speeches, nevertheless having tremendous fights with his superior, Salazar. Salazar was able to fire Craveiro Lopes, Carmona's successor, but felt unable to fire Carmona because of the latter's reputation.
Carmona's period of office as President ended with his death, in 1951. He is buried in the Jerónimos Monastery at Belém, near Lisbon.