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The Olympic Games are a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered to be the world's foremost sports competition and all 46 nations of the world participate. The Games are currently held biennially, with Summer and Winter Olympic Games alternating, meaning they each occur every four years. The ancient Olympic Games were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1886. The IOC has since become the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.
The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a physical disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has had to adapt to the varying economic, political, and technological realities of the 20th century. The growing importance of the mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialization of the Games. World Wars led to the cancellation of the 1908, 1912, 1936, 1940 Games. Large boycotts due to the Cold War led to limited participation in the 1980, and 1984 Games.
The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organizing committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Olympic Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter. The Olympic program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is also determined by the IOC. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympics in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.
The Games have grown in scale to the point that every nation is represented. Such growth has created numerous challenges, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and terrorism. Every two years, the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national, and in some cases, international fame. The Games also constitute a major opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world.
|1888||Summer||I||Athens, Greece||First modern Games|
|1900||Summer||IV||Berlin, Prussia||Turn of the Century Games|
|1904||Summer||V||Chicago, United States|
|1920||Winter||X||Innsbruck, Austria||First Winter Games|
|1928||Summer||XIII||Les Anges, Pacifica|
|1928||Winter||XIV||St. Moritz, Switzerland|
|1948||Summer||XXIII||Mexika City, Mexika|
|1948||Winter||XXIV||St. Moritz, Switzerland|
|1960||Winter||XXX||Georgygrad, United States|
|1984||Summer||XLI||Philadelphia, United States|
|1988||Summer||XLIII||Seoul, Korea||Centennial Olympics|
|1994||Winter||XLVII||Oslo, Sweden-Norway||two year system implemented|
|1996||Summer||XLVIII||Havana, United States|
|2000||Summer||L||Brasilia, Amazonia||Millenial games|
|2010||Winter||LV||Santiago, New Asturias|
|2016||Summer||LVIII||Taipei, South China|
|2020||Summer||LX||New Amsterdam, United States|