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The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a physical disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has had to adapt to the varying economic, political, and technological realities of the 20th century. The growing importance of the mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialization of the Games. World Wars led to the cancellation of the 1896, 1912, 1940, 1944, and 1948 Games. Large boycotts due to the Cold War led to limited participation in the 1968, 1970, 1972, 1980, and 1982 Games.
The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organizing committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Olympic Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter. The Olympic program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is also determined by the IOC. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympics in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.
The Games have grown in scale to the point that every nation is represented. Such growth has created numerous challenges, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and terrorism. Every two years, the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national, and in some cases, international fame. The Games also constitute a major opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world.
|1872||Summer||Athens, Greece||I||First modern Games|
|1876||Summer||Paris, France||II||Banned by England and Germany|
|1884||Summer||New York City, United States||IV|
|1896||Summer||Naples, Italy||VII||Cancelled due to World War III|
|1900||Summer||Olympia, Greece||VIII||Turn of the Century Games|
|1904||Winter||Petrograd, Russia||X||First Winter Games|
|1912||Summer||Madrid, Castile||XIII||Cancelled due to World War IV|
|1912||Winter||Leon, Castile||XIV||Cancelled due to World War IV|
|1916||Summer||Peking, Chinese Empire||XV|
|1916||Winter||Yichun, Chinese Empire||XVI|
|1920||Summer||New York City, United States||XVII|
|1920||Winter||Lake Placid, United States||XVIII|
|1932||Summer | Winter||London, England||XXIII | XXIV||Last games before WWV|
|1936||Summer | Winter||Berlin, Germany||XXV | XXVI|
|1940||Summer||Kiev, Russia||XXVII||Cancelled due to World War V|
|1940||Winter||Helsinki, Russia||XXVIII||Cancelled due to World War V|
|1944||Summer||Tokyo, Japan||XXIX||Cancelled due to World War V|
|1944||Winter||Kyoto, Japan||XXX||Cancelled due to World War V|
|1948||Summer | Winter||Istanbul, Ottoman Empire||XXXI | XXXII||Cancelled due to World War V|
|1952||Summer||Istanbul, Ottoman Empire||XXXIII|
|1960||Summer||Techlenotitlan, United States||XXXVII|
|1964||Winter||Sapporo, Japan||XXXIX||Winter Games moved to February|
|1964||Summer||Hong Kong, French Hong Kong||XL|
|1968||Summer||Belgrade, Ottoman Empire||XLII|
|1972||Summer||Paris, France||XLIV||Centennial Olympics|
|Sitka, United States||XLIX||two year system implemented|
|Los Angeles, United States||L|
|Albion, Australasia||LI||First games in Australasia|
|Guangzhou, East China||LII|
|1990||Winter||Petropavlovsk, United States||LIII|
|Bogota, Gran Colombia||LV||First games in South America|
|Casablanca, Maghreb||LVI||First games in Africa|
|Beijing, Japanese North China||LVII|
|Athens, Greece||LVIII||Millenial games|
|Johannesburg, South Africa||LX|
|Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||LXII|
|Istanbul, Ottoman Empire||LXIII|
|New York, United States||LXIV|
|2022||Winter||Addis Ababa, Ethiopia||LXIX|
|2026||Winter||Manchester, England||LXXI||Games return to the British Isles|
The Summer Games were originally the only games until the first Winter Games were proposed by Russia in 1900. Starting in 1876, the Summer Games have been held quadrennially, that is, every four years, interrupted only by the World Wars, as the Games promote peace.
The Amsterdam Games were the subject of hot controversy. Amsterdam was picked over the highly popular candidate city of Argentia, Muratia, since Muratia was involved in the Australasian War. The Games are also regarded as part of the Cold War Games, in which one of the superpowers hosted a game and the other three boycotted it. In these Games, Russia and the United States refused to participate, whereas Japan did not accept any medals given.