The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a physical disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has had to adapt to the varying economic, political, and technological realities of the 20th century. As a result, the Olympics shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allow participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of the mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialization of the Games. World Wars led to the cancellation of the 1908, 1912, 1940, and 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games and rebellions and protests led to even more limited participation in 1976 and 1988 Games.
The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organizing committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Olympic Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter. The Olympic program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is also determined by the IOC. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympics in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second and third place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.
The Games have grown in scale to the point that nearly every nation is represented. Such growth has created numerous challenges, including boycotts, doping, bribery of officials, and terrorism. Every two years, the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national, and in particular cases, international fame. The Games also constitute a major opportunity for the host city and country to showcase itself to the world.
The host city is the city that hosts all or most of the Olympic Events. The cities are chosen seven to nine years before the Games by the International Olympic Committee. Nations who wish to enter a city as a candidate must send in the applications one year in advance of the voting process via their NOC.
The first Host City was Athens, Greece.
Athens was chosen because Greece was the home of the Ancient Olympics. Although the original city was Olympia, Olympia was rendered unable and too small to host the Olympic Games.
Paris was chosen because it was the home city of the founder of modern Games, Pierre de Coubertin. Paris won an astoundingly sound victory over the other candidates: Athens and London.
New York was chosen due to the Union's growing strength and the popularity of New York in terms of sports: New York teams won many playoffs, like the World Series and Stanley Cup. New York defeated London and Petrograd in the final voting. The CSA boycotted these games simply because of the fact that the USA hosted the games. This problem repeated itself many times until the CSOC decided that the Confederacy would participate in US hosted games in 1912.
London finally triumphed after losing to Paris in 1900 and New York in 1904. London defeated Richmond and Madrid in the final voting. The IAG (Irish Athletes Group) initially intended to boycott the games because the Irish were going to participate under the banner of "Great Britain" which led to the IOC threatening to give Madrid host right until Irish and British athletes participated in the games under the banner of the "United Kingdom" to which the UK agreed.
Oslo was a surprising choice over the many applicant cities such as Berlin, Moscow, London, Los Angeles, Rome, Tokyo, and Richmond. The Scandinavian Union hosted one of the most successful Games of all time, despite the August Rebellion and the Helstein Writings, both of which denoted Scandinavian government. The Games barely escaped World War I, which started two weeks after the end of the Games.
The Berlin Games were cancelled due to World War I. This proved of shame, since the German Empire would cease to exist after World War I ended.
Madrid finally got the chance to host the games in 1920. The Games were an upbeat event considering that most of Europe was attempting to recover from World War I.
Russia won the chance to host the games after trying since the Second Olympiad. Russia was also the nation that proposed the Winter Games in 1922. The IOC agreed to "see what would happen" and also agreed to give Russia the honor of hosting the Games, whether it got the Summer Games or not.
Petrograd was decided to host the Games in 1922 when Russia first proposed the Winter Games. They were a huge success and the IOC decided to have Winter Games every four years then on.
Amsterdam won the Games over London and Paris, who had both hosted the Games before. This year it was decided that the winner of the Summer Games would not get the Winter Games unless voted so.
Zurich won the games due to its heavily snowy winter season which the IOC judged as best for the Winter Games. It won a heavy majority over Park City and Saporro.
The United States won the privilege to host the Games again after 1904. The US was the first nation to hold the Games twice. The games were marred however, by the Sequoyah Skirters raid, when the Sequoyah Skirters, a Sequoyan independence group, attacked one of the athlete residences outside Los Angeles. Thirteen athletes were taken hostage, however they were all freed and the Skirters were trialed and executed.
The US also won the bid for the Winter Games, defeating St. Moritz, Switzerland, and Helsinki, Russia. Security was heightened due to the events of the Summer Games that same year.
Both the Charleston and Berlin Games of 1936 were mere tools of the CSA and Germany to spread propaganda. Black athletes worldwide refused to attend due to the CSA racist laws. However, several athletes did attend to prove that "racism could not stop us" in the words of Jesse Owens.
The Long Jump Riot was a major event of the Games. Black athlete Jesse Owens clearly won the long jump, however supervising officials gave the gold medal to runner-up German Ludwig Hedstein. Observers and spectators began to riot and several officials were killed or injured in the riot. Owens received the gold medal after the Games ended, however he refused it.
The Games were used by the Confederacy to display the nation and its government as benevolent and peace-loving when they hosted, though they used the Games to display total white superiority.
A number of nations boycotted these games, being mostly African nation, Haiti, Jamaica, and Brazil.
The Berlin Games served nearly the same service as the Richmond Games. The Reich promoted pro-Nazi feeling and demonstrated Aryan superiority. Unlike in the Richmond Games, people would not protest the decisions. Several Jews did not attend, as did many non-German ethnicities, especially Slavs. The Ottoman Empire, Russia, Scandinavia, Japan, and Spain boycotted these games.
The small nation of Poland was given the honor of hosting the Games in its capital city. However, Poland never got to host those Games, as the year after the 1936 Games World War II started.
Japan finally won the Games, but lost them due to World War II. Japan would not host a Games again until 1988, and never again the Winter Games until the upcoming 2018 Games.