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Olympic Games (Imperial Machines)

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Olympics rings

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered to be the world's foremost sports competition with more than 150 nations participating today. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart.

Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. As a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialization of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games.

The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organizing committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, and organizes and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC also determines the Olympic program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.

The Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and a terrorist attack in 1972. Every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games also constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world.

Olympic Host Cities

City Country Continent Summer Winter Year Opening Ceremony Closing Ceremony
Sydney Flag of Australia Australia Oceania XXVII 2000 September 15 October 1
Melbourne
Uppsala
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Swedish MSE (IM) Sweden
Oceania
Europe
XVI 1956 November 22
June 10
December 8
June 17
Antwerp Flag of Belgium Belgium Europe VII 1920 April 20 September 12
Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil Brazil South America XXXI 2016 August 5 August 21
Montreal Flag of Canada Canada North America XXI 1976 July 17 August 1
Calgary Flag of Canada Canada North America XV 1988 February 13 February 28
Vancouver Flag of Canada Canada North America XXI 2010 February 12 February 28
Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China China Asia XXIX 2008 August 8 August 24
Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China China Asia XXIV 2022 February 4 February 20
Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980)Soviet Union Europe XXII 1980 July 19 August 3
St. Louis US flag 45 stars United States North America III 1904 July 1 November 23
Lake Placid US flag 48 stars United States North America III 1932 February 4 February 15
Lake Placid Flag of the United States United States North America XIII 1980 February 12 February 24
Los Angeles US flag 48 stars United States North America X 1932 July 30 August 14
Los Angeles Flag of the United States United States North America XXIII 1984 July 28 August 12
Squaw Valley Flag of the United States United States North America VIII 1960 February 18 February 28
Atlanta Flag of the United States United States North America XXVI 1996 July 19 August 4
Salt Lake City Flag of the United States United States North America XIX 2002 February 8 February 24
Pyeongchang Flag of South Korea Korea Asia XXIII 2018 February 9 February 25
Seoul Flag of South Korea Korea Asia XXIV 1988 September 17 October 2
Tokyo Flag of Japan Japan Asia XVIII 1964 October 10 October 24
Tokyo Flag of Japan Japan Asia XXXII 2020 July 24 August 9
Sapporo Flag of Japan Japan Asia XI 1972 February 3 February 13
Nagano Flag of Japan Japan Asia XVIII 1998 February 7 February 22
Mexico City Flag of Mexico Mexico North America XIX 1968 October 12 October 27
Athens Flag of Greece (1822-1978) Greece Europe I 1896 April 6 April 15
Athens Flag of Greece Greece Europe XXVIII 2004 August 13 August 29
Stockholm Flag of Sweden Sweden Europe V 1912 May 5 July 22
Gothenburg Flag of Swedish MSE (IM) Sweden Europe V 1948 k k
Östersund Flag of Swedish MSE (IM) Sweden Europe VI 1952 k k
Oslo Norway Europe XII 1976 k k
Lillehammer Flag of Swedish MSE (IM) Sweden Europe XVII 1994 February 12 February 27
Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italian MSE (IM) Italy Europe VII 1956 January 26 February 5
Rome Flag of Italian MSE (IM) Italy Europe XVII 1960 August 25 September 11
Turin Flag of Italy Italy Europe XX 2006 February 10 February 26
Albertville Flag of Italian MSE (IM) Italy Europe XVI 1992 February 8 February 23
Grenoble Flag of French MSE (IM) France Europe X 1968 February 6 February 18
Chamonix Flag of France France Europe I 1924 January 25 February 4
Paris Flag of France France Europe VIII 1924 May 4 July 27
Paris Flag of France France Europe II 1900 May 14 October 28
London Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Europe IV 1908 April 27 October 31
London Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Europe XIV 1948 July 29 August 14
London Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Europe XXX 2012 July 27 August 12
Sochi Flag of Russia Russia Europe XXII 2014 February 7 February 23
Garmisch-Partenkirchen Flag of German Reich (1935–1945) Germany Europe IV 1936 February 6 February 16
Berlin Flag of German Reich (1935–1945) Germany Europe XI 1936 August 1 August 16
Munich Flag of German MSE (IM) Germany Europe XX 1972 August 26 September 11
Innsbruck Flag of German MSE (IM) Germany Europe IX 1964 January 29 February 9
Zagreb Flag of Croatian MSK (IM) Croatia Europe XIV 1984 February 7 February 19
Barcelona Flag of Spain Spain Europe XXV 1992 July 25 August 9
Helsinki Flag of Finnish MSE (IM) Finland Europe XV 1952 July 19 August 3
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands Europe IX 1928 May 17 August 129
St. Moritz Flag of Switzerland Switzerland Europe II 1928 February 11 February 19

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